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Wilmington expositor. (Wilmington, Del.) 1831-18??, March 23, 1832, Image 2

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tarifli iu which tfie village of Rochester is situated,and'
through which Morgan was carried. They were par
ticularly and strongly chained by the presiding judge
to inquire into the subject. They called all the witnes
ses before them, who, in that state of information,
were known. Among others, Esra Platt was exam
inrd by them. This man, it will be recollected, fur
nished the carriage at Rochester, into which Morgan
was removed from that which brought him from Can
andairua. He testified, that his carriage had been en
gaged by some one for the masons, ana that he charg-of
ed the hire of it to the royal arch chapter ; but he dkhhad
not know who engaged it, or who went in it. Edward
Doyle testified that he knew nothing; about the trans
action, he could testify without criminating himself,
The same answer was given by another person, whose
it is not proper to mention. The jury could not
find any bills of indictment, but they made a present
ment, in which they state that they had ascertained;
that Morgan had been carried through their county,.
and add: 4 From the great caution which seems tojdo
have been observed in keeping both Morgan and the
place of his destination from the view and knowledge |
of all but such persons as may have been confidently I
intrusted with the design, and who would decline giv- ! (
ing evidence, upon the ground that it might tend
criminate themselves, the grand jury have found it
impossible to establish, by competent testimony, the'its
unlawful agency of any citizen in this county, in that
tran ,action.'
This result only stimulated an enlightened and
riotic people to greater exertion. A county
was immediately called and held, to devise measures
to ferret-out the hidden workers of inequity. A large
number of masons attended, among them Burrage!
Smith and John Whitney. At this meeting a com mit
tee of investigation was appointed, upon which were
placed sevem masons. The other members soon
ascertained that all their proceedings were divulged j
by their masonic associates, notwithstanding an non- (
orary obligation to the contrary, entered into by them;
and those who did not belong to the fraternity, de
termined to act without the knowledge or assistance of
any masons. Up to this time, the outrages on Mor-;wind
gan had not been considered the work of a few
guided and unimportant individuals i but the conduct
of masons, generally, and particularly of those who
had been placed on the committee, excited the »us
picionsof the observing, that the mnsonic fraternity
in some way connected with those outrages. It
long, and with great difficulty that this, suspicion
ripened into belief. Men could not believe that their
fellow-citizens, with whom they were in habits ofdaly
intercourse, and whom they had been accustomed to
pect, belonged to an institution which made the con
ilmcnt of the most atrocious crimes one of the most
solemn obligations of the older. But day after day
added new proof to the new suspicion. 1 hey beheld
the very committee whohad been appointed indiscrim
inately from all parties, and by citizens of all parties,
vilified and traduced for a faithful discharge of their
duties. Men who had no possible motive but the as
certainment of truth, and the detection of the guilty
(for as yet no party had been arrayed, and no political
objects had even been surmised,) for. discharging a
public tjtist, of the most solemn nature, with fidelity:
—these men were ridiculed, misrepresented, insulted
and traduced daily by the members of the masomc
ft atera'ty. Tlmt evidence which cm. I« Urt xcil ..nly
a long course of observation of minor facts and
circumstances, fand which, in its nature, cannot be
communicated to others, was furnished to an intel;
gentandobserving people ; and the conclusion was
produced, that the laws of the country could not
be enforced so 1< ng as ma sonor y held its sway ever
the minds of men ; and that submission to its secret and
irresponsible power, or an open and avowed war of ex
termination, were the only alternatives. Although
somewhat foreign from their present purpose, your
committee cannot forbear from hej-tf pausing, and ask
i«g,-whether to their distant fcllow-cithrens, there is
not furnished strong moral evidence of the banelul n:i
hire of t-te masonic institution, ip fact, that more than
half a million of free, enlightened and intelligent in
habitants of that section of country, which has afford
ed the best npportrnity for judging, have, in language
that cannot be mistaken, expressed their deliberate
convictions that freemasonry cannot cxLt consistently
witli our institutions. Why arc they not witnesses,
in the same sense in which the reputation of an intli
vidual in a community ; s proof of Iris moral worth ?
—Ard why is not their testimony equally satiafacto
■ ..
these .indicia) proceedings, was tl„ sitting of tbifconrt '
m Over and Terminer, for the county of Ontario, in
V, 1827. Nicholas G. Chesebro, Edward Saw
yer and Loton Lawson, being called on, to proceed to
the trial of the indictment against them, which is pro
V'.ousl y mentioned, pleaded guilty of that indictment,
and the two first named filled affidavits explanatory of
lln.il agency in the transaction. These have been cx
ensively published, and are well known. I.awson
made no attempt to explain or extenuate hisoffenre, &
was « ntenced to imprisonmcac .in the countv j.U for
** In December, 1826, a mcctipg of the citizens of
Niagara, wau helilTit Lcwistown, at which a commit
tee was appointed to inquire into the circumstances of
Morgan's abduction, and to endeavor to bring the of
fenders to punishment. Having ascertained that Mor
gan had been taken to Canada, one of the committee
crossed the river early in January, 1827, at the time
a grand jury was in session. He was before the grand
jury, and proposed to furnish them with the names of
■witnesses residing in Canada, if the grand jury would
agree to investigate the matter. After consulting to
gether, thev resolved to do so : and they were accor
dingly furnished with the names of several inns ms re
siding in the town of Niagara, which is more
monlp called Newark, who were believed to be impor
tant witnesses. The jury adjourned soon after. The
next day the complainant was informed that after the
adjournment of the jury, the witnesses whohad been
designated had been conversed with ; that after the
assembling of the jury in the morning, they had con
sulted the district judge, and, tliereu]>on, had resolv
ed to do no move in the premises. The complainant
ascertained that the district judge was a freemason,
and that the foreman and a portion of the ji
so mason». This fetation is derived from
were al
2 gentle
man who was the complainant. It needs no com
" On the 30th of December, 1828, Eli Bruce
arrested aiul brought before a magistrate of Niagara
county, on a charge of falsely imprisoning Morgan, &
of secreting him, &c. There was no legal proof be
fore the magistrate, that any one had been forcibly
brought from Canandaigua, and Bruce was discharg
ed. But on the examination, one fact appe «red which
. deserves to be noted. Bruce had requested Samuel
Bniiton to furnish him a carriage, to proceed down the
Niagnr from Lewiston. The next morning, Bruce,
ha ving returned to Lewiston, was asked if he went to
Youngtown the night before. He said lie did. lie
then asked if he took Morgan down. He said he
did; and observed that 'Barton was very imprudent
in sending Fox/(the driver of the carriage) ; that he
had told him his business, and he ought not to have
. sent any buta mason.' It was the gradual disclosure
of such tacts as these, that excited the suspicions, a:.d
. ultimately produced the belief, of the participate
the masonic fraternity in the transaction ; and that
there was something
which justified its me
for assistance, and scqrecy
"'l'lie next event of importance,
• Vu — .,«««• »'.ai
in the nature of the institution
•nibers in relyibg on each other
scqrecy, in the commission of
• J.
two years, Chesebro was sentenced to ft like imprls->tinacious
onment for one year, and Sawyer for one month. Shel
don went on the question of his identity, expressly ad
mitting the çrhnes alleged in the indictment to have
been committed ; thus excluding all proof of thé main
facts, which the public had anticipated would btt do
veloped on these trials. He was, however, found
ty, and sentenced to three months imprisonment. In
passing sentence upon the defendants, the circuit judge, to
who is now governor of New York, descanted, in terms'
great severity, upon the nature of the crimes they
dkhhad committed ; and, at the request of several cBi
zens, furnished a copy of his remarks for publication.
rhey were published accordingly, and have been ex- A
tenslvely circulated in that part ot thecountry. Still,
a few extracts, it is believed, will not be unacceptable,
The judge says, 'Our constitution shows it, and the
declaration ot our independence declares, that the un
molested enjoyment of liberty, and the pursuit of hap
pincss, are the unalienable rights of man. So sacred
tojdo we hold personal liberty, that even the impressment
of a seamen from one of our ship« haß been consider
| ed a sufficient cause for national war. * Your conduct •
I has created, in the people of this section of the coun
! ( try, a strong feeling of virtuous indignation. The court
to,rejoices to witness it,-to he made sure that a
person cannot be invaded by lawless violence, without
the'its being felt by every individual in the commnnity, It
jis a blessed spirit, and wc do hope it will not subside ;
that 1* win b ? accompanied by a ceaseless vigilance êc
pat-untiring activity, until every actor m this profligate
meetmg|conspuacy is hunted from his hiding place,and brought
j before the tribunals of the country, to receive the pun
; ishment merited by his crime. We think we see, in
this public sensation, the spirit which brought us into
1 existence as a nation, and a pledge that our rights and
liberties are destined to endure. 1 he point of these
[remarks will be better understood from a knowledge
j of the fact, that the counsel of Sheldon, in their ad
( dresses to the jury, had cautioned them against being
influenced by the excitement that prevailed,—had re
.presented that excitement to have been produced by
ambitious demagogues, who hoped to 'ride the whirld
Mor-;wind and direct the storm,*—and had deprecated the
mis-attempt to connect the masonic institution with such
foul acts as were charged. The remarks of the judge
were intended as a rebuke for this language ; and the
praise which he lavished on «the blessed spirit* was
thus intended and understood as an encomium on anti
masonry. The truth and force of his observations are
not diminished by the circumstance, that when he ceas
ed to be an independent and impartial judge, and be
came a political partisan, associated with masons, and
depenehnt on them for success, he himself sought to
discredit this ' blessed spirit/ to check * the ceaseless
vigilance* and to rebuke and paralyze 'untiring activi
ty,* which he hail commended. Its only effect is, to
establish most conclusively the contaminating influence
of freemasonry, and its vast power, which could com- j
pci a public offrir thus to proclaim his own incousis
tency.and repudiate sentiments which found their echo
in the bosom of .very American who was neither'liood
winked nor cable towed.*
" In the month of Februar}', 1827, a grand jury for ,
Ontario county again assembled at the Court of Gene
ral Sessions of the Fence, and renewed the inquiries for
the detection of the offenders against Morgen. They
found a bill of indictment against 17 persons, for a con
.piracy to kidnap sml carry away thSt person, .mlfor
falsely imprisoning and carrying him to parts unknown,
These persons were James Lakey, a physician,Chaun
cy H. Coe, a stage proprietor, Hiram Hubbard, the
keeper of a livery stähle, John Butterfield, whoseoc
cupationis unknown, James Ganson, an innkeeper,
and formerly a member of the state legislature, Asa
Nowlen, an inn-keeper, Harris Seymour, Henry How
ard, Joseph Scofield, and Mosqs Roberts, who have
been before mentioned, Halloway Hay ward, a consta
ble, James Gillis, a rcspectable<irqier,John Whitney,
a respectable stone-cutter, 1'urrage Smith, a grocer,
Simeon B. Jewett« an attorney and counsellor at
law, and Willard Eddy, whose occupation is un
" At the same court, the indictment against Harris
Seymour, Henry Howard and Moses Roberts for con
spiring to charge Morgan with stealing, which had
been found, as before mentioned, was brought to trial,
It was in proof that these persons had gone with Chese
bro trom Cenand iigua to Batavia,to arrest Morgan on
the warrant which had beei\,fraudulently obtained a
gainst him, issued bv the justice, Chipman, for steal
ing a shirt and handkerchief ; that he had been taken
in Batavin, and hurried off with great severity and ru
deness, ancl without giving him an opportunity to ap
prize his friends of his situation. But it was held by
the court, that the warrant was evidence of probable
cause, and that the defendants could not be convicted.
Thev were accordingly ucquited.
" In March 1827, another grand jury assembled in
Monroe county, at the Court of Oyer and Terminer.
A majority of them were freemasons. Very faint ef
forts were made to obtain testimony,and no indictments
were found.
"In April, 1827, n grand jury assembled at the
Oyer and terminer, in Niagara county, and a com
plaint was made to them against Eli Bruce, then Slit-r
iff of that county, by one of the county committee, It
seems to have been anticipated that this grand jury
would enter upon an investigation of the subject, and
preparations were made accordingly. It is stated
ted by Hiram B. Hopkins, a royal arch mason* and at
the time deputy sheriff, that he was instructed not to
summon any grand jurors but such as were particular
ly friendly to the masonic institution At that time
grand jurors
izens at large.
IT--V- O -. 6- » vruncssvs were intro- °,
JUucedand examined to impeach the credibility of the !
' had bcenbiformetf, by^a'res^^tableViduibitant^that d|
Morgan had been caîried tolort Nil«!? îhenœ fo:
the Canada shore, and tlicncereturned^ fort Niaga- *
ra ; that he had been subsequently put to death • that
his body was in the bottom of the Niagara river, and 1
might be found if searched for immerfintfk- «Ji i^Ju
(the informant) could tell the place where it would be
found. The witness stated that he derived this ildur- *"
mation from a man who said he was a mason, and in
silted that his name should be kept secret fa if that
were known, his life wonh, pay th? »
selected by the sheriff from the cit
The jury were accordingly packed,
pursuant to instructions,—twelve cf them being ma
sons and the others friendly to the order. lVf r. Hop
kins says, * The district attorney was a royal arch ma
son, who knew all about the Morgan affair, in my opin
ion ; and the foreman of the jury was one of the war
mest zealots of the order in the county. * Ooe of these
grand jurors hai iumished a statement of the proceed
ings before them, from which the following is taken
1 he foreman claimed the right to examine the witnes
ses himself. After several had been examine
in such a way
rors put questions to a witness. When tliat witness
liad retired, this juror was called aside by tlie foreman,
and privately solicited to refrain thereafter from ask
ing questions, and to leave it with the foreman. The
juror, however, persisted ; and, on one occasion, insis
ted that a witness should answer what he knew of the
The witness objected, because, he said, he
considered his testimony irrelevant, and because he
an, who got his living by labor ; and if he
serious injury to him
self anti his family. A lare majority of the jury decid
ed that the witness need not answer, but the pertina
cious juror insisted on his right, and finally obtained his
ed.by him
of the i
to give no information,
J 11
was a poor man, who got
should testify, it might p
self and his family. A 1:
ed that the witness need
V.WUBJUIW insisted on Ills ngnt, and finally obtained his
point. 1 he witness was called back, and testified that
(Bruce had acknowledged to the witness his agency in
carrying Morgan to Niagara. Witnesses were intro
imprls->tinacious juror required the witness to dve the name
of his informant, with a view to have him called-as a
witness, which he refused to do ; aad nearly, if not
quite, all the other jurors sustained the witness in hi»
refund. During the pending of the inquiry before the jory,
the loremsn was seen to lesre the ro^, snd rrtireto a nnvnte
was Cor
don For, who hat at all time«, *hen property »«ked, teitifkd
to the fact of Bruce*, riding with him, onthe driver'« «eat of the
carriage, which Fo* drove, and whick ooittained Morgan white
he wm conveyed ft-om LcwUton to Niagara ; and -it mnrt ha«e
required great ingenuity to prevent this witne«« from
^Wr^htjSekieU^etrlhrSepïroAort T7i^ra,\li8ha
A d«m 9 ' the ferryman «t Younpstown Vlw.nl l)ovle,^arthur.t
Whitney, Noah Beach and Samuol M. Chubbuck. The.«
name« are mentioned becauae they are familiar to tho«e who
have read the trials, as the very individuals who roust have
known all about the transaction. It doe« not '*•}
on on -* wîîît dTvic« thev
saüîfiîdXeVÏÏÎÎ eoiS^e.'and avoided Closing the trutlj,
may, perhap«, be explained l>y what Edward Gkldm» say«, in
his almanto lor 1829, at p. 45 ' During die winter,* he «»ys,
• 1 had frequent conversations with mason« on the same subject,
or a-nom used the same argument, and concluded by urging
Sought Aemilve? iusti
doing ®°* °> tlle nature ot their mason
jc oaths, which they never could think ot break •
ing.* 4 And,* he savs, 4 that in order to dis
pc T his doubts, he was particularly referred to
i of t i__ r *i _ rrh ma ; on *. ohlicra
*. Cla I\ 8e ,V. . j T°*Sr arch mason 8 ° .S a
tion, which binds them to rescue a companion,
whether right cr wrong.' The unsullied char
actcr of this man for truth has lately been so
h oroUR bI v tested, and so triumphantly estab
.. , /* ,•■ ,. , . .
bshed, that nothing need be said to impress a
ny one with the absolute verity of any relation
he deliberately makes
«< 7'he conduct of this grand jury, and of the
• , . . .J J •; ! .
itnesses, lias been dwelt upon with some tru
nuteness, as fnrmshing evidence which no dis
passionate mind can resist, of the awful proati
tution of the most sacred offices of justice, and
r , , j f l . f V .
the dreadful suppression of truth, produced
by masonic obligations. I he cap-stone of this
edifice of guilt and infamy yet lemains to be
exhibited. Seventeen of this grand jury made
a f orma j representation to the governor of the
/ . 1 representation to the governor o! the
that, after a long, laborious, and * par
ticular examination of all the witnesses, it did
not appear that Eli Bruce, or any other person
named, was gutltv of or accessarv to the ab
, . r .9..... 7 , • , / ,
j lucl,on William Morgan: ancl they make
known to the governor the result of their inqui
ries. 4 that blame may not rest on the innocent!'
ft would scarcely be believed that the Eli
, , 9 " cre referred ** the same, man who
ft a8 nren proved, over and over again, by the
same witnesses who were examined by that ju
ry, to have been the chief actor in conducting
Mnrimn thrnn»h Miami«.» i
™ or 8»n tlirough Niagara county, who hired
nurses twice and a carriage once for the pur
pose, and who has himself, in open court, sworn
that he did so !
were not informed by him, and did not know
to his knowledge, of any ulterior design with
respect to morgan, after he should be brought
to Canandaigua. This testimony produced
their acquittal. Chapncey H. Coe. Hiram
Hubbard and James Lake/ were tried a, the
same court, upon a similar indictment. With
spect to Coe. the chief testimony was, his
having engaged the carriage and horses of
Hubbard, with which Aforgan wa. carried off;
and Hubbard was implicated from the fact of
having furnished, and himself drove the carri
age. Lakey was implicated in consequence
°, f I,,s «merference in procuring the warrant for
! be arrest of morgan, The proof, however
d| d n °* estab f lish ' h « Pilous hnowledge
P"!? 08 ® for whlch the «rriage was want-|
* d * to J U8t,f y a conviction: and they were ac-'rinn
" At this time Edward Sawvrr wh„ h a I
u " j* £<awa!ü lawyer, who had
^i" sub P oe " aed as a witness, did not appear
*" d a ? a "*phment was issued against him
Whether his appearance and testimony would
have varied the result in anv of T» V T fo
|W . mendnneAi^ilossTJ-o t aUhough
" The next grand jury that assembled in Ni
agara, in May, 1827, consisted of nineteer
persons, of whom fourteen were well known
masons. It was so palpablv useless to mak,
any further efforts with such a grand jnrv, that
no complaint was made to them A law! how
ever, was passed by the legislature this year
directing grand jurors to be selected by lot
f om list tu be returned bv town officers,
soon a, this law went into effect, impartial
grand jurors were obtained.—and in Niagara
county complaints were made before them, in
the latter part of the year, and indictments
found against William King. Ezekiel Jewett.
Elisha Adams, Solomon C. Wright. Jeremiah
Brown, Parkhurst Whitney, Noah Beach. Ti >
othy Shaw, William Milier, and Samuel M.
Chubbuck, William King was esteemed
of the most respectable citizens of the countv
having represented it but a short time befon
in the state legislature. Ezekiel Jewett
very respectable and was employed bv the gov
ernment to take charge of Fort Niagara: lie
and King were both colonels. Elisha Adams
was the ferryman at Youngstown. Solomon
C. WYight was a respectable in-keeper and a
postmaster, Jeremiah Ilrotvn was a respecta
ble farmer in good standing The others were
sll respectable men, and regarded as peaceable
and orderly citizens.
" I" August, 1827, at the Ontario General
Sessions, Halloway Howard, James Ganson.
Harris Seymour, Henry Howard, and A/oses
Roberts, were brought to trial on the indic t
ment against tbtm for conspiracy and the ab
duction of Morgan, and were acquitted. With
regard to all of them but Ganson. the proof
consisted in their having gone with Chesebro
to Batavia to arrest morgan, and hat ing bro't
him to Canandaigua: and with respect to Gan
, the proof consisted in his having aided
them on the way. Chesebro was examined
a witness, and testified that tliose
from nit testimony on subsequent occasions, it
a j 8 presumed if would not.
5* a t t u* - am - t „ Pm an indictment fnr con '
-sf* , r , . . * » n c , .
«piracy and tor kidnapping was found agains.
Ell Bruce, David Hague, Orasmus Turner, X
Jcdediah DaiTOW. Bruce, as is well known,
was Sheriff of Niagara, and in high Branding
• . Community Hauer wae a tailor at
_ _ 8 ,
Lock port, « died before he could be brought
to trial. i urner was the publisher of a news
paper at Loclcport of respectable, character.
Harrow was also a respectable man, but bis
^ fliBh V# . 4 ,
occupation is unknown, tie w as afterwards ap
pointed a postmaster,

( To be Continued .)
We »re sorry to lesrn that the connty of
Limerick is in a most deplorable state of dis
order. The following outrages are stated in »
single number of the Limerick Chronicle just
come to hand:—" On Wednesday morning n
diabolical murder was committed in Temple
more. The victim was a young man named
Short, an apprentice to a brazier in that town
of the name of Gunning. He was waylaid and
murdered within a quarter of a mile of hi»
home. On the same day, while a man named
Nevin was serving process*» for the Quarter
Session of Loughrea, he was waylaid by two
armed men who beat him in a most unmerci
ful manner leaving him as they supposed dead.
They took all the originals from him, 6rst
swearing him never to serve a process again.
On Friday night the House of John Kerwan,
on the parish of Kulimore, county Galaway
was forcibly entered by a large party of Terra
A Its, They got possession of his gunpowder,
and ball, and some money. Mondav the vil.
lag* of Newport was thrown into a state of
great consternation by the appearencc of two
powerful factions, named Kennedy and Mur
name, who came into light an opposite party of
the name of Devitt. In consequence of the ad
monition of the priest on Sunday, the latter
faction did not appear; but Major Garter with
a company of the 74th regiment, from Nenagh,
and a strong detachment of police, arrived
ly in the day, and remained until the Kenne
dys and Murnaines had disappeared. The lat
ter had armed themselves with sticks, scythes
and gvns . Monday next, however, has beets
appointed lor the grand conflict between these
miscreants. A few nights ago, Patrick War
ren, residing at Kill, Gataway, was attacked bv
a party of Terry Alts, well armed, who drag
ged him out of his house and beat him nearly
to death for saying that the Terry Alts were
bad fellows. 'The house of a poor man, nam
ed Michael Calnan, near Spring Grove, was
entered by a party well armed, wbo nearly mur
dered him, they answered for giving lodging
to a man named Lally, whom they considered
an informer. "—[ Dublin Journal.
Extract of a private letter from Madrid, da
ted the 10th inst:—" Immediately after a coun
cil of Ministers, an order was despatched to the
Military Commandants to retain only the troops
strictly necessary for the different garrisons,
and to send all the others towards Galicia and
Estramadura. Orders have been sent to Pam
peluna for two of the regiments from that gar
i ison to be marched to Galicia. The intention
of this is to keep bodies of troops upon the
frontier of Portugal, readv to enter that king
dom in case the expedition of Don Pedro
should effect a landing—for in spite ofthe cab
inets of London and Paris, the King is resol
ved to take part with Don Miguel. Let M.
Perrier, and Lord Grey take warning. There
have been very warm altercations between flf.
Calomarde, the iVinister of Justice, and M.
oalazar, minister of the marine: the latter in
consequence has resolved to send in his resig
It has just been announced at Court that M.
salmon, minister of- Foreign Affairs, died to
( ay at 12 o clock He had been ill for several
ays, and M. de Calomarde had been charged
with his portfolio bel interim. Changes in the
ministry had been spoken of for some time_
e death of M. Salmon, by deranging the
s atu quo will undoubtedly give rise to a new
composition of the Cabinet. As he had re.
emved extreme unction yesterday, the choice
ot his successor was already in the delibera
lon. 1 he candidates that have the greatest
o f SUC j: 8S . are M * d'Ofalia, Ambassa
sador at Horned m I r lb, : aJo . 1 ;« titular Ambas
M. Paez de la'r a rf at I " adr,d: and
burgh The W d ' m,n ! ster at St * Peters '
as hi a PP aar » *he most probable,
attach m at,on would rivet the bands which
attach our '"^t to that of t U, !sia .**
The W.r„_ t . _ i D ' .
ingw« PrinttV'T"? 1 * '^follow
' ' a8k ewistsch hasjust publish
visonalW a ce ' re 8 u ]? Un 8 'he aid to be pro
now dennved'of .'h ° fficers °£ the Polish army
well a, to d th * me ? ns of subs ' l8ten ce, at
have fallen e widows and orphans of those who
ed under tK. P c ?' nmi8s 'on has been estalish.
.„i n , " r ^ sld(;nc y °f the Russian Gene
ohion^Trom's^ch aid l 0 """""' î' J'.P'f*
w ho were „TsZvf u ex "P' ed *» 'host
ac-'rinn .h- P ? " d to the rank of officers du
V"? ,tle «volution as well as those who, bt
the "" condl « : » might prove unworthy of the fa'
vora of the emnernr r t»,. Ia
only for three veara it the * ? bC
èe pmon« «hl W ^1 P"° n ° * hld
fnr fh . wh o have received it must provid
fo ','hcmselves.
^ *e followln
«»«es:— t. Officers and functional—

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