IFIELD OF INDUSTRY
■ Science and progress of
I t-l'iurfyine Oxjgin by I'euetraUiiK the
Tolar /.ones of Chemistry -Some Won
derful Experiments . Tliolograplilni;
Colors ly a New Troeess. *
Four hundred and sixty-one degrees
■ below the freezing-point of the Fahren
E licit thermometer lies a mysterious,
■ specially indicated degree of cold which
■ science lias long been gazing toward
H and trying to attain, wondering mean
■ While what may be the conditions of
B matter at this unexplored point, its
B existence lias long been indicated and
B its position established in two differ
ent ways, viz., tlie regularly diiuin
i t lslting volumes of guses.und the steady
!• falling off in the resistance made by
B pure metals to the passage through
ffi them of electricity under increasing
degrees i,f cold. This point, to which
! both these processes tend as an ulti
I mate, is tailed the zero of absolute
but all the varied re
s Of mechanics and of chemistry
be combined to com
1»»** the extremest degrees of cold.
I'rofessnr James Dewar, of the Koval
Institute, London, has arrived to with
in po degrees of this point, nml has in
cidentally liquefied oxygen gas and
aoHdfticd nitrogen and air. The ma
chine tv ith which lie lias explored the
regions of chemistry isaitonble
►►mg chamber, cylindrical in
The system which Prof. Dewar
has followed is not novel in its general
Ji-' «. * -es
■ temperature. By more than one eiui
■ tient observer It is supposed to be the
I temperature of Interstellar space, the
bormul temperature of the universe.
I h briber or not the supposition lie eor
I J'eet. the efforts which have been made
j and are .til! ; t i progress to reach this
degree of cold have bceu many.diverse
and ingenious; the equipment of the
explorer iieing not boats, condensed
foods and the general machinery of ice
Specifically, however, it
* many new inventions which
no! wish made public. They
j * ii the nullin' of stopcock»!
o v br
and valves, which It took long study to
■ invent and which liera me perfect only
[ after many failures and costly expert
I ments To liquefy «ixygen he simply
\ vised pressure nl low temperatures;
but as. up to 1ST», both oxygen and
nitrogen after repeated trials were
Ucd upon as permanent gases il mav .
lie imagined that the attainment of i
temperatures low enough was a prob- ]
letn which required un extraordinary I
command of mechanics a* well ns of '
chemistry to practically solve. The j
•luestion of reaching the chemical j
north pole is now only a matter of
time and the exposure of a few farra-j
days l. explosions of compressors and
Amt there will lie plenty of
enthusiasts willing to risk martyrdom j
in Mil'll a eaus«'.
I'hot osra till lux III «olor«.
The latest invention in the line of
photographing in colors is an instru
ment jierfeeteii by Frederick ß Ives of
Philadelphia. It is called tIn? hclio
chrimioscopc and is a device for exhib
iting triple-plate composite«. Only one
observer at a time can look into this
little machine nml what he sees is a
colored nhotograph produced liy three
negatives taken on one plate by one
The result Is eminently j
pleasing and lifelike and is a vast im- |
provement over any other method of
producing colored photographs now in !
The lioliooliromoscope as an exhibitor j
of tlie colored photograph supplement j
Mr. Ives' remarkable invention of a
camera with which it first became pos
sible to get three negatives on one
plate by u single exposure instead of
following the clumsy and unsatisfac
tory method of tailing the negatives
separately nml in succession,
manner of exhibiting these composite«
was by pluctug the positive trans
parencies behind glass plates of différ
ant colors und thus blending them into
productions to a Mage hltliert
posed to be impossible.
These new discoveries in
A ('heap und Novel Kuad lied.
An invention designed to facilita ti
the construction of improved roads
and highways is shown in the accom
panying illustration. The roadbed is
C i i?\:
made with a crib formed of transverse
parallel planking, on top of which are
secured parallel longitudinal stringers,
a tilling of loose earth, gravel or
broken stone being compacted between
the planking and the stringers to form
the road proper and completely con
ceal the crib, the latter protecting the
road material from lateral displace
ment. A greater or less number of
stringers may be used, as desired,
and the timbers ami planks may be
treated, if preferred, with any cheap
! preservative from decay. The impact
j u f travel on such a road is designed to
| thoroughly pack tlie ballast material
| about the crib frame and render the
Long before chemistry liecunie a
science many of its processes and up
! paratus were in common us«-. I'rof.
11 Carrington Bolton has made a list
of some of these, linking that the
Egyptians were acquainted xvitli the
process of glass making at least as far
buck as 2500 I!. ; that crucibles of
road solid ami durable.
Karl» « hrmUtry.
the Fifteenth century It. C. arc now in
the Berlin museum, ami that siphons
i alwi v
ere used in the Fifteenth century
Blowpipes and bellows were
early employed. 1 lie earliest chemical
laboratories nmv known were those of
the Egyptian temples. In which tin
priests prepared the Incense, oils, etc.,
used In the temple services. The bible
contains frequent chemical allusions,
( upellation is plainly described b.v
. Jeremiah, metallurgical operations by
i Job, Ezekiel, and others, and bellows
] by Jeremiah. «Jeher, the Arabian phy
I sicinn of the Eighth century,
' minutely of chemical processes, lie
j described solution, filtration, ervstalli
j zation, fusion, sublimation. dls
dilation, eiipellntion. nml vari
ous kinds of furnaces und nppa
rain*. I'erluips the earliest draw
hugs of strictly chemical apparatus are
j the figures of distilling apparatus in n
Greek papyrus of the Eleventh century,
, An alchemists laboratory of the Sixth
j or Seventh century was uncovered in
Egypt in !»»■'>. and its contents in
eluded a bronze furnace, about fifty
bronze vases with beaks, and some
conical vessels resembling saml baths.
The balance as an Instrument, of pre
cision reached a high «levelopment
under the Arabians us early as the
Twelfth century, when very accurate
spécifié gravity determinations were
i pro re oient In Half-tone IHnck*.
llr. E. Albert 1ms patented a new
j method of preparing half-tone blocks,
j which is stated to be n great, improve
a ment. The number of lines on a grain
screen varies from 5 to » per mm. : more
than 8 gives blocks difficult to print,
less than ii gives flat results. Tlie pro
portion of the intervals between tlie
lines to tlie breadth of the black lines
is 1.1. nnd this is not the best for the
high lights, and for the shadows 3.1 is
better. Albert lias arrange«! a micro
meter screw on the objective, which is
sensitive to 1.30 mm. Tlie action of
this is to broaden or narrow tlie lines,
ami thus gain the effect required.—
Ctirlotm Origin of m Fir*.
, , . ,
Ihc other day » heavy delivery
wagon backed up in front ot an highth
avenue furniture store. 1 he smooth
ness nml slant of the asphalt gave
greater momentum thon was expected,
an«l tiie hind wheels »truck tho curb
with a cranli. The contact of stone
and iron drew out spnrks. Some of
these flew into a wisp of packing hay
that soon gave forth smoke und flame.
A bucket of water subdued the blaze,
but. as a fireman remarked, it was an
interesting object lesson on one of the i
mysterious ways in which serious tires i
sometimes start.— N. Y. Sun.
A HERO, BUT COWARDLY.
IT WAS A WOMAN THAT MADE
He «»illy Wanted to Say Three Worde to
When the Moment Came and He Had
to Write to Her.
ills Whole Frame Shook
He was a brave man. That was the
rock-established fact concerning him.
No person could boast of having
seen him cringe or grow a shade
paler or hold his breath while the
blool beat in his temples, and that
\v,as saying a great deal, for he
not unused to danger in its most
savage form. He commanded instant
respect and admiration.
And yet he was an arrant coward,
according to the Chicago Record.
He was not aware of it in the
least, and if lie had known it he
would probably have wrathfully, in
dignantly punished himself by going
straight to her and forcing himself
to say liis mind, but the trouble was
he was so blissfully, sweetly uncon
scious of it.
Even she did not know he was
afraid of her. If she had been like
most women she would have seen it,
dimpled and laughed over it, laughed
at him; but she was not like other
women. Thai was why she fright
ened him so. He liai seen women
in his day, any number of them, and
they had never alarmed him; in fact,
he had never thought much about
them. They were dainty butterflies
to be kept in the sunshine and out of
Hie wind and who rather depended
upon and looked up to him.
They were weil enough, but they
tired him, and he wondered how the
older men could endure the same
routine all their lives. But she had
a poise of her own and seemed self
He had never analyzed it out and
in a puzzled way concluded it must
be the way she dressed her hair or
wore her gown or the scent of violets
which wavered about her. There
wa# ahva :» 8 » tormenting idea in hid
m * n< ^ 'hat his presence alone did not
coll up the tempting half smile on
hor «P»* a,ld tUat her clear eyes
would still have the look of quiet
happiness in their depths if he was
not there. She looked just that way
when she taiked to the doting old
pensioner of 80 or the ragged news
boy on the corner. It showed a very
nice spirit in her, and yet he was
selfish enough to wish that some
times when ho went away the gentle
light in her face would fade. It
never had yet, because he always
looked back to sec.
There came a time when the thought
came to Ills mind that this dreamy
joy could not last eternally, and it
quite roused him to consider what he
should do if some other man wero to
debar him from his seat in the green
and gold room where he watched her
-debar him by means of an insigni
ficant bit of gold and a half dozen
So he resolved to ask her to rnarrv
The resolve did not throw him into
a nervous fever nor break his calm
I security, it was a very simple mat
j ter when one looked at it in the right
j light—a few words rightly said, a
look from theeyos and the thing was
doil ,.. it did not occur to him that
he should be afraid That was bc
cause he did not know he was u cow
' s 0 he dropped into his old place that
night and watched her a little while,
n e half opened his lips to begin.
when she glanced at him bri< T htlv
»he made some passing remark,
lie had never before known her eyes
to drive all thoughts from his mind
and tangle his tongue inextricably.
H© could not comprehend why he
continued to make remarks ou tlie
weather and invent sallies about the
]a«' opera. Ho wus certain that he
could say what ho wanted to if she
would only keep her eyes on her
work, but lie was not suro that sho
got over the shock of the first,
self he kept on making bon-mots,
concerning tlie weather.
not »peak, for he was be
wildered at tho tremulous chill
which suddenly made itself manifest
all over him in a most extraordinary
would not look at him again, and ho
did not want to experience another
cold chill, because it took so long to
in his surprise and dismay at him
I Then ho hoard tho clock strike 12
j and meekly went homo.
Ho slunk by the policeman and
dodged pedestrians because at last
■ ho knew ho was a coward.
He did not make a light, in his
room because ho know if ho saw tho
coward's faco in the mirror ho could
not rofruin from injuring it with his
strong right arm, and ho was natur
ally a peaceable man opposod to
In the morning he took a pen and
paper and wrote ont what ho hud
tried to say to her tho night boforo.
When tho lid of the mail-box clicked
ho started. Ho thought some sneer
ing, laughing voice had said.
Hut lie had tho reputation of being
a bravo man. His lifelong friends
always spoke of him as such.
II« Didn't Mind.
"My daughter got* $20,000 as a
Wül ] t | j n ,r present, but sho has an
i m p ec \i me nt in her »pooch," said a
wctt ithy father-in-law to a would-bo
SBrk .| n .i aw , who was poor,
,,j know . but j do not ,. e gard that
an impediment to our marriage,"
8a j ( j i m p 0Cun i ous one. — Texas
my grandfather was rocked in.
i Western Girl—Wo have the boots
i that my grandfather died in.—Life,
Eastern Girl—Wo liavo tho cradle
Information, as Wei!
Amusement to He Gained Thereby.
Twenty years ago a man was held
to be an exceedingly daring adver
tiser if, in the course of a year, he
bought $50,000 worth of space in the
journals of his own country alone.
The enterprise has so expanded that
now a man is not held to be a large
advertiser unless he spends every
year for this purpose, in the United
.States alone, from $300,000 to $800,
R« ProGfc and
oas produced a noticeable change in
all papers and magazines. Headers ;
ate not slow to discover the enor-I
mous increase in advertising matter,
but they are not so ready to consider
that this has made possible, and in
deed has required, much larger and
much cheaper periodicals. The read
ers who complain of the excessive
amount of advertisements would
hardly care to go back to the old
i style, diminutive and high-priced
papers, says the Golden Rule. In
deed, much satisfaction is to be
gained from the right reading of the
advertisements themselves. At one
time for many months Frank R.
The great increase of advertising
unable to use
had to read to him. When at last he
was able to read for himself, the
members of his household
ceedingly curious to know what sort
of reading he would call for first. A
great shout of laughter arose when
the novelist in all seriousness called
eagerly for advertisements,
fact was, that during all those months
of darkness, his friends had read to
him everything else but the adver
tisements, and in regard to these he
had an intellectual famine. It mav
well be imagined that a humorist |
can find food in advertisements. No
species of literature so persistently I
and frankly as these makes its appeal i
to human nature, and in none, there
fore, is human nature so clearly and
frankly disclosed. Much informa
tion, moreover, is to be gained from
them, and in the case of the more
extravagant of them we learn what
to avoid, while the more worthy ones
widen our knowledge of good and
useful things. Wo should read ad
vertisements, not as the credulous
loafer, but as a philosopher, and as
a student of human nature and hu
man achievements. Perused after
this fashion, this glaring literature
will prove not the least prolitable
matter in our journals.
Slake. Ilia Life Kaxy.
Many devices that help to make it
cheap and easy for a bachelor to pre
pare his own simple breakfast at
home are now sold. The whole out
fit of china and utensils, including a ,
tiny gas stove and really tasteful
table ware, may lie had for $3 or $1.
and if a bachelor be content with the
china used in most restaurants the
cost of the outfit may bo loss by
nearly one-half. Not even the cheap- ;
est of decently clean restaurants
serve as cheap a breakfast as a man
thus provided may prepare for him
self while in the act of dressing.
QUESTION AND ANSWER.
Flora—Do you know that a tree gets
a new ring every year? l'runella—
Every year? Why I get one every few
Mike— Whv <lo tliim false ayes be
made of glass now? Pat — Sliure, an'
how else could they say throo 'em, ye
Jouas Aycede, during the flirtation
—Would you rather have me tall,
'Tildy? Matilda, blushing—I'd rather
have you 'round. Jonas.
Bluster—Do you mean to say that I
am a liar. Blister—I hope that I
could not do so ungeutiemanly a
thing. But I see you catch my idea.
"Ail cold snaps." said Uncle Allen
Spark«, looking in a contemplative
mood at his thermometer, "are alike
in kind. They differ only iu degree."
Johnny Muggs—Pop, git me a bi
cycle. won't yer? Pop— Ilain't got no
money to waste that way. Johnny—
Well, git me a bull-dog wot I kin train
to bite other fellers wot'sgot bicycles.
"Do you like to look at the hogs?"
said Farmer Richland to his little
niece from the city. "Yes. indeed,
uncle," replied the intelligent child,
"but 1 can't make out yet which pig
it is which gives the boneless bacon."
Tho right kind of a prayer never
Scif-dceeption is tho worst kind of
Love never complains that its bur
den is too heavy.
Anybody can criticise, but only the '
wise can commend.
U «loesn't make a lie any whiter to
put it on a tombstone.
Nobody on earth works harder for
less pay than the stingy man.
People need religion most when
they can't have their own way.
Every time a wise, man makes a
mistake it toadies him something.
It is human nature to bate the peo
ple who show us that we are little.
If all our wishes were gratified most
of our pleasures would be destroyed.
There is not mueh growing in grace
by those who are not willing to be
Hold on t«> the truth, for it will
serve well, and do you good through
We see time's furrow on a »other's
brow; how few themselves in that
just mirror see!
Hold on to your tongue when you
are just reaily to swear, lie, or speak
liarshiy, or use an improper word.' '
We may neglect tlie wrongs which
we receive, but be careful to rectify
those which wo are the cause of to
QUR WIT AN I) HUMOR
■ SAYINGS AND DOINGS OF
The Deacon and the Darktown Ghost—
Praise Expressed by a Woman—Ask
ing too Much—Current Satire and
A Needless Luxury.
Father—The idea of marrying that
young fellow! He couldn't scrape
enough money together to buy a square
Daughter—But what difference need
that make? We haven't either of us
had a bit of appetite for months,
A Great Joke.
hit nothin', ob course!
Deacon Randolph (laughing heatily)
—No! Dat's de joke! 1 woke up.
îound I been dreamin' an' had fetched
rn . v ole woman a back-handed crack in
de mouf dat knock all her teef out!
Yali! Yah! Yah!—Truth.
• - > S
Deae,on Randolph (telling story)—
Suddinly de ghost made er grab at me,
an' 1 hauled oflf, an'—
Parson Johnson (interrupting)—An'
time in an a K e - and thought from the
" a - v he acted " hen 1 mentioned yon,
that >' ou and he must have had M ' me
Not a Romance.
Mr. Earnest—I met my old school
mate, Lakeside, to-day, . for the first
romance or other before we met.
i Mrs. I'arwest—No romance about it.
i We were married for a few years,
that's all. —New York Weekly.
Marrjinjr at Leisure.
Daughter- -Mr. Nieechapp lias asked
for my hand, and I have accepted. j
~ J . it.' a !
Papa NY hat nonsense! 1 on are not ;
old enough to marry. j
Daughter—That's the beauty of it I j
will have plenty of time to look 1
aro,,nd " h ' le 1 m ^g ed.
A Strong Incentive. ,
Hamper—1 hear that the saloonkecp- |
ers have resolved to stop the custom of
giving bottles of liquor to their cus
tomers for New Year's presents,
Bumper—-They have, have they?
Then hang me if I don't stick to my
x ew Year's resolution this time,
j t '
Much to He Thankful For.
Rinks—Do yon think the country ha
been greatly benefited by the World's ]
for one thing,
var articles out of the
Uncle Josh—Why are these cars
«■ailed grip cars?
Nephew—Because every now and
then the cable breaks, and the passen
gers get the grip waiting for the car to
start up again.
A ronxclentloux Frofcxvor
Judge—Have you hypnotized the
"Well, what are you waiting for?" j
"I am wailing for you to decide '
whether I shall make him confess that '
he ditl it, or make him confess that he !
«lilt of «ho 8ivIm.
De Style—Why have you cut j
llighupp from your list of ae- |
Mrs. De Style—They have lost their
ho says so? j
"No one: but 1 ve learned that she
is giving her daughters a thorough ed
ucation. That shows that she wants
them to be school teachers."
How to Discourage Treatlue
Guyboy Have a drink with me?
Hardhead—Certainly. Here's to yon.
Gay boy—Ah! That's good.
Hardhead—First-rate. Older an
other round if you like. I belong to j
the Anti-Treating league, and have
promised not to treat, but there is !
nothing in tlie rules about accepting
Order right along, old boy.
You pay. and I'll tlrink.
A Woman's I'raUe.
Ry * '
<,•' 1 1
"How does my hat look?"
"Beautiful! It makes you look
twenty-five years younger!"—Judge.
Old Bullion—Don't you think, air, j
that you nre rather impudent to ask
me for the hand of my daughter?
Mr. Nocash—Y-c-s, sir, and
wouldn't have done it if she hadn't |
positively refused to ask you herself.
Close Merchant—Yes. sir, I want a
new bookkeeper; but you won't do.
Applicant—May I ask why?
Close Merchant—You are bald as a
billiard ball, sir. A man with no hair
to wipe his pen on will rust out a
whole box every week.
Other Things Didn't Matter.
madame, that you want to withdraw
your suit for divorce?
Woman—Yes, y'r honor.
'•But you have charged that your
husband neglected you. starved you.
and maltreated you most shamefully.
"If you please, sir, I have lust found
out that the young woman I saw him
with last week was his sister."
Judge — Am I
Trueting to Signs.
Jle (to himself, in a dark corner of
tiie conservatory)—She has sat by
my side for half an hour without say
ing a word. I will hesitate no longer.
'A woman is silent with the man she
loves,' says Ovid, Flu- loves me, and I
She (suddenly)—Oh. 1 beg your par
don, sir. I really believe 1 have been
asleep.—New York Weekly.
Dirk's Bail Brrak.
Little Dick (to little Dot)—Miss
Antique is kinder pretty, isn't she?
Miss Antique—Did you intend that
for my ears, you little flatterer?
Little Dick (astonished!—Did yon
hear? I thought all old ladies
Mother—Mercy on us! Your pretty
walking dolls are broken all to pieces.
How did it happen?
Little Eshel—Hoo-hoo! John—John
ny made zem play football.—Good
A Considerate Boy.
Mother—Back already? Well, I'm
glad it's over. Did the tooth hurt
mueh when it was pulled?
Small Son—I—I didn't have it out
"What? Didn't you go to the den
•'Y'es'm. but there was two people
ahead of me."
"Why didn't you wait?"
"I—I was 'fraid they'd feel 'shamed
if I stayed and heard them holler."—
Oat of tlie Months of Babes.
Auntie—It isn't good form to hol
your fork in that way.
Little Niece—Auntie, do you think it
is good form to stare at folks while
they is eating?—Good News.
! End or lb * Century.
; Mother-Bea good girl, and this
j afternoon I will take vou to the Art
; Small Daughter—Oh. I would much
j rather go to one of those lovely
! matinees where a man takes another
, , ,
| man s wife aw ay from h im,
Not Onltc a Fit.
Mrs. Oldtime—1 do think these col
leges might teach boys a little sense.
Mrs. Oldtime—No, they don't I
sent my grandson a nice, big, soft,
warm feather bed for him to use this
winter, and what do you think he
wrote back? He said he was mueh
j obliged for that foot-ball suit, but it
' didn't quite fit
Asklnsr Too Mac
a i *
| Mrs. Johnson (indignantly! —Now,
j you Joe Jefferson Johnson, you come
r ight down dis minute! Puck,
Not a Greyhound.
they came ox-er in the Mayflower.
Mother—They does, does they? Well,
you just tell them I seen a pictur' of it
in a book und it was nothin' but a sail
Little Girl—Oh, yes. nnd it's not only
an N eyelopedia, but it has all the
I other letters, too.
Teacher—Hasn't your papa an en
The Vindictive Babbit.
First Rabbit—There comes that city
Secord Rabbit—Well, if he doesn't
let us alone I'll run in front of his
prize medal dogs and let him shoot at
Why He Wns l.ate.
Teacher—Why are you late to school?
Boy—The streets are so slippery I
Teacher—1 didu't find them so.
Boy—N-o. maybe not. You see, I
greased my soles so 1 could slide.
Too Gooit to Ite True.
: Little Johnny—Ooo! Here'sa candy
■ box some one dropped, an' it's full,
i too: chocolates an'
Little Ethel—Don't stop to tulk,
'cause l'tn 'fraid it's all ndream. Let's
hurry au' eat 'em before we wake up.
j Mother—How did you like that little
girl you got acquainted with?
| about her dolls that 1 didn't get »
Little Dot—I didn't like her a bit.
Shi 1 '» jus' horrid! She tnlkeil so much
chance to talk about my dolls.
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