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THE BLACKF 00 T NEWS.
JL FEBCY JONES. rahllslMr IDAHO. BLACKFOOT. The United Kingdom has colonies and possessions whose area Is equal to more than twenty-seven times her own size. Among the ruins of Pompeii have been found chafing dishes of exquisite workmanship, which give undisputed proof of their use in the city, which contained villas of many wealthy Ro mans. Northern Indiana farmers are ex perimenting in the domestication of quail. During the winter the birds are fed regularly, and on some of the farms they have become so tame that they roost with the barnyard fowls. The watchfulness of members of con gress is not always rewarded in a way anticipated. Two resolutions recently offered in the house requested the pres ident to return to that body two pri vate pension bills. A member of in quiring mind wished to know what "was the defect in the bills. "There Is no defect," was the reply. "The bene ficiaries are dead." Quite as remarkable as the wrecking of the Pacific Mail line steamship Rio de Janeiro just at the entrance to San Francisco harbor on Feb. 22 is the to tal disappearance of the wreck. Divers have explored large areas of the bot tom of the sea at the point where the wreck is supposed to have occurred, but not the slightest trace of the ill fated ship has been found. One of the most prominent Baptist preachers in the vicinity of New York has made it a practice In all his torates to write his resignation within a week of his entrance upon a new field, sign, seal and deliver it to the proper official with "There, now! pas the remark: Never ask me for my resignation. Whenever you want me to go just break open the envelope write in a date to the document and offer It to the congregation." The recent appointment of General Chaffee as major-general is the first instance of a private attaining that rank in the regular army of the Unit ed States. "I should know that Chaf fee was not educated at West Point," commented a military visitor at the review of American troops in China last summer. "He is so unused to full dress uniform that he has his sash the wrong shoulder." and all the more honor to him for his success. over It was true, A recent importation of foreigners against which no one will be likely to take exceptions, except, perhaps, the natives they have come to destroy, has been graciously received and welcomed by the quarantine officer of the Cali fornia State Board of Agriculture at Ban Francisco. The newcomers are a consignment of tachina files from the grasshopper tribe—their wholesale exterminators, in fact, wherever found. They came as cold storage passengers and with them came a large number of ladybugs, for service In clearing the orchards of red scale—the pest of fruit growers. The flies are to be released in May. They will make short work of the grasshoppers, which swarm at that time. A college professor, reading Lord Rayleigh's "Theory of Sound" a few years ago, became particularly inter ested in that part which relates to the vibration of cords. He began to study 'the waves which travel along a cord 'when one end is shaken, and then to experiment with cords loaded at in jtervals with weights, and vibrating in air or water. What could he hope to learn from such investigations? W'hat practical results were ta be looked for? He could not tell, nor could any one else have told. Yet he studied the sub ject for five years. The facts he dis covered iqake it probable that tele phone communication may take place under three thousand miles of sea. and the professor has sold his invention tor Ibalf a million dollars. The German army has furnished an other terrible Illustration of what duel ing means. An infantry captain pres ent at an officer's dinner took offense 'at the innocent but rough horse-play I of an army surgeon, and struck him. IHe then retired to his quarters. In a 'little while two officers representing the surgeon appeared with a challenge. ; Before they could deliver it a brother of the surgeon entered and shot the captain dead. His excuse was that he sacrificed himself to save his brother, the surgeon, who had a wife and chil dren, and could hardly hope to sur vive a duel with the offended captain, ia noted pistol-shot. Such an incident must come home with peculiar force to the emperor, who has frankly com mended dueling in the army as the proper way for a soldier to protect his "honor." ■ The name of Sing Sing, so far as the New York village is concerned, is no more, having been changed to Gaining. Manufacturers brought about this change, the impression having gone abroad that all goods turned out ln the village were prison-made. The village showed a decrease ln the last census of 1,313 ln population, though neighboring places showed uniform In crease. Sing Slag was Incorporated In 1813 and the prison was erected eleven years later. The prison is still .within the village boundary lines. FARM AND GARDEN. MATTERS OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURISTS. Horn® rp-to-D»t® Hints About Cultlm tton of th« Boll nnd Yields Thereof— Horticulture, viticulture sud Huri cul lure. Horticultural Observations. We have heard about the benefits of keeping poultry in plum orchards, but the practice should not be too much relied on. Other means must be used to hold in check the insects. Certain ly if the fowls are to be depended ou to any extent for this work they must be assisted by having the trees shaken for them. Even then the birds have to be educated to pick up the insects, and If a man shakes down the curcu lios without having first given the chicks proper instruction he may be disappointed In seeing the insects re main on the ground untouched. Àt a meeting of the Ohio Horticultural So ciety, Professor Green said: "I know a great many think that the mere pres ence of chickens in the plum orchard may gave the plums, but I don't know how they can get the curcullo unless they climb the trees, and they won't do that. You have got to teach the chickens to pick up the curcullo, by throwing a little grain around first, and when you shake the trees they soon learn what they are and pick them up." • * • Market peculiarities have to be met and their demands satisfied. The man that sells apples should always sort them, for he will find a readier market for the different sizes if sorted than if sold together. No one appears to fan cy a lot of little and big apples in the same lot. Buyers are governed by dif ferent motives In their purchases. Some well-to-do buyers want a uni form lot of large apples of good color, and will pay an advanced price for them. But many people prefer apples of medium size or below providing they are well-colored. This is espe cially true of the heads of families ot children, where apples are purchased in quantities of a peck at a time. A peck of big apples is soon used up, while a peck of medium-sized or small apples will last longer and give the children more satisfaction. The pur chasers of these apples prefer them even at the same price they might have to pay for the large ones. An other very large class of people pur chase small apples. They are the keepers of boarding bouses and hotels, and the purchases by these people are ■very large in quantity. The boarding house keeper knows that, as a general thing, each guest will eat only one apple whether large or small, and as a matter of economy the small fruit Is purchased. These things show the necessity for sorting all fruit like apples. The work of originating new vart eties of apples goes on, and the eradi cation of the poor ones is a parallel process. New apples are constantly being Imported and some are proving good. Tbe constant revision of t>e fruit lists Is a work that Is bound to have a very beneficial result On this point Professor Lazenby says: "It Js Interesting to note that during past years the list of apples worthy of cul tivation first Increased and then de creased. In 1891 it comprised 339 va rieties. In 1899 It had decreased to 300. Quite a number of varieties have been stricken off. and of course some new ones have been added. There Is another thing that Is of some interest, that Is the varieties that originated ln foreign countries, have Increased pro portionally. In 1891. out of the 339 varieties that were recommended, 22 originated In foreign countries, other words, all but 22 originated ln this country. Now ln 1899, of the 300 that are recommended, 49 of them were of foreign origin. Of these. 22 are from Russia, 7 from France, 7 from Eng land, 3 from Germany, 1 from Holland, 2 are simply marked as Europe, the country not being known, and 6 from Canada, making 48." In Inii«cU la Stored drain. Bulletin 127, U. S. Department of Agriculture: The chief loss ln this di rection from insects Is to grains in farmers' bins, or grain or grain prod ucts in stores, mills and elevators, al though in the warmer latitudes much of the Injury results from Infestation In the field between the ripening of the grain and Its storage ln bins or gran aries, Fortunately, the several Impor tant grain Insects are amenable like treatment. Aside from various Important preventive considerations, auch as, Injthe South, prompt thrash^ Ing of grain after harvesting, the thor ough cleansing of bins before refilling, constant sweeping, removal of waste harboring insects from all granaries and mills, and care to vent the Introduction of grain, there are three valuable dial measures, viz., agitation grain, heating, and dosing with bisul phide of carbon. The value of agi tating or handling grain is well known, and whenever, as la elevators, grain can be transferred or poored from one bln Into another, grain pests are not likely to trouble. The benefit will depend upon the frequency and thoroughness of the agitation, and ln France machines for shaking the grain violently have been used with sucoess. Winnowing weevlled grain Is also an excellent preliminary ment. Raising the temperature ol the grain ln closed retorts or revolving cylinders to 130 to 160 degrees F. will kill the inclosed Insects if continued for from three to five hours, but is apt to Injure the germ, and Is not advised in case of feed stock. ti» parta of pre "weevlied" reme of the treat The simplest, cheapest and most effectual remedy Is the use ot bisulphide ot carbon. Bisulphide ot Carbon.—This 1s a col orless liquid with very offensive odor, which, however, passes off completely In a short time. It readily volatillies and the vapor, which Is very deadly to Insect life, is heavier than air and settles and fills any compartment or bln In the top ot which the liquid la placed. It may be distributed In shal low dishes or tins or In saturated waste on the top ot grain In bins, and the gas will settle and permeate throughout the mass of the grain. In large bins, to hasten and equalize the operation, It Is well to put a quantity of the bisulphide In the ceuter of the grain by thrusting in ballB of cotton or waste tied to a stick and saturated with the liquid, or by means of a gas pipe loosely plugged at one end, down which the liquid may be poured anl the plug then loosened with a rod. Prof. H. E. Weed'reports that in Mis sissippi the chemical Is commonly poured directly onto the grain. In mod erately tight bins no further precaution than to close them well need be taken, but In open bins It will be necessary to cover the mover with a blanket to prevent the too rapid dissipation of the vapor. The bins or buildings should be kept closed from twenty four to thirty-six hours, after which a thorough airing should be given them. Limited quantities at a time may often be advantageously subject ed to treatment in small bins before being placed for long storage In large masses, and especially whenever there Is danger ot introducing Infested grain. The bisulphide Is applied at the rate of 1 pound to the ton ot grain, or a pound to a cubic space 10 feet on a side. I 9 Onion Oro»lo|. There is a good deal of complaint among farmers and gardeners about being unable to secure a good stand ot onions by planting the seed, seed deteriorates very rapidly with age and only that of the last season's crop should be used. The sprouting seeds and young plants are very easily killed by drouth and some method of plant ing must be followed that will carry the young plants over the dry weather. A simple and quite effective way of planting Is to prepare a good seed-bed by plowing the land In the fall or early winter. Smooth down the surface with a harrow or almllar tool. Drill the seed in rows about fifteen Inches apart, placing the seed about one Inch below the surface of the soil. Firm the soil well on the seed by walking on the rows or some similar method; then cover lightly with loose soil. Tbla method, although simple, has never failed to give a good stand of onions at the Experiment Station at Still water. As soon as the plants are three or four inches high they should be thinned to three inches apart In the row. Weeds and grass should never be permitted to grow in the onion bed and the surface of the soil should be kept loose and mellow with the hoe or hand cultivator. Onions are easily grown and with good care will yield a good crop In almost all parts of Ok lahoma.—Oklahoma Experiment Sta tion. Onion Rinsing Snp* Vines. The practice of ringing grape vines has been tested to some extent by the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. Two vineyards were under experiment ln different parts of the state and the vines In each were ringed for two years. In one vine yard, trained upon the two arm Knlf fln system, both arms were ringed be yond the fifth bud; and ln the other vineyard, using the renewal system of training, the arms were ringed be yond the renewal bud. In both or chards very marked differences in fa vor of the fruit on ringed arms was noticed with such varieties as Empire State, Concord, Niagara, Geneva and Catawba, the bunches and berries be ing larger and mors compact and rip ening earlier. In most cases, however, especially with higher flavored varie ties like Delaware, the quality waa In jured; and the grapes which naturally show a tendency to crack, like Wor den. were worse In this respect on ringed vines. The renewal system seems beat adapted to thla practice, but its adoption or rejection is a ques tion the individual grower must set tle for himself. A pig confined to a pen, fed and milk, will rattan fast, look nice, breed young, have few pigs, caked ud ders, fever, eat her young If she lives through farrowing, and prove a dis mal failure. Her muscles are unyield ing. blood thick, system feverlah; she is diseased (fat) Instead of hcauny (lean). corn Crosses between the wild and domes tic turkey are healthier and hardier than the latter, and have some of the qualities of the wild. A certain pro portion of wild blood will Improve the size, form and general appearance the domestic stock, as well vigor. Trainmen ln some parts of South Dakota have a new difficulty to sur mount In the shape of vast masses of Russian thistles which collect In drifts on the tracks. The weeds are blown Into cuts, where they become Inter woven so closely that sometimes trains are delayed for hours. The locomo tives might push their way through but for the tact that the rails become slippery through the crushing of the oily fiber and seeds, the wheels refus ing to revolve even after a liberal an plication of sand. or ns their It Is not an easy matter to convince fara.ers and dairymen generally that a knowledge of theoretical principles la advantageous to the success of practi cal work. w 'TTr< V-Æ m m f. % LK i< i tor VU, ÎPi vJi! Th« Hrlgaile mt Kouteuwy. By our campfires rose a murmur At the dawning of the day, And the sound of many footsteps spoke— Spoke the advent of the fray; And as we took our places Few and stern were our words. And some were tightening horse-girths And some were girdiug swords. The trumpet blast has sounded Our footmen to array; ? The willing steed has bounded, Impatient for the fray. The green flag is unfolded, While rose the cry of joy; "Heaven speed dear Ireland's banner This day at Fonteuoy." s + We looked upon that banner -, I And the memory arose Of our homes and perished kindred Where the l,ee or Shannon flows; And we looked upon that banner And we swore to God on high To smite to-day the Saxon's might— To conquer or to die. Loud swells the charging trumpet— Tls a voice from our own land— God of battles, God of vengeance, Guide to-day the patriot band. Their are stains to wash away. There are memories to destroy In the best blood of Britain To-day. at Fontenoy. * I u Plunge deep the fiery rowels In a thousand reeking Hanks; Down, chivalry ot Ireland, Down to the British ranks. Now shall their serried columns Beneath our sabres reel; Through their ranks, then, with the warhorse. Through their bosoms with the steel. With one shout for good King Louis And the fair land of the vine. Lika the wrathful Alpine tempest We swept upon their line. Then rang along the battlefield Triumphant our hurrah. And we smote them down, still cheer mg "Erin, sianthagal go bragb." As prized as la the blessing From an aged father's lip, As welcome aa the haven To the tempest driven ship; As dear aa to the lover Is the smile of gentle maid. Is this day of long-sought vengeance To the swords of the brigade. See their scattered forces flying, A broken, routed line. See. England', what brave laurels For your brow to-day we twine. O, thrice-blessed tbe hour that wit nessed The Briton turn to flee From the chivalry of Erin And France'» "fllenr-de-lla." j ; ! As we lay beside our campfires When the sun had passed away And thought upon nur brethern Who had perished in the fray. We prayed to God to grant tu, And then we'd die with Joy, One day upon our own dear land Like thla at Fontenoy. —Bartholomew Dowling. A Tr»lt of HarrUon. Benjamin Harrlaon had opinions about things. He expressed them free Rarely would he discuss men, their records, characteristics or their motives. The only exception to this rule waa when duty compelled him to learn the fitness of a candidate for of fice. From his six years In the senate and four years In the White House there Is presereved not one recollection of a harsh, or bitter remark of personal character. It might be added that complimentary mention of an Indivi dual waa almost as unusual with him. It waa simply a trait with him not to talk about men. There were times, crises, ln Benjamin Harrison's career when sharp rivalries or antagonistic relationships might have given provo cation for an expression of personal resentment. Whatever Oen. Harrison thought of other men he did not say. The disinclination to talk about son amounted to almost positive pro hibition. It was more marked in Gen. Harrison than in any other public man of the generation. On one occasion when at a public gathering the speech ea took a eulogistic character of some man, Oen. Harrison, who had not yet spoken, was seen slipping out of the door. A friend followed and said, "We want you to say something." "1 can't," was the reply, and he didn't. Yet Oen. Harrison drew a line sharply and dis tinctly between the public acts and the personal character of a man. The for mer he considered legitimate subjects of discussion and criticism. This was Illustrated in the speech made to the senate upon the veto messages of the then President Cleveland. That speech Is still remembered as one of the most, If not the most notable of the congress! It wsb far-reaching In Its quenres. It was unaparlng. But It contained not one word reflecting pér ir. a per oonaa S at er. in I E ü A sonally upon the president,—W. B 8. in St. Louls-Globe-Democrat. Hostua Uoy» llemuuil Their flight«. The spirit of liberty that prevailed In Boston at the time of the revolution not confined to the men wht Even the ehll was could carry muskets, dren were ready to stand up fur theli rights as Americans. An Incident '.hat took palce in the winter before the bat tle of Lexingtuu was fought shows this. The hoys of llostou had beeo much troubled by the British soldiers who were ou their garrison duty In the town. These soldiers took great delight In destroying the coasting places which the boys had prepared. At last the boys held a meeting and appointed a committee to wait upon Gen. Gage, then In command, and to make a proteat. The committee was admitted to Gen. Gage's headquarters, and In reply to the general's question to what they wanted, the leader replied: '*8lr, we are here to demand our right#." "What's this!" exclaimed the gener al, surprised. "Ihi your fathers teach you rebellion and send you here to dis play It?" "No one teaches us rebellion, sir." promptly spoke up the leader. "'Bui your soldiers trample down our snow slides and destroy our snow forts. When we complain they laugh at us. j call us young rebels, and tell us to help ourselves If we can. Sir, we will stand It no longer." , Gen. Gage's surprise changed to ad miration. "You are brave boys." hr "Go, and If my soldiers trouble ' said. you again they shall be punUhed." Henceforth the boys of Boston en- 1 Joyed their sport without molestation ! I f»rm«r'a »Mil MmmI *h« I!»?. Boys who Imagine that the farm Is I a dull place and narrow In Its scope for developing the faculties, will find j Instruction in the story of how Joseph Bslley. ■ Wisconsin fsrmer. by bli readiness of resource accomplish««) | durtng the civil war s task which naval experts gave up In despair. Bat- I ley was captain of ■ Wisconsin regi- | ment detailed to assist General Banks and the admiral believed all that h. could do was to destroy hts boats, aave ; what stores he could, and retreat with the army, as the river had fallen jro ; low that the fleet could not par«. In aplte of the naerttona of the regular englneers to the effect that It wa. Im pom, ble Captain Bailey propoeed to build a dam and raise the water In the | shallow apota. Hta counsel prevailed. ; It was necessary to deepen the river tor a mile, and make a current of ten In hla support of Rear Admiral Porters fleet of gunboats in the Red River ol Texas. The advance Buffered defeat. miles an bonr. dlera worked day and night and the dam waa finished, with an opening six ty feet wide, through which the fleet passed In safety, owing to the skill of this Wisconsin farmer. Details of 3.000 sol Military Ardor. j Military ardor still possesses the flower of tbe country. Ol the young ; men now In the volunteer regiments ! 2,000 bave filed applications foe the R10 second lieutenants to be Ailed in the reorganized army. And thenr are 7.000 who served In the war with Spain asking for any places that may he left after the president and secretary of war have made selections from the 2.000. A rule exclude» from consider atlon as eligible others than those of the two classes mentioned. But for this barrier there would be countless thousands applying and bringing to bear political and social Influences for army commissions. The pressure even from those who are not now in the volunteer service and who were In the regiments from the states ia very great. A second lieutenancy In the army la not an exalted position. The holder of it draws a moderate salary. With the army reorganized the opportunities for promotion will come very slowly, for the higher grades will be IHIed with men averaging much younger than in the old army, and, therefore, vacan cies will not occur rapidly. Bnt the craze for the army has taken strong hold.—Washington correspondent St. Louis Globe-Democrnt. Infantrr Soldier» Orerloadod. Proposition Is under way to make an endeavor to lighten to some tent the equipment of an Infantry sol dier In heavy marching order. The board of ordnance and fortifications will undoubtedly take this matter up In the near future and give it careful consideration. When It Is taken Into account that a soldier of Infantry un der heavy marching orders has to carry seventy-three pounds fifteen and one half ounces, exclusive of the water in his canteen, which weighs approxi mately three pounds, It will he that this question is worthy of action. *x seen Testa of giro Proof Wood«. Senate document No. 177 gives port of tests of fireproof woods from the torpedo boat Winslow, the ptirpoe-j being to determine whether the process Is enduring. The result was very sat isfactory, showing that the treated five years ago had lost of Its flreproor qualities. It Is easy to bid the devil h, your guest, but difficult to get rid of him. ;» re wood none INGS and doings SaxJaÿt Soon to », Chi,f 1 Lieut.-Uov. Savage will bo lu», I rated as governor of NebraafcjJjKl ably within the month. Governor big, I rich has given his promise to at an early date and qualify u States senator. In 188» Mr. Ravage lived in a w house on the plaius of Chester coma, ! The new governor Is a typical er. He was boru at Conncr«vlUe ( lu ! in 1843. and was left at the age of tH the sole support of hts mother and ù* family of little brothers and ilst«n left without protection by the dealt tf their father. Young Rav*g« »orM hard on farms and in no other oeetq» mi j , tlons. meanwhile managing to pa* through high school and coltogs H* studied law. removed to Iowa, stale some money In land speculation, sal ' then removed to Nebraska H« «as th* EZRA P. SAVAGE 1 first mayor of South Omaha, lali est the town of .Sargent and grew riti ! when the railroad was built through I the town. He won distinction ai s I soldier and scout for Grant and SUr man during th« civil war. j .■ ■■ .— - - Doctor May Ht fus* Strtficu. Recent derisions of ths higher cam | ln ruMa effecting the practice ot mdi I | tc M tending to settle questions that | been more or Isas cm clna are Interesting to tba g*n- r*l psh trovers lal. It ha* always been contended that * phyalrlan la morally bound t'» aitent any patient for whom be I* calls! K ,„ ur> , 0 rwipood wh „„ „im |, g», ; rr , ||r rr(|krdpil u , ^.„„n of malt Mhlr# „ „ hnow „ however, ; Ib# , phri , clllB . do 0o , ,«mat to tb „ V|M> . nd lh# ril|bt » fU)H> sll)rmUn ,, PVPfl of wri * m ,. r t Mth. bbTi be«« „ th , of un* te | r<md#r mfd|r ., M , utonce g (rlU «l ; time when other physicians tool* a«* be found. Whatever may be the moral obligation the Indiana Supreme cowt has Just rendered an opinion in a test case to the effect that a phyatrlaa to not legally bound to attend a pat leak for whom he la called, no matter how urgent or desperate may be the rasa. An Indianapolis doctor was summoned three times to attend the wife of a prominent cltlaen. He refused to ** and was finally Importuned by the slrit woman's pas'or, who offered to pay tba fees In advance. The phyalclan re mained obdurate and the patient died« la World's fair mayor. Rollo Well», newly elected mayor of St. IrffUls. whose term of office will ex tend over the world's fair of 1*03. to generally regarded as the visible «vl denco of the political power of for* • V*'. ; „JVjL ;. r: m r. k fit*»' HOLLO WELLS. mer Govornor David R. Franca. Mr. Wells and Mr. Francis have known each other almost from boyhood, and have similar opinions as to what con atitutes democracy. The election of Wells is taken as having a national significance, the more ao when It is considered that Mr. Francis' connec tion with the world's fair will give! him the advantage of close contact with the big men of tho south. The new mayor Is the head of a ateel foun dry. which employs upwards of 2,00# men. He is 46 years old, a native ot Rt. Louis. This Is hla first plung* into politics, and his great success Is due, not alone to his strong backing, but to his personal popularity. Mr. Wells Is a typical Democrat of the silk-stocking school, but he Is well known to the people through his early connection, aa manager, with one of the big traction Unas, which waa own- 1 od by hla father.