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IDAHO LABOR HERALD
v FOR TOILERS IN CITY AND COUNTRY CO-OPERATION MEANS SUCCESS Published in the Interests of Organized Labor—-For a Decent Living Wage Scale and Better Working Conditions Vol. II. No. 27. ) BOISE, IDAHO, DECEMBER 3, 1914 ( $1.00 Per Year. 5c a Copy NEW YORK TAILORS SECEDE. BULWARK Trade Unions Defend the Inter ests of Workers. BENEFITS ARE CUMULATIVE. In Times of 8tresa and Trial Labor Organizations Are of Greatest Value to the Toiler—Holds Fast Better ments Already 8eoured. Many people have the impression that unions of labor are wholly for offensive purposes and that their success is to be measured by the extent of the aggres sions they can make upon capital or to the increased wages they can secure a result of a militant strike policy, says the Shoe Workers' Journal. Among those who take this view of the matter there may be found a con siderable number of wage earners and some who essay to lead the hosts of labor. But. making due allowance for the difference in environments that may distinguish one trade from an other, in that one trade is obliged to be-inore militant than another because ^peculiar trade circumstances and rroundlngs, there Is plenty of basis r the opinion that those who look upon labor unions only for their value on the offensive and regard them as failures when they cease, even tempo rarily, to be aggressive, are woefully mistaken in thir premises. Much as we abhor militarism and war. the present situation In Kurope prompts us to use a military illustra tion. Suppose an army does not know how to fight except upon the aggres sive. It must always advance and can never retreat Then Imagine that army meeting an overwhelmingly superior force and. having no knowledge what ever of defensive tactics, there can only be one result—namely, the entire annihilation of the army that has no knowledge of the tactics of retreat or defense. This is precisely the situation with trade unions, and the art of defense is just as essential to the success of the trade union ns the knowledge and ap plication of successful aggressive tac tics. It is Just as important for the wage earner to hold the benefits secured through trade union effort as it is to secure them and more so. in fact A benefit secured and held is perpetual, while one that is secured and lost is ephemeral. Moreover when a benefit is secured and lost the chances are something else Is lost with it The employer has perhaps recouped himself for whatever expense the benefit was to him while It was enjoyed by his employees by ap propriating some other of their earn ings or privileges to himself. On the other hand, the betterment that is gained and held is cumulative. Others are added on from time to time, so that the wage of today and the con ditions of today are the wage and con dition of ten years ago pins every bet terment and Improvement secured, added and held during the ten years that have elapsed. This is progress. It may not be as rapid as some vapor minded dreamers would like to have, but it is enduring and substantial, and moreover it adds strength to the trade union movement, which gives the promise of better things for the future. In holding the betterments that have been secured and in defending them against attack, in placing the workers In a position to benefit by the cumula tive benefits that have been secured in the onward march of the years, the trade unions are the bulwark of labor. They are labor's defense in times of trial, in time of need, and nothing more clearly demonstrates this than when the wheels of Industry begin to turn slowly and men are out of work or when war occurs, with its paralys ing effect upon industry and employ ment It is in time of stress that the union Is of the greatest value to the worker. It is then when the union becomes the bulwark behind which and through which, and only through which, the wage earner will have an opportunity to defend his every interest, to hold that which be bus secured and to pre serve a position of readiness to secure further advances and Improvements upon the return of normal conditions. In a general way, the broader the recognition of the union by the em ployers and the more fully the princi ple of collective bargaining has become established between the union upon the one hand and the employers upon the other the stronger bulwark of labor the union becomes. When employers and employees have established rela tions that are at least peaceful, if not friendly, a feeling of inntuai respect grows that has a tendency to prevent them from going to war with each oth er simply because business is not good. as wm Shorter Fay Periods. * The legislative committee of the Iowa State Federation of Labor la en leavorlng to secure the passage of leg islation making it obligatory upon all employers to pay their workers in no Y HOW HE LOST THE PRIZES. Hard Luck That Cam* to a Workar In a Philanthropiat'a Faotory. I was puzzled, in no other factory town had I seen the strange, tense, eager energy which I saw indicated by many of the operatives of the Web woof combine In Splndlcberg. What mysterious Influence wai responsible for this surprising manifestation? Was the incentive a pecuniary one? Could it be high wages? "No, it ain't high wages, sir," one of the more Intelligent looking of the workers (he said his name was John son) told me. "Wages iln't so high here as what they be in other places, sir. The folks hustle because the pres ident, Mr. Grabbenstatter"— "Mr. Grabbenstatter!" I broke in. "Surely you don't mean Mr. D. Cllf forde Grabbenstatter?" "Yes," answered Johnson. "Have you heard of him. sir?" "Heard of him!" I exclaimed (it was Impossible for me to keep down the ring of exultation in my mice). "Why, man, I know him. Often have I been a welcome guest on his princely estate in the Berkshires. and from his own lips have I heard the details of not a few of his unique philanthropic proj ects. What, my friend, does he do to encourage his laborers here?" "He gives prizes, sir,' 1 replied the man. "He gives a five dollar and a six dollar prize at the end of every week, sir. The five dollar prize goes to them that has the most children who's worked the week through, and them that has the youngest child who didn't lose no time gets the six dollar prize." "Oh," I almost shouted in my en thusiasm, "what a good, grand, splen did idea! No wonder there is so much determined effort to win those ex quisite tokens of efficient childhood! I trust, Johnson, that they frequently have been bestowed on yiu." "No, they ain't" he gloc ain't never been given to dren's always unlucky, s seven workin' when I first come to one else had, of gettin' a !ek was half >ok off by a *1 in her ma eye knocked wheel. That r, an' lots of our children med. "They me. My cbll tr. I started town, two more than any sir, an' was plum sure prize. But before the w< over Jim had his arm ti belt an' Minnie got cotcbi chine, an' Johnnie had an out by a busted emery left me with only four, si folks has more than f workin', sir." "But the other—the six dollar prise,'' I gently prompted. "There ain't no hope for that, nei ther." Johnson moaned, his face work ing as with a recent sorrow. "1 put Susie to work for that prize last Mon day. an' for five days she stayed her Job, but when Satui come she wouldn't git Coaxln' wouldn't make 1 wouldn't, an' a dose of sireerits didn't have no effect neither." "But a doctor—he coul something." "No. he couldn't, sir. A doctor come, but he wouldn't give no tope; he says Susie would have to rest for all of a month, sir." I grasped the unfortunate parent by the hand. "My poor fellow," I said feelingly. "1 wish I could the deep sympathy I bav your grievous disappointment! But cheer up. my friend: the lost yet; you will have an to win when Susie recove "I won't, neither." b "Bill Huff's boy—he's a v than Susie—he'll be work! month's out." "But." I consoled, "something may happen to the boy. or p will be herself again Ion doctor thlnkB. Many attacks of sick ness. Johnson, are liable most unexpected turns fo and Susie's may be one a the doctor say what her n "He called it 'teethin'.' formant quavered.—Guy tho Public. on day mornln' out of bed. er. strappln' 1 have done put in words e for you in battle is not other chance •s." e lamented, eek younger n' before the îrhaps Susie i before the to take the r the better, f these. Did lalady was?" sir," my in T. Evans in PART WORK FOR MINERS. Short Time and Reduce! Wages In Lake Superior District. Unemployment In the m of the Lake Superior dlst calamity quite so widespread as had been expected, for the companies and the railroads are giving the men work In different lines as far as At the copper mines of l district employment ts 00 normal and at somewhat I The plan generally is to g son a portion of a week's The companies are bendlo gles to the problem of cheapening costs, for at the principal polnbi of delivery In the east the price of tl only II cents or a litt! against 15 cents In good ti In the iron country, of which the iter, the cur more severe down 10 per »nt employ ment of 600 men In the Crystal Falls district of the Menominee range as against 2.00O In normal tl trative of the whole aitu iron mining district. Ining regions riot is not a possible, be Michigan per cent of ower wages. Ive each per employment g their ener ie product is e better as town of Republic Is the cel tallment has been much and wages have been cut cent or more. The pree mes is tllns stlon in the THE TROLLEY CAR. How the Electric Current Moves It Along the Rails. ITS MOTORS AND MECHANISM. An Explanation of Thoir Workings and ths Msthod by Whioh the Mysterious Fore# Is Conduotod From the Over head Wire to the Running Goar. Of all the thouaanda and thousands of people who dally ride upon the elec tric street cars of our cities—and a good many millions more than twelve billions of individuals paid a fare on the trolley lines of our country last year—only a few understand what hauls the can along the rails It Is easy enough to understand the steam railroad system. A steam en gine. mounted on wheels, is hitched to a number of cars. The steam engine part of the locomotive is coupled to the driving wheels, and when the engine is started the wheels turn and the train moves. But the electric street car is quite another thing and vastly harder to un derstand. In a vague way the vast ma jority of people who ride know that It is driven by electric power which la carried in some mysterious manner on the trolley wires. Let us take a car apart, figuratively speaking, and see just how it is made Beneath the ordinary street car you will find two to four powerful electric motors geared directly to the axlea of the car trucks. These motors differ somewhat from ordinary electric motors in their de sign, but they operate exactly the same is the electric motor which drive« an ■dice fan, the sewing machine or the racuum cleaner in the home. Thea« motors are very powerful and are al most completely bidden from sight in the trucks beneath the car. The electrical energy for driving the street cars is sent out over the trolley wires. The electrical power is generat ed. or made. Id the central power house, or it may be transmitted from some nearby water power development where the energy of the falling water is changed Into electricity. The trol ley wire Is suspended above the street front poles and say wires. The electricity is kept on the trolley wires by suitably' Insulators of glass, porcelain or composition, over which the current cannot travel trlcal current flows easily and smooth ly along the trolley wire, like water in a pipe, although it cannot be seen. Wherever the copper wire extends ^he electrical power flows and Is al ways ready to drive a trolley car Each trolley <-ar Is provided with a trolley wheel al the end of the pole which runs along the under side of the trolley wire from the trolley wire flows through this wheel and down the trolley pole to a heavily insulated cable concealed In the top of the car This cable carries the electricity to the "controller" In front of the car. The controller is the Iron box which stands in front of the motorman. At the top of this box are two levers. The smaller lever Is used to turn and off the current supply and the larger is used to control the current, or to "feed" It to the motors beneaui the car in any quantity as desired. When the motorman turns the con troller bandle u few notches a certain amount of electricity Is allowed to flow from the overhead trolley wire dov>n the pole, through the cable and control box to the motors beneath the car The current starts the motors, which In turn cause the wheels of the car to revolve, the car starts and the motorman turns the controller handle further, feeding the motors more cur rent. and the car picks up to Its regu lar running speed. The electrical current flows to the car over the trolley wire After it flows through the car. via the cables, through the controller, the resistance and the motors, it flows out of (ho cAT through the Iron wheels and back to the power house along the steel rails, thus completing the circuit—Electrical Newa. I • ; I < ", ", • ", ; ! • The elec The electrical power on A Biography In a Nutshell. Born, welcomed, ca r e ss ed, cried, fed grew, amused, reared, studied, examin ed. graduated, in lore, loved, engaged, married, quarreled, reconciled, suffered deserted, taken ill. died, mourned, bur lad and forgotten. Ways of Wives. "I see thla paper aayn that a wife Is entitled to one-third of tho hnaband's salary." "Yea; but the trouble is that ao many wir«« don't seem to know which third it la and take all three!" Heners Even. First Boy—Come down hero and I'll fight y er. Second Boy—Shan't First Boy— Y er a coward and afraid to come down. know« it or y er wouldn't have wanted to fight met Second Boy—Yea. and y er NEW YORK TAILORS SECEDE. United Garment Workers Form a New Organization. The representatives of 75,000 tailors in New York and vicinity who attend ed the natonal convention of United Garment Workers of America in Nash ville recently seceded from the national organization and formed a union of their own when the delegates returned. According to the statements of the leaders, the action has been tacitly and otherwise approved by the New York tailors. Seats in the national convention refused to the New York delegates the ground that their dues had not been paid. Later they refused to sit In the convention on the ground that it was controlled by westerners, who were not in sympathy with eastern workmen, dues had been paid. The officers elected by the seceders who belonged to District Council No. 1 of the national orjler are Sidney Hill man. president, and Joseph Schloss berg. secretary-treasurer. Morris Hill quit. secretary of the International So cialist bureau, was retained as legal counsel. John T. Rlckerts is the presi dent of the old organization. were on It was asserted that the Pensions For Mothers. The state convention of the Indiana Equal Suffrage association, in recent session, adopted resolutions demanding that the next session of the state legis lature amend the factory Inspection laws by the appointment of two wom en factory inspectors, in addition to the present force of men inspectors, and also enact the free textbook law for public schools. The convention also favored pensions for mothers and ap pointed a committee of three to make a thorough Investigation of the sub ject. with a view of obtaining the most practical measure. ; H- H I Hl-n mi 1I - H -- H 1 H ' *» A WEAPON OF VALUE. ! [ Remember the union label is ■ ; • • your strongest weapon. It is just ! ! ! ! as important to spend your wages * | • ■ in your own support as it is to • ! ! ; make heroic efforts to gain [ \ • ■ wages. ", . ", The union label is a wfeapon of \ [ ; ; especial value In hard times. • ■ ",, When the volume of trade is | J •* small merchants are particularly - ■ " sensitive, and this is the time " • • when the demand of wage earn- • ■ I ' ers for union label goods can be \ • • made most effective. ., ; ' In good times or bad times ; ; • ■ wage earners should demand ! ! I ! union label goods. When yon < • touch the business man's pocket I '• ", I you are getting very close to his [ \ • ■ heart, and if you wish to see '• '• ", ", union conditions established in ] ' • ■ the Industries of our country all • ■ ", ", you have got to do is to convince * | ; ; the merchants that they must • ' ! ! carry union made goods or lose ' [ • • trade. T - i - i-i-i i - i - i - i - 4 - 1 - 1 - 1-1-I - H - I-I - 1 - 1-1 - " Electrical Workers' Fight Ends. The secession movement in the elec trical workers has at last collapsed aft er years of effort at maintenance. The few local unions which have remain ed loyal to the secesslonary movement have been notified of the finish and ad vised to make terms with the regular organization affiliated with the A. F. of L.. which body has held open for months the terms offered for reaffllia tion which were made when the Iasi convention was held. Thus again unity has been established and a most bitter conflict ended. How to Raise Wages. The benefits to be derived from com pact and stanch organization were outlined by Miss Margaret Haley of Chicago In an address to teachers of Joliet. 111., who were told. "Organize yourselves, and your wages will climb." in referring to wages paid teachers in Joliet the speaker declared the rate was ridiculous and is less money than is paid to factory workers, and "it is a blot on the name of any city to maintain sneb a NOTES OF LABOR. i! Ten thousand union painters in New York city have received union recog nition and an Increase iu pay. Of 202.91)0 females employed in gain ful occupations in North Carolina 109. 424 are under tweuty-one years old. Before organization glassworkers in New York city worked fifty-six and sixty bourn per week for $14. The minimum wage now paid Is $20 for a forty-eight hour week Metal workers are hard bit by the action in New York city of the Na tional Metal Trades' association In re ducing the working time of all fac tories in New York one-half The United Textile Workers have made considerable gains in member ship during the last year and now have from 20.000 to 25,000 members enrolled in about 200 locals throughout the country. EARNINGS GO DOWN Colorado Fuel & Iron Company's Report Shows Loss of a of en In his annual report at Denver on Nov. 21, to Colorado Fuel & Iron company stockholders, Pres ident Wei born stated that the de crease of earnings for the year ending June 30 is $6.512,862. mention is made of the other mil lions lost since that time. The miners' strike, says the official, is responsible for the greater portion of this deficit. No In referring to the company stores, President Welbom exult ingly declared : "It is a significant fact which bears evidence of the favor in which our mine stores are held by the workmen, whether ployed or idle, that the retail sales in the stores of southern Colorado, the center'of the strike trouble, during the ficial year under review, were $47,0767.52 be a em greater than they were during th k last preced ing year." In commenting on this ferture of the report, Editor Huston of the United Labor Bulletin, says: "In view of the fact that all em employes, strikebrakers and guards are herded in the coal camps like sheep and are not permitted to trade elsewhere, this increase to be expected." President Welbom is regretful over the outside assistance that is being given his striking employes, but makes no mention of the hordes of strikebreakers and thugs imported by his corporation for the purpose of continuing the violatien of State laws—the for the strike. was in reason ISIS THEATRE [I m - i US >fil L / ■ m. " : ? mM I , ? .. -Wi «... SÜ k READY MONEY' MONDAY, TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY Why do you buck Prosperity? There's a lot of good business around here just a waitin' to be asked for— There's a lot of people coming West next year just a waitin' to be asked to come to Boise— Are you going to let the catalog houses get your Christmas trade? Are you going to let the coast cities keep the Exposition visitors? —They're after 'em right now — OUR DIRECT BY MAIL ADVERTISING IS AN EFFECT IVE REMEDY. ASK US FOR DETAILS Commercial Letter Co. 307 N. 9TH ST. PHONE 776 MINIMUM WAGE A BENEFIT. Oregon's New Law Improves Candi« tion of Women Workers. That the passage of the minimum wage law in Oregon through the efforts of the industrial welfare commission has made changes for the better in the condition of working women and girls was brought out In striking fashion at a recent session of the public hearing conducted by the United States com mission on Industrial relations. Father Edwin V. O'Hara, chairman of the Industrial welfare commission, told of the preliminary work of that organization looking to such a law and its final accomplishment. He told of conditions that prevailed among wom en workers prior to Its passage and how there has been a decided improve ment In conditions since. "In our work we found girls wem living In surroundings In which non* should be asked to live," said Father O'Hara. "Some were able to buy but two meals a day and were living crowded together in small, dark rooms. Because the minimum wage law suited in more favorable conditions it has become popular, and the principle that women workers are entitled to a decent living wage always will be pop ular. No woman in America should be compelled to work for less." Father O'Hara said it had been gued that as a result of the minimum wage law many women would lose their positions, but the commission, he said, had yet to hear of half a dozen such. He said that not only were there no fewer girls and women em ployed now as a result of the law. but that in some lines, particularly In mer cantile and office work, there has been a notable increase in the wages of wo men and girls. re • r Organizer Given Power. National Organizer J. C. Shanessy was given full power to admit locals at the recent convention of the barbers held in Indianapolis. Ind. It Is be lieved that this will prove a big help in the organizing work, and plans are being drawn up for a big campaign for new members and new locals. The re ports rend show that the organization has secured 8.000 new members in the last five years. Buffalo was named a# the convention city of 1019.