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paper pay and our readers can aid us greatly in the upbuilding of a loyal labor paper in Boise by read ing our advertising columns, and when making purchases, saying "I saw your advertisement in The Gem Worker, and realized you wanted the trade of the working people." The Gem Worker is proving to be a winner—both with the Labor Unions and with the Boise busi ness men. Our subscription list is growing rapidly and is covering the entire State of Idaho; and Boise's business men are quick to show their esteem for labor's cause by using labor's paper as an advertising medium. Ml À i K II! 1 ! 4 «Hha. BOISE, IDAHO, JANUARY 28, 1915 ( $1.00 Per Year. Vol. II. No. 35.) 5c a Copv LABOR DEMANDS A SHORTER DAY A Shorter Day Will Afford Opportunity for Education-Wholesome Amusement and De velopment of a Higher Type of Man By PAUL SCHOWENBERG. Labor's practical demands, made to individual employers, are for higher wages, shorter hours, and better work ing conditions. Under these three fundamental demands is built the whole philosophy of the labor move ment. Labor demands higher wages because higher wages mean a higher standard of living, better health, more opportunities for its children, better citizenship and a greater happiness. Labor demands a shorter working day because it affords opportunity for ed ucation, for wholesome amusement, for family life, and for the develop ment of a higher type of man and woman. Overwork, like any other un healthy condition, breaks down the worker, turns him into a machine, takes all but the machine like quali ties out of him, and throws him on the scrap heap before his time. An overworked nation is a weak, unpro tected nation. Finally labor de mands protection from unhealthy or dangerous working conditions, be cause they manifestly cause cruel and SUPREME COURT AGAINST LABOR UNIONS The Supreme Court of the United States has handed down a decision which permits employers to discharge a man for being a member of a labor union and without any other cause. The employer can force the employe to give up his membership in a union or be discharged for refusal to do so. It may be inquired if this authority extends to the right of the employer to dictate that a man must give up his membership in a church or a politi cal party. Ju^t what power and au thority the employer pessesses is hard to define under a decision apparently so broad in its scope. Thereis no occasion for the unions to become discouraged and tamely submit to such an interpretation of BOISE LABOR UNIONS WIRE TO PRESIDENT WILSON Organized labor is pledged to the protection of its members from an influx of labor from the old world and is everywhere througout the union standing back of the immigration bill passed by Congress. There may be differences of opinions as to the mer its of the bill in certain particulars but that its purpose is right |nd in line with the best interests of organiz ed labor is universally recognized. Press dispatches note the general interest manifested in this measure by the unions of the United States and also-note that President Wilson may veto the measure as President Taft did on account of the illiteracy test, but there is a general feeling that the President should bow to the judg It is pointed out that 'the rural free delivery service costs $40,000,000 per year more than it brings in. Well, suppose it does? The rural free de livery service is doing more good to the country than half a dozen pro jects like the Panama Canal It has made life on the farm less isolated and more agreeable and does its share to stop the cityward tide Farm val ues for the last year are put at forty billions of dollars This year the pro ducts of the farm were worth about ten billions—not quite but nearly. That is a business worth catering to. The rural service should be extended not curtailed.—Caldwell Tribune. wanton injury to the worker, and are a needless sacrifice of the lives and welfare of many men to the greed of a few. For these three purposes—the shortening of the working day, the increasing of the working wage, and the securing of safe and healthful conditions of work— labor has built up and maintained its organization. It is important to note that each one of these demands, in the proportion in which they are attained, benefit, not labor alone, but all society. ' In the long run they even benefit the men who are now the masters of labor, but who will some time fill the more hon orable position of servants of labor. The conflict which exists between em ployer and employed is not so much a conflict between men as it is a con flict between the theory that wages ought to be fixed by the law of sup ply and demand, as if labor were a commodity and could be measured out in bushels, and the theory that labor has the. inalieable right to what it produces. the law for the power is safely within their hands to have Congress change the law. As is well-known the courts owing to their great submission to precedent are always behind the times and are ever the last refuge of privil ege. If the law cannot be changed by Congress in a legislative enactment then it is essential that a constitutional amendment be demanded at once and put through in record time. Under the unwieldy method of amending the constitution it may take several years of agitation, but the unions will get busy at once and there can be no doubt of the ultimate result. The matter should be the subject of discussion by every labor union in the land and there should be no let up until the law is changed. ment of Congress, especially as his views were well known to his party associates, who have so often done his bidding in Congress, but who could not conscientiously follow him in this matter. The Boise Trades Council desiring to act in harmony with the organized labor movement of the nation has sent the following tele gram to the President: Boise, Idaho, January 27, 1915. Woodrow Wilson, President of the United Stats, Washington, D. C. As a relief to the unemployment of this nation organized labor of Boise unanimously, requests that you sign the immigration bill now before you. P. H. SPANGENBERG, Secretary, Senator Martine, of New Jersey, has introduced a bHl in the United states Senate which, if enacted, will prohibit the employment of armed men for any purpose by corporations or associations of employers of any kind. It is said the bill was drawn to STOP GUNMEN prevent such crimes as occurred in Colorado during the recent coal strike being the direct outcome of revela tions made in testimony presented to the federal commission on industri al relations and congressional mittee during hearing held in Denver. com A PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATION. /A o & ■tb. l 00 or 'the ' theory THAT'THE SOLDIERS OUGHT .TO t \ X ■e r c* ~ty SG' ^45 fOlfCE THE ROYÄL COMMANDERS Off THE ARMlfc'jj o> 1 W •V T*> n«HT THE THING CHIT TKEMSELVE S A' —Fox in New York ining Sun. HOPE OF THE WORLD IS ALL LABOR UNITED Some two thousand years ago, dur ing Plato's time, most of the philoso phers and thinkers declared that the laborer had no soul, and even Plato said that the slave had only half a soul. Compelled by their masters to toil early and late, shunned by all but their own kind, and barred from religious services, the condition of the slave was pitiable to say the least. During the long weary centuries that followed the laborer gradually fought his way upward from slavery and serf dom, so that today he has attained a fairly decent condition. This upward movement received its impetus through organized effort. The organized labor movement today is the outgrowth of centuries of medi tation on the part of the toilers. When the slave began To think he soon re alized the folly of individual action, and the result was that he joined hands with his fellow slave and event ually secured liberty. The toiler of today, although en joying liberty, found that in order to secure a fair share of the product of his toil he must join hands with his fellow toiler. This unity of action has accomplished a great deal in secur ing higher wages, reasonable hours and sanitary workshops. It has made its influence felt in the legislative halls by securing the enactment of numerous laws for the benefit of all the people. The labor movement has been the uncompromising foe of child labor, that blot upon civilization. It has fought to raise woman's status up to to that of man, and through its mighty efforts the workingmen's com pensation is becoming a realty, and the doctrine of contributory negli gence, assumption of risk and negli gence of fellow servants in the rela tion between employer and employed are rapidly being discarded. Laws have been enacted providing, for the proper guarding of dangerous machinery, so that the mechanic operate k with comparative safety, Only recently a law was enacted by Congress which makes a distinction between labor and commodities; the old idea being that labor was acom modity the price of which was sub ject to the law of supply and demand. This was the direct result of the ac tivities of organized labor in bringing the matter before congress, Above all, however, has been its in can UNIONS OF IDAHO SHOULD COMMUNICATE WITH COMMITEES The labor unions of Idaho should let their position on legislation be known to the members of the legis lature, and in order that they may do so we give herewith the names of the members of the legislative committees fiuence upon the ethical thought of the day. It contends that labor is dignified. It reasons that in order to live in comfort and happiness, we must labor to produce food, clothing, shelter books, and in short all those things that are necessary for our ex istence. Through its educational propaganda the world is beginning to believe that the man and woman who toil with mind or body are the salt of the earth, and that the idler, whether he be poor, shiftless vagabond or the degenerate son of wealthy parents, is a menace to society. That no man shall take from society more than he contributes to it is a principle that will soon be recognized even by the conservative, due to the agitation of the united w'orkers. United labor has for years fought for the elimination of poverty on the one hand and against the accumulation of swollen fortunes by dishonest me thods on the other. In short, the labor movement stands not only for a living w^age and all it implies, but for a better world to live in, happier homes, healthier children enjoying plenty of play time between their studies, and proper provision for those who have long passed the meridian of life and can not do for themselves. Moreover, in putting human rights above property rights it has demonstrated its faith in the uni versal brotherhood of man. It has called attention to the danger and injustice of the unequal distribution of wealth, to the suffering of the poor and to the waste of the rich. It has set its face against war with all its horrors. It believes that man should live in peace and cultivate the arts that makes for peace, and not fill the world with..widows, orphans, cripples and insane. It believes in building up and not destroying, in conservation and not in waste. To it human life is too sacred to be sacri ficed without the semblance or sense or reason. It is'opposed to militarism because men should be trained to,help each other and not to fifht each other. With a record of ptast accomplish ment, of suffering and self-sacrifice upon the part of many men and wo men in the movement, a record which gives promise for the future, with all this in view surely it can be said that "labor united is the hope of the world." on Immigration,-Labor and Statistics of the two houses; Senate:—W. J. Mendenhall, A. F. McCloud and A. P. Hutton. Houses—E. J. Elrod, C. F. Koelsch, F. C. McGowan, J. M. Clark and C. L. Grice. THE LABORER MUST BE A FREE MAN Whoever Produces Anything by Weary Labor Does not Need a Revelation From Heaven to Know He Has a Right to the Product The following (epigrammatic sen tences on labor are from the writings of Robert G. Ingersoll: The history of man is simply the the history of slavery, of injustice and brutality, together with the dead and desolute years, slowly and pain fully advanced. Slavery includes all other crimes. It is the joint product of the kid naper. the private thief, murderer and hypocrite. It degrades labor and corrupts leisure With the jdea that labor is the basis of progress goes the truth that labor must be free The laborer must be a free man. I would like to see this world at last, so that a man could die and not feel that he had left his wife and child ren a prey to the greed, the avarice, or the cruelties of mankind. There is something wrong in government where honesty wears a rag, and rascality a robe; when the loving, the tender, eat a crast, while the infamous sit at banquets. Whoever produces anything by weary labor does not need a revela tion from heaven to teach him that he has - -a- right to-the thing produced; In most of the nations of our day the idlers and non-producers are eith er princes, and the great middle labor ing class supports them both. Rags DISCOFID COMES FROM SUGAR BEET SECTION Complaint comes from the sugar beet sections of the state that the in dustry is controlled by a trust acting under the old method of "all the traffic will bear," and that the trust makes the price which the producer must take for his product and fixes the wages and the hours of employ ment for its workers. This was the old method by which corporations sought to make every thing subservient to their own ends. The good old method handed down by the Robin Hood's of the industrial world. Nothing was easier than under this system of corporation control for the corporation to make great profits while "socking" it to to the producer, the worker and the consumer impar THE STATE GRANGE MEETS The State Grange held its annual con vention at Payette last week. J. W. Beckdolt, Wm. Leonard and D. R. Hubbard atended as delegagtes from Kuna Grange. The convention was a very instruc tive one and many subjects of impor tance to farmers were discussed. Another pleasing thing to the dele gates was the rapidity of the growth of the local granges throughout the state and the interest the members are taking. The convention was the best in the history of the state.—Kuna Herald. IMMIGRATION BILL VETOED TODAY The press dispatches received just as we are going to press state that President Wilson, following the pre cedent set by Cleveland and Taft, has vetoed the Immigration bill on ac count Of the literacy test. The Boise Trades and Labor Council have wir ed the Idaho Senators to vote to pass the Bill over the Veto and this step will doubtless be taken by all the Labor Unions of the country. and robes have a liking for each other. Beggars and kings are in accord, they are parasites, living on the blood, stealing the same labor—one by beggary, the other by force. We must get rid of the idea that a little learning unfits one for work. There is no real conflict between Latin and Labor. same You have no idea how many men are spoiled by what is called educa tion. For the most part colleges are places where pebbles are polished and dimmed Every child should be taught that the useful are the hcnerable, and that they who live on the labor of others are enemies of society. The object of all education should be to increase the usefulness of man— usefulness to himself and others. To live on the labor of others, either by force which enslaves, or by cun ning jvhich robs, or by borrowing, or begging, is wholly dishonorable. Every man should be taught some useful art. His hands should be educated as well as his head. He should be taught to deal with things as they are—with life as it is. Good, honest, faithful work i is wor ship. Labor is the only prayer that nature answers; it is the only prayer that de serves an answer—good, honest, noble work. tially. There is but one effective remedy and that is through organization. The farmers should join an organization —preferably the Grange while the workers should organize a union to co-operate with the American Federa tion of Labor. Through such organi zations the price of the raw product and the regulation of the hours of labor and the wages paid could be fixed upon a basis fair to all concern ed. There is nothing truer than that the Lord helps those who help them selves and the first step in remedying the evils complained of in the sugar beet sections must come from the people of those districts who are af fected. WHEN WILL UNIONISM DIE When the lion eats grass like the ox, And the fishworm swallows the whale; When the terrapin knits woolen sox, And the hare is outrun by the snail; When serpants walk upright like men; And doodle-bugs travel like frogs; When grass-hoppers feed on the hen. And feathers are found on the hogs; When insects in the summer are rare, And snuff never makes people sneeze; When tom-cats swim up in the air, And elephants roost up in the trees; When fish creep over dry land, And mules on bicycles ride; When foxes lay eggs in the sand, And women in dress take no pride; When dutchmen no longer drink beer, And, girls go to preaching in time; When billie-goats buck from the rear, And treason's no longer a crime; When humming birds bray like an ass. And limburger smells like cologne; When plow-shares are made of glass. And hearts of workmen are like stone; And ideas grow in a jack-ass' head, And wool on a hydraulic ram; Then Unionism perhaps will be dead, And the world won't be worth a damn. —Stolen.