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Members of Local Oranized Labor The Gem Worker is a recogniz ed factor iii the newspaper life of Boise and of Idaho. It is the mouth piece of organized labor, and is such a welcome visitor in the homes of the wage-earners of the city. As an advertising medium it has no superior for it circulates among a class who earn good mon ey and who spend it where it will bring results. The wise dealer knows these facts and governs him self accordingly._ ,, Within the last decade the labor press has become one of the most potent im publicity work in the United States, years ago a few labor pepers were published in a slipshod manner, now there are hundreds of clean, Well-edited and prosperous sheets which speak for the wage earners of their respective communities. In Idaho, The Gem Worker is the recognized spokesman of organiz ed labor. 1 Where a dozen ■ 's •:! SL j Il L A i Mi h MM Ihk BOISE, IDAHO, THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 11, 1915 Vol. Ill No. 24.) $1.00 PerYear, 5c a Copy THE MODERN FORUM Political Power Is Only a Reflection of the Industrial Power Washington—"Political only reflected power—reflected from the economic." writes President Gom in this month's issue of the power is pers in American Federationist. The article is entitled "Economic Power Dominates," and the trade union executive has this to say of the orkers hold, through organi power w zation on the industrial field: "Several years ago when the annual convention of the American Federa tion of Labor was held in St. Louis at the same time as the national rivers and harbors congress, on,e of the well-known current periodicals pub lished a review of the labor conven tion, commented on the ability of the delegates, the scope of the work of the convention policies with those the national rivers and harbors congress. The review with the question, an implied criticism: Why does not organized labor go to congress? This same query recently expressed in an editorial published in the New York World. "Each year that has gone by has made more evident the soundness of the principles which the trade union ists have followed. As the dynamic forces in the lives of the people stand out sharply in some test that cuts through to bed-rock fundamentals, the strength and the nature of eco nomic power is revealed, had the understanding, to interpret such flashlight glimpses into the heart of things and who can sense the hid den currents that are propelling the forward surge of life, know that those who handle the tools and ma terials of production, have in their hands the great powers of the life. Creative ability is that which gives men and women influence and value, do things have an importance and a because of that ability. and contrasted its ■hich ended was was Those who com mon Men and women who can power "Only from a superficial viewpoint does this emphasis upon creative,pow materialistic—because at I er appear tention is focused upon the products created rather than upon that greater beautiful tiling, the wonderful, more mysterious, spiritiual force that gives direction and purpose to physical forces in production. "The oroblems of those who handle the tools and who do the actual work of production, have been to secure recognition of the value of their crea tive services and to maintain the right of freemen to control their bodies and their individual powers while all the time endeavoring to obtain greater opportunities and facilities for person al development and activity. These problems are problems of economic Women Need Unionism Dallas^ Texas—A protest against conditions under which women labor of the features of an ddress ■was one by General President Hedrick, of the brotherhood of painters. The union ist said organization of women in trade unionists was necessary as there were some factories where their lives were almost human slavery. In're counting the activities of the organiz ed workers, President Hedrick said that during the last 20 years the trade union movement has taken part in every social reform for the protection of wage earners. In speaking of his trade, he referred to the 11-hour own day for $1.50 to $2 per day before or ganization. Now an eight-hour day at $4 is the rule. FIVE-DAY WEEK FOR PAINTS San Francisco— By a referendum vote painters in this city and vicinity will work but five days a week, be ginning Nov. 1. No work will be done on Saturdays and pay day will be on Friday evenings. The new rule will be in effect until March 31, 1916. Equalization Of work daring, the didl winter month? is the purpose of this plan. relations between themselves and those who produce and those who happen to enjoy strategic advantages in the determining distribution of the returns from production. Only a powerful industrial force can main tain industrial justice and secure for those who produce adequate return for their services. "As individuals the workers cannot exercise sufficient influence to main tain their rigths or industrial justice, but united they have power in propor tion to their joint intelligence, needs and aspirations. "The problems to be solved and the forces that will be effective are eco nomic—hence the wisdom of the pol icy that the A. F. of L. has stead fastly pursued. There have been many other advisers, some sincere, others actuated by ulterior purposes, who have advised, their wage-earners to put faith in the ballot to 'go to con gress.' But policies is concerned with providing opportunities, maintaining the right to activities, establishing ways and means by which things can be done-—politics does not enter di rectly and intimately into industrial relations. Politics is a secondary force in industrial affairs. "Every day is demonstrating that the center of power has shifted from politics and government to industry and commerce. Political power is only reflected power—reflected from the economic. "This transition makes organization of indutsrial relations for the estab lishment of ideals of justice of trans cendent 'importance. It makes the meeting and the deliberations of rep resentatives of millions of wage-earn ers of very great significance to the nation and to the whole world. "The matters that are to come be fore the thirty-fifth annual conven tion of the American trade union movement are of general concern. They are intimately interwoven witth forces and conditions that have a de termining influence upon the future of our nation. The decisions of the com ing convention will be closely follow ed by those who understand the pres ent age, for they are of greater im portance to a larger proportion of our people, now and for all time than the decisions of any other organization. "Of course, labor will 'go to con gress,' but it will be for the purpose of securing the largest degree of free dom to exercise the necessary normal activities of the workers for economic betterment; for the constructive work which the government alone can en act; and to voice the new demand for labor's complete disenthrallment from every form and fact of unfreedom and inequality before the law." Private Agencies Evil Vancouver, British Columbia—"Pri vate employment agencies have not a single good feature to justify their existence," says the British Columbia Federationist. "Nor have the provin cial and federal governments a single good reason for allowing them to con tinue in operation. Every argument ever put forward in their favor is an argument against them, insofar as their usefulness fro ma working class standpoint goes. They ex press the very last word in the way of graft and exploitation. At best they are bad. At worst ttyey are criminal. "Their business is chiefly done with the poorest class of laboring men, whom they make pay heavily for the privilege of getting a job to keep body and soul together." STATE CARPENTERS MEET Detroit—Wage scehdules in the different ^branches was discussed at length at the convention of the state council of carpenters, held in this city. 'Delegates from all sections of the state teported prospects for a successful year of trade unionilm were bright. Gerrit Verbürg, Of Grand Rapids, 'was elecfedtfriîtttfém, . NO COMPARISON. /GOSH M *• » // THOUGHT min£ u/*S j . HTAUYf y - r 5> * •>v « ? r_ mi t v -Äh W City Pays Low Wages Topeka, Kan.—Over one-half of the 298 employes of this c*ty are receiv ing either a bare living wage, which allows them to lay up nothing for emergencies, or they are getting less than a living wage, declares the To peka Daily Capital. One hundred and twenty-three than $64.75 a month "wihch is $10.25 less than a living, wage." The average wage, including all the officials who receive salaries of $100 a month or over, is $70.52, which is $4.48 less than a living wage. "Many investigations have been made of living conditions of laborers," says the Daily Capital, "and they have revealed that $900 a year is the least a family,can live comfortably and pro tect itself against emergencies. That wage means $75 a month." employes receive less No One Is Responsible New York—A coroner's jury has failed to hold any oqe criminally re sponsible for the subway accident of Sept. 22 last in which seven persons lost their lives and 100 were injured. The city bureau of combustibles were "severely censured," however, for not inspecting the work in accordance with the city code. The organized workers through the Central Federat ed Union, had previously declared that the accident was caused by" the greed, avariciousness and criminal carelessness of contractors and city officials alike." The unioinists pre dicted that no one would be held re sponsible, and that "long-drawn-out investigations" would be held. om i mm o Tke OeMeociw» Case at the Majestic M Real Efficiency Favored St. Louis, Mo.—The Central Trades and Labor Union has accepted a re port of its legislative committee that organized labor can not afford to support those who aim to cripple the work of the municipal efficiency board as the trade union movement stands for good wages and is ready to give an equivalent of service in return. The committee says: "We wish to say that after investi gation we are of the opinion that this is in reality a contest between the old time partisan spoils system and an ef ficient merit system of public service." Use of Brick Is Illegal Columbus, Ohio—Attorney Gener al Turner has ruled that contractors building a road in Perry county must return 90,000 paving brick to a plant leased by the state board of adminis tration and operated by convicts. The state official says this decision is bas ed on that section of the constitution which forbids the placing, of convict labor in competition with free labor. The contractors agree to abide by the ruling and will buy brick in the open market. WELL-KNOWN PRESSMAN DIES St. Louis, Mo.—Theodore F. Galow skowsky, ex-president and secretary of the International Printing "Press men's and Assistants' union, died in this city after a long illness. Deceas ed was a prominent figure in the trade union movement. He leaves a wife and three children. HAVE AIM IN VIEW Commercial Club Should Set Task For Boise For 1916 The suggestion has been made in a public print that the Commercial club of Boise set some tasl citizens to accomplish du : for our ring the idid -idea. coming year. This is a sple Give a concrete aim for and bend all the efforts of tion along those lines. For given out that the people of Boise were going to build mill during 1916, and all otl trial enterprises sidetrackei accomplishment of this our people organiza instance, if it vere a woolen er indus for the one purpose, anyone doubt the result? Boise can would have a woolen mill all of her people would feel estrit would provide a pay-r benefit would be felt with ing pay-day. The Trades council could matter up and show to wh organized labor of Boise v operate with the business in which an inter all, whose ery pass et take this at extent . r ould co en in the Ruling on Seman 's Act Washington—"No examin der the language test is re section 13 of the seamen's the regulations of the depa commerce," says Secretary F a liberal interpretation wired to col lectors of pustoms throughout the country. "If the collector is satisfed." con tinues the order, "upon sta master or otherwise that his fulfill the requirement of it is sufficient. "If the collector thinks a muster is necessary, or is required to have one made on complaint, then department circular No. 263 must be followed, it being especially noted that c-bedience to orders given by their officers in the usual line of duty is the test required." The coast guard, at the lequest of the secretary of commerce will aid in the examination of lifeboat men, provided for under the seamen's act. The law requires that for each boat or raft carried by a vessel there shall be a certain number of certified life boatmen; it also provides that a certi fied boatman means any member of the crew who holds a certificate of efficiency issued under authority of the secretary of commerce. ation un juired by let or by •tment of ledfield in lement of < rew will .'cc tion 13, Railway Clerks Strike Detroit—Several hundred railroad clerks employed along the line of the Michigan Central railroad are on strike to enforce wage increases, rec ognition of seniority rights and im proved working conditions, clerks authorized President Forrester to tall a strike if the demands were not considered. Officials, according to President Forrester, "positively re fused to meet and treat with your committee, or, through mediation, to grant you any concessions that would be stable." » The Strike Women Workers Hustanic, Mass.—Wages that range as low as 95 cents a day orced 300 employes of the Monument mills on strike. These workers aie mostly women. They are asking for in creases of 15 to 25 cents a day. Machinists Make , Cleveland—After a strike of two weeks, 100 machinists employed at the Bardan & Oliver planl have re turned to work. Improved condi tions are promised. Cleveland-Painters' unions, toielr district council, have submit ted a new scale to contractors, which calls for 60 and 5S cents an hour. The present rates are SS and 6!i cents. establishment of such With the idea that Boise factories and an industry, must have must set herself a task each year, the meetings of the Com mercial club would grow in enthu siasm and in effective work. The sheep industry continues to be one of the leading industries of south ern Idaho; recent prosperous years have put the sheep and these should alt take an interest in the upbuilding of a factory that would convert their raw material into the finished product. There is very little purpose in a club that does not appeal to the public by achievements that are a visible i dence of its labors. men on easy street evi Woolen mills could be built and financed for $100, 000 and that sum is a very small one where every individual takes a hand in the raising of it. Get busy; the year 1916 should show that Boise can fly with her own wings. Spotter Did Not Spot New York—Phil H. White, head of a correspondence school for street 'railway spotters, has come to grief. He was found guilty of using the mails' to defraud by United States court and sentenced to the Atlanta penitentiary for one year. He issued diplomas to his grad uates. He operated the National Checking Bureau and sold his course for 50 cents. A score of witnesses testified that his system did not assist them to either spot or to secure jobs, despite these rules which White as sured every pupil it was necessary to follow: "Never wear loud clothing, hats, or ties. To do so makes it easy for a spotter to be spotted. "Never write on a car so that the conductor can see you, as this will arouse his suspicions. Instead, carry a small pad and make notes in your pocket. This gives you a great control over the situation without attracting attention/ "Never face the conductor w'hen boarding a car. Instead, watch him when he is not looking in your direc tion." a jury in the 8-Hour Law Is Defined Washington,—In sustaining a con viction for violation of the District of Columbia women's eight-hour law, Justice Van Orsdel, of the District court of appeals, said: "It is not to be understood that every one who inay be employed to make a dre Columbia comes within the limitations of the statute. The act applies only to manufacturing establishment' in this connection has a well-defined within the District of It is a place devoted, as meaning. in the present case, to dressmaking a place where the public is invited to come and have its work done—as distinguished from a more itinerant dress-maker who maintains no fixed place in which to conduct her busi ness." Democrats WiH Rally A meeting of the Deomocrats of Boise and the vicinity will be held at the city hall Friday night at 8 o'clock for the purpose of making preliminary plans for future work. The meeting will be in charge of th* Young Men's Democratic club anti the Woodrow Wilson club, governor who is president of the lat ter organization, will probably pre side. At the meeting plans will bi made for the observance of Jacksoi day, January 8. The HIGHER WAGES FOR CAR MEN Worcester, Mas«.—Wages of motor men and conductors employed by the Boston & Worcester street rail y have been raised from 24 cents to 26 cents and from 29 cents to 32 cents an hour. f"'