Snake River Lava Field.
The valley of the ancient Snake river
In Idaho was flooded with great out
pourings of black lava, which spread
out sheet on sheet, buried the old land
surface and partly filled the valley
with molten rock, which solidified and
has remained to this day undisturbed
except for the gorges that the streams
have cut in it in some places old
mountains project through the petrified
lava flood os islands project above the
surface of the sea, and old ridges stick
out into it as capes and promontories.
The area covered by the Snake river
lava Is about 20,000 square miles. So
far as is now known there is but on®
lava field in North America of greater
extent—the Columbia river lava field,
which covers about 200,000 square
miles. In Snake river canyon below
Shoshone falls nearly 700 feet of hori
zontal sheets of lava are exposed, but
whether this is the maximum thick
ness or not cannot be told.—United
States Geological Survey.
American Clays Valuable.
American glass manufacturers who
have felt the necessity of depending
upon foreign clays will be able hereaft
er to assert tbeir Independence of for
eign material, as a result of experi
ments that have been conducted by
the United States bureau of standards.
The Pittsburgh laboratory of that bu
reau, which Is located near one of the
chief centers for the Industry In the
United States, working in co-operation
with the clay pot Industries, has lenrn
ed that glass refractories (pots In
which the glass Is melted) can be pre
pared from American clays, with re
sulting better quality than that of the
article manufactured with the addi
tion of German plastic clays.
The mixture prepared from Ameri
can clays proved superior in the glass
corrosion tests, both to the mixtures
prepared with German clays alone, and
to those prepared from American and
German clays combined.—Commerce
Oil Burning Apparatus.
For many years experiments have
been made to perfect an oil burner
which would produce the greatest ef
ficiency In the matter of heat and pow
er without producing grease or smoke
and with entire safety. Such a system
has at last been perfected and 1» now
In use. No longer will there be the ne
cessity of contending with an uncer
tain pressure as is the case with gas,
mi OF BUHNER USED FOB BOILER IN
nor the danger of explosion which has
always accompanied its use. Nor will
it be necessary to use large numbers
of men for the storage of fuel and fir
ing of boilers, as is the case with coal,
nor to contend with the resulting smoke
and ashes produced by it.
Of course the oil must be properly
prepared for use as fuel. The system
is interesting, as the oil Is heated to
212 degrees I 1 ', in the supply tank,
which contains a superheater iu the
form of a coil running from the steam
line. It is then put under pressure by
a motor or duplex pump and carried
through the apparatus to the perfected
banter, from which it emerges in a va
porized spray, being mixed with the
air and rendered perfectly combustible.
It is now in general use in California
and adjoining states.
Th« Us« of 8kid Chain«.
Never drive an automobile with a
akid chain on one of the rear wheels
only, says Popular Mechanics. When
■kid chains are necessary It is far bet
ter to use two chains, one on each rear
tire. When but one chain Is used and
the brake is applied the wheel to which
the chain is attached will stop readily,
but the wheel without a chain will
«pin around many times, which tends
to grind off the tread and causes It to
wear much faster than if two chains
were used. On an actual tryout it was
found at the end of a 1,500 mile run
that the tire having the chain was not
at all damaged and the tire without a
chain had the tread almost worn off.
Indiana Early Coal Producer.
The United States census reported
the production of coal In Indiana at
9,682 tons as far back as 1840. The In
dustry developed slowly from that time
until 1865, when It was ascertained
that the block coal mined in the Brazil
and Terre Haute districts made a sat
isfactory blast furnace fuel in its raw
condition. The construction of rail
roads throughout the state at about
that time «Iso gave an impetus to the
coal mining Industry, which bus shown
generally steady progress.
A solution of one part nitric acid to
twenty parts of water will produce a
surface on polished or ground steel to
give it the appearance of case harden
ing. Immerse the object about twenty
seconds, then rinse in cold water.—Pop
uiu r Mechanics.
Th« Vast Difference In
Mar» and Jupiter.
tied "'Is Mars
In an article entl
Alive?" in the .Popular
Waldemar ICaempCtert describes the
possible appearance o:t a Martian. In
speaking of the different conditions
prevailing on thelplansts Mr. Kaempf
"The bigger the^plat et on which you
live, the harder lr is for you to move
about. If you wereusuddenly transport
ed to Jupiter, the largest of the plan
ets. and If you were« a
semi-molten surface, i
ble to live on its
ou would find It
A steam crane
hard to lift your arm
would be welcome assistance In mov
ing your body about
tirely to the enormous
traction which Jupll
upon you. The bigger the planet the
harder are you pulled down to its sur
face; the harder it Is to put your foot
"Mars is only one-ninth as massive
as the earth. Hence you would weigh
much less on Mars thin you do on the
earth. A Martian porter could easily
carry as much as a terrestrial elephant.
A Martian baseball p!
ball a mile. A very c
athlete could leap w
moderately sized hot
planet is not able tc
with the attractive fo
This is due en
er would exert
ayer could bat a
ith ease over a
se. Because his
pull him down
■ce that the earth
ed a stature that
exerts upon us, the
has conceivably attaii
we would regard as
times as large as a human being, this
creature has muscles twenty-seven
times as effective. His trunk must be
fashioned to Inclose lungs capable of
breathing the excessively attenuated
Martian air In sufficiently large quan
tities to sustain life. As a canal dig
ger-assuming that he had no machin
ery—he would be a great success, be
cause be would excavate a canal with
the speed and efficiency of a small Pan
ama canul steam shovel.
"Beyond that we cannot go. Intelli
gence Is not necessarily a human at
tribute. It lias so happened on this
earth that man has become the domi
nant race not because of his physical
of his brains. It
powers, but because
may well be that the biological condi
tions of Mars are stub that a creature
very unhuman in appearance may have
gained the ascendency In the struggle
for existence on a planet that la fast
AN INGENIOUS SNARE.
With Which th«
Uncanny inaect Trap
No trapper ever Invented a snare for
his prey more Ingenious or a trap that
ever had a higher percentage of "catch
es" thau the pitcher plant, for few In
sects ever escape from the clutches of
this horticultural neat eater. He
catches them, holds t iem, drowns them
and finally eats them.
And while he's doing It he smiles so
Innocently and prettl y that you would
imagine him one of the quietest and
most peaceable flowers of the woods.
His leaves are his insect traps. They
are a greenish purple and fold together
like a cornucopia, with a half closed
lid covering the top. The Inner walls
of this "pitcher" are lined with hail's,
which point dowuwtrd and are cov
ered with a sweet, sticky fluid.
This fluid Is regular "candy" for the
bees and files. The insect enters the
half closed door of the pitcher, tastes
the honey and begins to explore the In
terior. As be crawls forward the balrs
bend with him and give him free pas
sage. But when he tries to return bo
finds that these hairs are veritable
barbed wire entanglements to keep
him a prisoner.
The insect tries to fly out, and the
curve at the top of tlie pitcher bars bis
way. He dodges this way and that, be
wildered, until he tumbles in a little
well at the bottom of the pitcher,
where be drowns.—Exchange.
Heron's Fool For Bait.
So great is the heron's repute as a
fisher that it has long been thought
that its feet, owing to some peculiar
scent or oil which they were supposed
to possess, attracted the fish, more es
pecially eels, to within easy reach of
its beak. In some places the rustic
angler still believes that if a heron's
foot is placed with ils worms the lat
ter are more eagerly taken by fish.—
The women who culled just because
they couldn't get out of It were met at
the door by the maid "My mistress is
taking her beauty sleep," she said.
"How long docs it take her?" asked
one of the women.
"Oh, less than half an hour."
"She looks it," said the other woman
In a whisper to her friend. Then they
left their cards am trotted along.—
lin Is always so sha
down appearance til
on seeing his own In
large mirror be drev
give himself alms.—I
• at Hem«.
bblly dressed and
such a broken
at the other day
age reflected In a
out his purse to
First Boy—My pav nays he's sick
over paying bis Income tax. Second
Boy (proudly)—Well, be ought to be
like my paw. He says lie doesn't have
to pay any.—Judge.
"We all owe «omet bin g to our an
"True, but paying vbat I owe to my
contemporaries is keeping me poor."—
Detroit Free Press.
Industry pays debts, while despair
tncreaseth them.—Benjamin Franklin.
r . .a DISTRIBUTORS
A COMPLETE STOCK OF
Up-to-Date 1916 Racycles, Iver-John»on and Indian Bicycles
LARGEST STOCK OF MOTORCYCLES AND BICYCLE
SUPPLIES IN THE STATE.
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211-213 North 9th St.
Western Reporting & Credit Co. :
SUITE 403-4 McCARTY BLDG.
SUITS, GARNISHMENTS, ATTACHMENTS. LIENS.
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Father and Son and All the Family. It appfeli
toallclaaaea—Old and Young-Men and Women.
U ta the Favori to Muguet un la thousands ot
homes throughout the world. Our Foreign
Comwpoudeute are constant ly on the watch
for things new end Interesting end it i»
Written Se You Can Understand It
tffftruys for tliel
layman to do things around the Home.
WUchonic. (17 Pages» for the I
like to muke thing», tell* how to mak
ut üt«. Engine*», Boats.
Furniture, etc. Contain« in
luuic,Cumper and BporUmun
Girife w ho
1«M and Ttdogra
shoe«. JowcItj. E
■truetious for tlu*
If you have a good suit or dres* sand it a reliable cleane C
Auto Delivery Service
Largest in the State
CITY DYE WORKS
Cleaners of Fancy Gowns.
Gents' Suits Dry or Steam
Cleaned for $1.50
Oflice, 923 Idaho.
Works, 1509 N. 13th St., Boise, Idaho
N'T compare our work with small*|>ress shops,
oughly inside and out.
We clean thor
Link's Business College
THE SCHOOL THAT GETS RESULTS
WE HAVE AVERAGED FILLING MORE THAN ONE POSI
TION EACH DAY SINCE JANUARY 1ST
Students of Link's Business College are recognized by business men
for their ability and efficiency
Now U the best time to begin your course. You could be ready for a
position by fall. During the fall we always have many calls for
stenographers and bookkeepers, but have comparatively few advanced
studerts in school.
The d:mand will be greater than the supply. Enter now and be ready.
It pajs to attend a school that has the confidence of business
W. H. COPPEDGE, Manager
1015 Idaho Street
"H4WH44 , H N M H H4W"!4W..b
& 3 *ATtl-;i<Y CO
V * R Y fJ1| N ?„| L |CJR I CAL ]
HiX, r .
9-121 South 11th Street
"Ever Ready" Flash Lights-Globes-Dry Celia
"Exide" Batteries-Electrically Heated Gloves
Rex" Spark Plugs-Solar Lamps-Ignition
OAKLEY & SONS
< M m4W.<444W , -H4i"K"!"M
Our Work is the Reason for ;;
ill years in Boise—Best equipped shop in the city E
I Gel Our Prices—See Our Work ;i
1 Satisfaction to a fraction
F. O. NELSON
15th & Front Sts., Boise, Idaho ;;
methods will please you
The Boise Garage
924 Front St., Opposite 0 ; S,l Depot
C. WEBSTER, Proprietor
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