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This Paper is the Official Organ of the Idaho State Federation of Labor and Boise Trades and Labor Council To the extent that the loborera support a labor paper by their sub* scriptions is it a valuable medium for advertisers. The Gem Work er is most loyally supported by the organized labor of Idaho and of Boise in particular. To this fact is due the splendid advertising pat ronage which the paper receives, as the business men feel that they are given through its columns a special and individual invitation to every wage earner in the city and state. The Gem Worker is one of the solid and substantial 1 publications of Idaho, and haa a standing in the newspaper field never before achieved by a labor paper in this State. With the splendid news service of the Federation's Wash ington bureau and with an change list of the leading papers of the Nation. The Gem Worker is enabled to bring all the news of thp world of labor to your door. Every union mendier in the State of Idaho should be a subscriber. k Â\ ($1.00 Per Year. BOISE, IDAHO, THURSDAY, AUGUST 3, 1916 5c a Copy Vol. 4. No. 10.) SPEAKS FOR MEXICO"* ™ Labor Leader of Southern Republic Discusses The Present Situation we his From Committee on Industrial Rela tions, Washington, D. C.. By George P. West. While every big- special interest and every jingoist in the newspaper country is shouting for war with Mex ico, five official representatives of the Mexican labor movement are meeting with the executive council of the Am Federation of Labor in cora encan plete harmony and friendship. At the Federation headquarters in Washington, the common interests of the peoples of the United States and of Mexico are being emphasized in the conferences that are proceeding with a view to removing misunder standings and preventing war. The Washington meetings are his- u toric as being the most effective ef vorkers of two var. Mexican dele a all ■ ' a fort ever made by the countries to avoid gates to the conference are in close j touch with First Chief Carranza, I «hile American labor through Presi- j dent Gompers is making its wishes ' known to the American administra- i «■« j lion. The Mexican labor representatives j include Carlos Lovera, Baltazar j Pages, Luis Morones, Salvador Gon- j zalo Garcia, and Colonel Edmund Martinez. They are here at the in vitation of President Gompers. Women and children will join with the men of Mexico in resisting Amer- I. ican occupation, the Mexican gates told Washington newspaper correspondents who had asked what would happen if the American troops i are not withdrawn. The interview was arranged in the office of the Committee on Industrial ; Relations by Lincoln Steffens, who led the questioning with a view to bringing out the attitude of the Mex ican people. "We represent 60 Mexican labor unions with a membership of 100.000.' said Carlos Lovera, of Yucatan, and chief spokesman for the "We realize that it is quite possible 11 shall have to go to war when we j have no quarrel, and we are here to | do what we can to prevent it. be that we shall fail, just as labor faded in Europe. ! "Since we arrived here we have L .■ nuruan piop ( <o I to j I j is I I j dele Mexicans. we i i It may ! learned that the not want war. and especially the work ing people. To a certain extent we ; carry that news to the Mexicans can and give them that impression, that the American people have no quarrel with us and do not want war. We her lieve the trouble is made by the spec ial interests, and not by the people. t "Mr. Carranza does not want war. do the men around him. "As far as we know, we don't think there is anyone in Mexico that wants nor war. "Labor and the government of Mex ico are working together. The gov ernment recognizes us, and the labor movement agrees to help the Consti tutionalists revolution, iments in the field, under our own of ficers. They were called the 'red ba We had reg tallions.' "When we have a big strike now, the military does not help the em ployers. They do not interfere, they do not help us, but they leave us free the strike weapon. I The gov to use ernment of Yucatan is helping all they We have the 8 hour day and the English wefk of 44 hours. We quit work at 11 o'clock on Saturday morning and are paid for the full day. "On the day we left Mexico, had the first actual distribution of land J can w r in Yucatan. The Mexican delegates were told Mexicans are that Americans say treacherous. They said that the Mex believed the same thing about Asked why, Lovera said: icans Americans. "In the first place, the war in 1848 The United States took California and Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, nearly half of our country. General Grant and many other Americans have condemned that war. After that, 1 j the United States government and tried to support the Diaz gov 1 press of ing they may is heen the that a their be mass of truth eminent, which was bad for the Mex ican people. Then there was the part we believe Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson took in overthrowing Madcro. He was a friend of Huerta and used his influence to put Huerta in power. "Now we see a punitive expedition taking heavy artillery into Mexico to capture a bandit. They have set their military base 150 miles south of the border. Besides, they are talking of building military railroads. Do you use heavy artilery to chase bandits? "Even Mr. Carranza would not be able to control the people and prevent war if the troops stay in Mexico. Carranza feels no different about it from all the people of Mexico. The Mexicans were asked about American ownership of mines and railroads. Mr. u "Until the revolution" said Lovera.' employees on the railroads with $100 a month were all Americans. For thirty or forty years the Mexicans did all the track work and all the hard labor, under the command of Ameri ' leans. No mater bow bright or capable a Mexican might be, he could not be j I in by The American employees in The Mexicans got is 11 was the same in the mines." for many questions j ' i promoted, were paid in gold, j silver, they- got about one half or one fourth of what the Aemericans used j j j I. i ; 11 j to | ! "Will you adjust your conduct to L of the American pe0 p le? ^ k„ ow that the American press is I more powerful than that of any other country. We know' the great power of the press, lead public opinion, that in Mexico. that the American people don't want war, but there is no one to say that in America. "War means crushing our revolu It means crushing our ideals. It the occupation of Mexico to get. After answering from the newspaper men. the Mexican j delegation through Mr. 'Lovera ques j tinned the correspondents. "Why is it." he a sk.i-.tL "that there Ted tip- feel- j encan people and the American press expresses We all see that the American j is such a difference U ing of the A way the I itself? I people do not want war. yet the press j talks as if the people wanted war. Pictures of Villa and Carranza sliak the they hy ing hands and saying: "Now we'll clean up the gringoes." Is that the way to keep peace? We know that Villa is now of little importance. , , . , . Carranza would not accept Ins ser _ , the Plie Carranza army shoots ... , at dit they can catch. ,, ,,,, _ , I all "When Carranza ordered the re vices, every ba lease of the prisoners the papers said: i'Carranza backs down.' They should told the truth, that Carranza i have i realized it would not be justice to 1 keep prisoners when war had not been ! declared. to a j I by ed ful. to ; You might say that you They don't do We tell our people tion. means after a little struggle." Lovera was interrupted here by Col of ba onel Martinez. "I don't agree with you," lie said. "It would not be so easy as that. We The woman and children are united. will fight. It would be a long strug gle. "Why should the United States make war on us? Villa's army is gone. He is dead or is badly crippled. His last stroke was to start trouble be tween the United States and Mexico. The American people ought to be more lenient. em free or and We day. land The Mexicans are do How long did it ing all they can. take you to capture the James boys? Yet our land is different from Mis 11 is mountainous souri and Kansas, and thinly-settled and there are many wild places." w r Lovera said: "We think the real bandits are in Wall street. To catch them the United States would have to send a punitive expedition to New York. We hear talk about going to Mexico and helping them, paying the Mexican la borers real money. Americans start here. told are said: 1848 and that, and gov Why don't the How about Colorado? "The American people are very good and very kind and very civilized. We saw them in Mexico whipping people and doity things such as were Present Railroad Situation (Marcus Day) If the railroad owners of the coun try, who are also closely connected with steel, mining and banking, al low themselves to be pursuaded that they will gain sympathy on the part of the general public by the circu lization of false statements concern ing wages, cost of operation, etc., they will only hasten the hour of their unscatment front power. While it may be true that the men in train service, who are about to strike are better paid than other railroad multi tudes less perfectly organized there is now no hostility to high wages among workers to any extent in the minds of„the multitude. There have heen to many object lessons of late in the benefits to all in a community of a rising wage scale. It is now recog nized by all but the hopelessly stupid that enlightened self-interest calls for a wage increase in proportion to the rising cost of living. It is only a well-paid multitude who can increase their purchases of both necessities and luxuries. As clear as this fact must be seen to a great majority of the mass the reactionary business moguls of railroading shut their eyes to the truth and delude themselves into thinkir^r that they can create a scare in the minds of the shipping public by threats of unloading the wage in crease upon the latter by an increase in freight and passenger rates. This is nothing but pure bluff. The mag-, nates of railroading have to go to interstate commerce commission now for any authority to advance rates. There is considerable doubt in their ninds about gaining permission to do I I j The Backers of Preparedness (Marcus Day) Most of the multi-millionaire em ployers who dominate the activities of the organization known as "The Na tional Association of Manufacturers" could learn much by the result of the garment workers' victory in New York if it were not for the fact that they dealt but in this countrly the in |terests of the employing class have been so seduously guarded and babied hy a paternal government that the .... . . , , worldly success lias put them beyond . . . . . , the line in self-esteem where a look „ ...... at themselves is really possible. Most ,, , , , , all large employers who have made " , , . . . great success were ruthless in their treatment of all others with whom 1 employers have been spiritually vas- j tated. It is the very height of folly ! to reason with such men; it is simply a chewing of the breath without the prospect of an impression upon them, j Victory after victory has been won I by organized labor within the past year but it has not in the least crush ed this arrogance of the N. M. A. They arc grieved and sullen but hope ful. They are not the least discour aged concerning the future. In fact, they have reason to feel justified inf optimism. The country is beginning to be converted to the military idea, with compulsory service, state con stabularies, etc., to be the program of the future. Such men look to militarism as their means of gaining complete power over TWO MORE VICIOUS INJUNCTIONS Detroit, Mich.—Striking pattern makers have been enjoined from pub lishing advertisements in any news paper that a strike exists in this city or warning pattern makers away from Detroit or from the employment of plaintiffs. Another injunction, issued against the Carpenters' District Council, or ders the unionists to cease depriving not done since the Spanish inquisi tion. a "Our aim is not to do away with the Americans, but to get the rights of free speech and free assemblage, the right to strike, a free press, and also to get rid of the big ranches. For many years they have been taking the land away from the people, so that the people had to work in the mines and big plantations and mills for few cents a day or starve. We want qtange that." All of the Mexican delegation now a to so. But there are other and more im portant reasons than the question of increased cost of operation. It is the mcat ot thé trainmen s contention, the eight-hour day. The magnates fear that the gaining of this eight-hour lla y s uch a " important branch of industry will immediately stimulate further and more militant demands (for the same among workmen in other Iin ® s ; II certainly will have some ef ied ' n doing this, In summing up the situation, the writer cannot see how the railroads barons can force a strike at this time when labor shortages arc growing and there is an absence of railroad puppets in authority in Washington, The latter is the greatest weakness in the railroad position. Still it niusg be admitted that the persistent circuli zation in the entire press of the coun try of the railroad point of view, most ly thru paid advertisements, shows an obstinate tendency. My private opinion is that this is only a "poker face" and that the trainmen will win most of their contentions. If not, the country will soon witness at close range the danger of allowing private ownership of public property. Ad herents of government ownership, like myself, would hail with joy a general strike and a complete tie-up of traf fic. There is nothing would so startle the general public in this country into a consciousness of our absurd and un businesslike handling of this great problem of transportation and the temporary loss thru a strike of such proportions would be more than off I chase of transportation lines, set by the hastening of public pur labor, erican people individually and in groups are now- wrapping themselves in the American flag and dubbing themselves the only true patriots, without a selfish object in view. About ninety-nine per cent of this or ganization are pro-jingoes and are in favor of monstrous preparedness for war. Against whom? Germany? Mexico? Is it not strange that so many people can be humbugged into thinking such men are personally dis (interested? It would be to any who It is hardly to be supposed that men who have so often proved themselves utterly devoid of human feeling in their dealings with the Am j dose not realize that the mediums of ! enlightenment are in control of these self-seekers and that the average mind is dull, careless, indifferent and credulous. There is not ony necessity for great military preparedness but there is great and perisistent cultiva tion of the idea that it is necessary among those who profit directly and who exepect to gain more in the fu-> ture indirectly. The American "sheep" grow' the largest crop of wool and the shearers want them corraled with bayonets in order that the latter can shear closer and silence all bleating here and there in order to prevent a general stampede. Militarism of fers the opportunity and the foreign spook the proper bait to gain the vic tim's consent. "the Walbridge-Aldinger company of the free use and enjoyment of its property." This statement by the honorable court should remove any doubts from those people who insist that injunction judges do not consider labor prop erty, and who fail to see that if an injunction judge does not take this position he cannot justify the injne tion process in strike times. in Washington are men of intellig ence and ability, and of influence in Mexico. They have a fine feeling of brotherhood with the workers of every country, and are filled with zeal for the upbuilding of a great Mexican labor movement that can form part of a Pan-American Federa tion of Labor. After leaving Washington, Lovera and Pages will go to Central and South America to further co-operation between the labor movements of every American country. CAUSE OF REVOLUTION Conditioos Which Led to the Uprising of the People of Mexico Washington.—Why is there such a tremendous pressure of special inter ests and of the political forces they control to bring on a war of American conquest or directorship in Mexico? Read the following extracts from a recent open letter to President Wil son by Dr. J. W. Slaughter of Phila delphia, a man who knows Mexico and who is a noted economist and student of international affairs. "There is hardly any foreign invest ment in Mexico which has not secured a privileged position with the exccc tation of extravagent returns." "Little of the great wealth of Mexi co is held by the Mexicans. Nearly all of her resources were sold to for eign concessionaries by Diaz and his cientifocos. The Mexicans have no de sire to curtail legitimate investment of capital in their country, but they do wish to end the all but universal rule of special privilege. "The revolutionary leaders were preparing with great deliberation to deal with the most central and import ant of all Mexican problems, which indeed, the prime motive of the in the of if the was, revolution, that of securing the econo mic independence of the republic." That is the meat of the answer to That ex the question given above. rhy the American to of interests plains who have helped to rob the land and the other natural resources of Mexico I from the great mass of the people of I Mexico now want the Mexican people jbeaton down, by American military j power, into subjection to that robbery. For this Mexican revolution direct Doctor Slaugh by to ed by Carranza, is, as says and proves, "a real revolution, designed to ter with definite purposes give liberty to the Mexican people for the first time in their known history. i The revolution was the outcome fprees that had been generating for many years and was certain of success if it could be kept free from external intervention." The following paragraphs from an address of Dr. Slaughter before the Philadelphia City Club throw more light on the splendid reforms that the Mexican people are fighting for and ■ere about to get when the that they special privilege grabbers began stir trouble across the border. "If one asks a few common soldiers. ring up they v il 1 answer random, what are chosen at fighting for. the majority that they are fighting to gain access to the land. "Mexico is a country of great land holders, with the dispossessed com mon people until lately tied to the land form of serfdom. In the old days in a the land was held in the community method of ownership, worked in cotn with common participation in the benefits. A long chapter of Mexi economic history is needed to des mon. can cribe the process by which the Indians dispossessed. It began in col were onial days, but developed into a pro fusion of corrupt and unjust practices under the Diaz dictatorship. Every' rural Mexican carries a rankling sense of injustice. "The program of Mr. Carranza con tains agrarian reform as one of its BOISE TRADES MEET IN NEW HALL The Boise Trades and Labor Coun cil held their regular meeting in their with a i new quarters last evening large and enthusiastic attendance. Under the regular order of busi the Labor Day committee made j ness, its report and after a general discus sion it was decided to hold the cele bration this year at Pierce Park where vill be the order of the a big picnic day. There will be public speaking by orators to be selected and the amusements will include dancing and boating and the usual outdoor sports Arrangements have been made with the street railway company whereby the fare on that day will be reduced to one and one-third for the round trip. President Caton of the State Fed eration of Labor reported the Feder ation was in a healthy condition and a good sum of money was on hand for cardinal elements. The situation ia in a measure simplified by the volun tary exile of the more reactionary haciendados. Their peons quietly on the land, and have received the benefits of their labor for the first time in their generation. Mr. Car ranza has already promulgated a de cree by which there is to be a testing of the great land owners' titles, and, if there is evidence of injustice in the acquisition of lands, the ownership of these lands is to be vested again in the communities that originally owned them. Certain great estates will prob ably be confisticated and divided, but Mr. Carranza has no great sympathy with confiscation as a policy. "In addition, a land tax is proposed which would be graduated so as to bear lightly on the small holder, but make ownership of great estates an impossibility. The leaders of the Rev olution have not yet seen the great desirability of a uniform rate which will collect from the land-holders ac cording tothe value of the land. "The final group of reforms, which remain to be carried out and through settled which Mexico will encounter her most serious difficulties, express the very essence of the revolutionary move ment. They represent the intention to secure the economic independence of the country. The whole civil strug gle lias been a war upon the conces vith its political, econo sion system mic and social ramifications. "I was given copies of the contracts by which Lord Cowdray's company obtained their oil rights. Their pro visions were of such a character that a little while before the beginning of the European war, Lord Charles Beres ford, a representative of extreme con servatism, declared in the House ot Commons that it was a disgrace for the citizens of any cizilized country to be party to that contract. In ad dition to almost unrestricted rights of exploitation of oil. the Cowdray in terests hold two and a half million liectars of land, port works, the Te huantepec Railway, and most of th'e electric lighting and tramway sys teins of the republic. "American interests, all more or less privileged, aggregate, it is said a bil lion dollars. "The whole intent of the Revolu tion is to end a system by which the natural resources of the country are drained by foreign capitalists grown accustomed to expect extravagant re turns." Dr. Slaughter said in his Philadel phia City Club speech that President Wilson's Mobile Speech in which he announced "that his policy with ref erence to the Latin-American states would be to aid them in freeing them selves from foreign concessions" was "the first unequivocal declaration that the natural resources and populations of weaker nations are to be removed from the category of capitalistic ex ploitation." In his open letter to the President Doctor Slaughter urges the, President not to permit any "clamor of commercial agents and franchise holders" to turn him to "a policy of imperialistic aggression." legislative work this winter. A com mittec is busy preparing legislative measures for the benefit of the la boring people, which will be present led to the legislature for action. All successful legislative candidates will be interviewed as to their position on this proposed legislation. Several of the churches of the city will give Labor Day services on the Sunday preceding Labor Day and have invited all union workers to at tend. Communications were received from all the members of the Idaho Con gressional delegation—Senators Bor ah and Brady and Representatives Smith and McCracken—pledging thdir support to pending labor measures. After an informal talk on the La bor Press it was decided that all union members should give their sup port to The Gem Worker, Idaho's only labor paper.