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This Paper is the Official Organ of the Idaho State Federation of Labor and Boise Trades
:&$ and Labor Council The Gem Worker is one of the ■olid and substantial publications of Idaho, and has a standing in the newspaper field never before achieved by a labor paper in this State. With the splendid news service of the Federation's Wash ington bureau and with an ex change list of the leading papers of the Nation. The Gem Worker is enabled to bring all the news of the world of labor to your door. Every union member in the State of Idaho should be a subscriber. To the extent that the loborers support a labor paper by their sub scriptions is it a valuable medium for advertisers. The Gem Work er is most loyally supported by the organized labor of Idaho and of Boise in particular. To this fact is due the splendid advertising pat ronage which the paper receives, as the business men feel that they are given through its columns a special and individual invitation to every wage earner in the city and state. À BOISE, IDAHO, THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 7,1916 Vol. 4. No. 15.) ($1.00 Per Year. 5c a Copy Labor Record of Presidential Candidates National Officials of The American Federation of Labor Present Parallel of the Acts of Wilson and Hughes I In reply to a letter from a Labor organization of Alabama, the Amer ican Federation of Labor through its officers, Samuel Gotnpcrs, President; Janies O'Connell, Vice-President; Frank Morrison, Secretary, gives the following records of the Presidential candidates ni reference to labor mat i The legislative record of the Hon- [ orable Woodrow Wilson, Democratic nominee for President in' regard to labor measures that have come he fore him for action during his incum bency in the office of President, since March 4, 1913, is as follows: President Wilson's Record One of the first acts of the Presi ters: I j dent—on March 4, 1913—was to ap point a member in good standing of the trade union movement, Honorable j Workers of America, Secretary of the Department of Labor, thereby making him a member of the Presi- J dent s Cabinet. This is the first in stance in the history of the United j William B. Wilson, a member and , former Secretary of the United Mine States where the President of the i United States selected a bona fide ! good standing member of the organ-[fice ized labor movement to become ai - At the request of the Executive Council of the American Federation i of Labor President Wilson appoint ed, on September 10, 1913, represen-| tatives of the American Federation [ of Labor and the Railroad Brother-j hoods as members of the Industrial j Relations Commission, O'Connell. Vice-President of member of his Cabinet. Janies j the ! Mr. American Federation of Labor; Mr. John B. Lennon, Treasurer of the American Federation of Labor and j Mr. Austin B .Garretson, Grand Chief Conductor of the Order of Railroad j I 1914—President Wilson approved the law which takes the organizations of Labor and the Farmers' organizations from the pur view of the Antitrust Act, limits the Conductors. On October 15, use and prevents the abuse of the., writ of injunction in labor disputes; j defines and restricts punishment for ^ alleged contempts of injunction writs I and provides jury trial in contempt [ \ cases. On June 23, 1913—The law prohib- | hing the Department of Justice from antitrust appropriation funds using to prosecute Labor and Farmers' Or ganizations under the Antitrust Act, was approved. On August 1, 1914—the same was again approved. On March 3, 1915—the same vas approved. On March 4, 1915—The President approved the Seamen's law, which abolishes involuntary servitude, pro vides better treatement of seamen and improves the life-saving provis vessels at sea. On July 15, 1913—The old concil iation, mediation and arbitration act repealed, and the new law en acted wfith iperinanent officials ap pointed to administer it in behalf of yailroad employes engaged in oper î ions on was ating service. On February 24, 1914—The Fight hour law was enacted for women and child workers of the District of Co Constitutional ( Decided lumbia. March 13, 1915 by the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia.) On October 20, 1914—The Eight hour provision was approved for em ployes under the Alaska Coal Land Act. On March 12, 1914—The law pro viding for public construction of the Alaska railroad. On May 8, 1914—Industrial Educa tion provided with appropriations for farmers and rural residents under the Agricultural Extension Act. On March 4, 1915—The Taylor System, stop-watch and speeding-up methods in the United States arse nais prohibited. On March 3, 1915—Taylor System, atch and speeding-up methods stop in the United States Navy Yards, gun factories and torpedo stations pro hibited. -~ On March 9, 1914—Piecework was prohibited in the Post Office Depart [ion ment, Washington, D. C. On March 3, 1915—Public construc tion of battleships, transports and other vessels in U. S. Navy Yards extended. Repairs to vessels of the Navy to be made in governmental in stead of private yards. Steadier work assured to employes of government naty yards. On March 3, 1915—Licensed offi cers, such as masters, mates and pi lots, guaranteed right to quit, and protected when reporting defects of their vessels to government inspèc tors. to On March 3, 1915—Bureau of Mines Act extended and strengthened. Ten new experiment stations and seven new safety/ stations provided. On May 28. 191.1—Senatorial hives tigation of industrial dispute in th^ hereby peace was restored; the eight-hour |day secured: check weighmen provid- j c d, and 10 per cent increase in gained—right of organization guar- j of lanteed and other improved working ! conditions in eluded. hi coal fields of West Virginia, ages ! On March 9. 1914—Compensation [soil for injuries Act extended to Post Of- 1 employes. On March 4, 1915—Post Office Em- Î [ployes—annual promotion maintaian-[ j n ed, notwithstanding the Postmaster i jea General's efforts to substitute bien niai for annual promotions. j On March 4, 1915—Eight-hour law I for Post Office clerks and carriers retained, notwithstanding the effort of the Postmaster General to change radically, On March 4. 1915—Letter Carriers' [salaries restored, notwithstanding the it [effort of the Postmaster General to reduce the pay of letter carriers, [ his known as collectors, from $1,200 to $1,000 per year. On [had March 4, 191a—Locomotive [boiler inspection act extended to cov-|the cr locomotive engines and tenders. On March 4, 1915—Leave of ah-(have settee with pay to employes of Gov-I eminent Printing office extended j I from 26 to 30 days per year. On January 28, 1914—Special Con gresfcioual investigation of industrial [ in disputes in the Colorado coal fields j and the Michigan wherein all of the copper, region, complaints and by charges made by the men of Labor against the mining companies and the alliance of these companies with the political and military powers of the states were officially verified and sub stantiated. to [as } the payroll of the metal trades me- | elianics employed at the Washington, ] f D. C. Navy Yards. On March 3, 1915—An additional annual appropriation of $240,000 for the years 1914-15 was provided for This was equiva- | lent to a 7.81 per cent increase in of wages. On December 17, 191 tory enactment of an income tax in conformity with the recent United States constitutional amendment. ■An additional appropriation of $139.01X1 for the work of the Children's Bureau. On July 16, 1914—More adequate appropriations for the Department of Labor to carry on its work. On June 15, 1914—Prevented a re duction in wages and installation and collection of rents for employes on the Panama Canal Zone. 64th Congress On May 4, 1916» —The President ap proved the amendment to the Hours î of Service Act (the sixteen-hour law for railroad men), containing a min imum and maximum penalty for vio lation of same by railroad companies. On May 10. 1916—The President approved the Legislative Appropria tions Bill after the objectionable Bor land Amendment, which was for the purpose of lengthening the workday of Government employees without extra compensation and without ar ranging for overtime rates, had been stricken from the bill. On July 1. 1916—The President ap proved the Sundry Civil Appropria tion Bill which carries with it the -The statu On July 16, 19»! Anti-Taylor System provisio. ' On July 6, 1916—President Wilson approved the Fortifications' bill which j carries with it the important provis [ion which prohibits the use of the j inhuman Taylor System in govern- , j ment workshops. On July 17, 1916—An act to provide capital for agricultural development, to create standard forms dt invest ment based upon farm mortgage, to equalize rates of interest upon farm loans, to furnish a market for United States bonds, to create Government depositaries and financial agents for the United States, and for other pur poses. j Oil July 28. 1916—The Post Office Appropriation This bilj contains provisions improv- , ing. the conditions of letter carriers, clerks There are several other important [labor measures upon the calendars of [both Houses, which, if passed, it is confidently expected he will also ap of the dedication of the Federation of Labor office building hi Washington, D. C, President Wii hill approved. was other Post Office em and /loy.s. prove. On July 4, 1916. on the occasion American [soil delivered an inspiring address from which I quote in part, as fol [lows: "No man ought to suffer injustice j n America. jea to fail to see the deep dictates of humanity, "Mr. now to the sixth section of the Clay (on Antitrust law, the section in No man ought in Amer Gompers was referring just which the obvious is stated, namely, that a man's labor is not a commod ity, hut a part of his life, and that, therefore, the courts must not treat as if it were a commodity, hut must treat it as if it were a part of it his life. I am sorry that there were any judges in the United States vho [had to he told that. It is so obvious [that it seems to me that section of Clayton Act were a return to the jprimer of human liberty; hut if judges ah-(have to have the primer opened be fore them, 1 am willing to open it." Students of history may search I wide and deep, they may spend many research and nowhere [years of keen [ in the pages of American history will they find a clearer and more definite pronouncement in behalf of real, lm man liberty than the above expression by President Woodrow Wilson on July 4. 1916. It / Justice Hughes' Record You also ask for the record of the Honorable Charles Evans Hughes Republican nominee for President, as to labor measures, and particularly [as to the Danbury Hatters' Case. } The Danbury Hatters' Case has an | historical place in Labor's struggle ] f or freedom. It was in the course of | the trial of this case that the workers of our country finally succeeded in securing a declaration from the high est court of the land as to the ap plication of antitrust legislation to associations of wage-earners. The decision of the court in this case involved a principle of funda mental importance to workers, was the same principle involved in the abuse of the writ of injunction which, under the perversion by judges who had no understanding of indus trial conditions and the labor of hu man heiug^ had been transformed in to an agency at the service of em ployers who wished to restrict the industrial freedom of their employes and to prevent their using legitimate methods of securing their demands and promoting their welfare. The theory upon which courts have held that Anti-trust legislation ap plied to associations of wage-earners and that injunctions could be used to regulate industrial relations, which are personal relations, was the as sumption that the labor of a human being was an article or a commodity and, therefore, property, sumption recognizes between the creative labor power of a human being which is inseparable from his living body and the articles which lie produces. Tn 1908 the Supreme Court of the United States rendered a decision in This as no distinction the Hatters' Case when the initial ap j p eal was made, In 1914 the United States Supreme j Court delivered their final decision , in the case and sustained the con j tentions of the lawyers of the Anti Boycott Association which instigat ed stfit against the Hatters in the name of the D. E. Loevve Company, hat manufacturers of Danbury, Con necticut. The court sustained the position that the Sherman Antitrust law ap plied to the personal attributes and normal activities of human 'beings. They held to the theory that there was no distinction between the labor power of human beings on the one i hand and articles or commodities on j the other—articles or commodities wliich men sought to control and . manipulate through trusts. This de- j cision threatened the very existence of voluntary associated effort—the effort of the organized workers to j carry out the normal purposes for which they were organized; that is, to improve standards of life and work wages, hours and conditions of em ployment. Such activities of the workers were, by the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, regarded as liable to all the civil and criminal penalties under the Antitrust laws of the United States. In other words, the Sherman Antitrust law, enacted to curb the stupidity and ma chinations of the combinations of wealthy owners, was to be applied to the voluntarly organization of the workers instituted for bénéficient pur poses and the welfare of human be , r . . o mgs. The decision in this case, which is known as Locwe vs. Lawlor, declared that the damages in the ease were $80.000 which, under the provisions of the Sherman Antitrust Act were tripled, and together with the costs of the case and the interest, made a total sum of over $300,000, which the D. E. Danbury Hatters must Loewe and Company. Mr. Charles Evans Hughes was a Justice of the United States Supreme Court at the time this decision was rendered, and lie concurred ill the de pay cision. The last decision in this case, al though it is brief, reaffirms all that the Court declared in their 1908 opin ion. There is another opinion of the United States Supreme Court written by Justice Hughes, which throws light upon his attitude upon this principle, which is of fundamental importance to the workers of the country. It is his opinion in the case of Tritax vs. Raich, a case which involved the con stitutionality of the Arizona anti alien law. Under that law all em ployers of Arizona more than five workers den to employ less than 80 per cent who were qualified electors or native horn citizens of the United States. In that decision Justice Hughes took the position that the injunctive pro applied to personal relations. Justice Hughes on that and in that decision made more defi nite his endorsement of the theory that injunctions apply to personal re vho employed verc forbid cess occasion lations. Mr. Hughes has taken an unequiv ocal position. He endorses the abuse of the writ of injunction against which wage-earners have vigorously protested, and which they have tried to correct by remedial legislation in order that they might enjoy the rights and opportunities of free citi zens. The above is accurately the infor mation for which you asked and we take it that it will be of importance to you, as well as to the working people and liberty-loving citizens all the country, in enabling them to over understand the mental attitude ami the action of both President Wilson Evans Charles Honorable and Hughes who are now candidates for the Presidency of the United States. Fraternally yours, SAMUEL GOMPERS, President. JAS. O'CONNELL, Vice-President. FRANK MORRISON, Secretary. Labor Representation Committee American Federation of Labor. % STRIKE IS SETTLED San Francisco.' The strike of rig gers and Stevedores' union, affiliated to the International Longshoremen's union, has been settled. union overtinie. For coastwise shipping, 55 cents an hour and 82J4 cents an hour These rates will date ! com The new I agreement provides for the shop and an increase of 10 per cent over the wages in effect prior to the strike of June 1. •els the rates will be 55 cents an hour or straight time and $1 an hour for For deep water ves tor overtime, hack to August 1. by the Waterfront Employers' union i i which has conducted negotiations | j with the organized longshoremen. The strike was part of a joint move- j . ment that extended up and down the j j Pacific coast, and includes Tacoma, j [Portland, Seattle, San Pedro and San | Diego. These strikes are still on. , The strike resulted in the present agitation by the chamber of nierce, which has declared for the non-union shop. This was repudiated ! I ; ç ,, —, . . hpring,field, 111.'—This city is the , ... . -, ; home of United States Senator Slier , c f, , , , ; man, and Lditor Woodmansee of the Illinois Tradesman, official paper of| the Springfield Federation of Labor, c c cm . has this to say of Senator Shermans „ m - , „ attack on President Gompers: r u C . Cl . , r Senator Sherman has been pro .... , , , I claimed here in his home town as the r , ... . , . favorite son of Illinois, but his at- , . . . tack on President Gompers, which in . , , . realty means an attack on the union ! labor movement, has only served to . - , . . , , • , , bring him down upon a level with the | common everyday politician. . . , . , i he labor movement has known • o . „ Samuel Gompers too long to allow ; C1 . . . Sherman or any other politician to , .. . . , . change their minds or in any away . . .., interfere with their admiration for the I Sherman's Home Town movement, great head of the American labor ■'If Samuel Gompers is 'a public nuisance,' let us have more 'public nuisances' and the world will be bet .er for it. t Intervention Is Opposed [ Sail Francisco—The Mexican Prop erty owners' Non-Intervention league has been formed in this city by Ameri cans who have large property inter "We favor," says the declaration of principles, ''action by the United States that will tend towards the re habilitation of Mexico on lines that shall be mutually agreed upon, and tliat every effort shall be taken for complete co-operation in assisting in [ this rehabilitation. "It shall also be the object of this organization to give publicity to the j actual facts as to the conditions as they exist in Mexico, in order that the American public may be convinced that intervention by force would be no less than a crime, and that such [ intervention has not heretofore been [ necessary or required, and certainly is not necessary at the present time." ests in the southern republic. ; Figures on Immigration [967 immigrants were admitted during the corresponding month of 1915 .and j 72,015 during July, 1914. In the latter ■ period. Rottmania furnished 246 lm The bureau of immigration, federal department of labor, reports that 30, migrants, and in July, 1916, this num her dropped to 10. Immigrants from Italy during July, 1914, totaled 7,503, j and in July, 1916, 2,948. During the i 1914 period 325 came from Bulgaria, ! ^Huring July, 1916. Of the total number admitted dur ing July, 1916, 3,633 were classified as laborers and 1, 609 as farm labor Scrvia and Montenegro, but war con-| ditions reduced this number to 53 . - New York received 7,826 of these immigrants. Michigan came next with 2,464. followed by Massachusetts, 2, 460; Pennsylvania, 1,230 and Cal.for nia, l,f®9. Of the southern states, Kentucky received 1; Mississippi, 4: Georgia, 6; Arkansas. 7; South Carolina, 8 and Tennessee, 11. • î •. MEETING OF THE TRADES COUNCIL After reading the minutes of the previous meeting, the Boise Trades & Labor Council in regular session last evening accepted the credentials of Ed Price and A. C. Boot, delegates from the local Typographical Mr. Boot being present was obligated. A communication from the Colo rado State Federation of Labor noti ^ e< ' the council that the Merchants fiiscu,t Co., were unfair and requested ! , that b< ! *° verned according ly. 1 he Central Labor Union of Lancaster, Pennsylvania also stated that cigars made by Otto Eisenlohr & Bros., were unfair and that their popular brand is the "Cinco." They also asked the council for financial aid which was given. The union. i | [were teceived oy Secretarly R. C. j Hadley, of the Trades Council, dur j ing the crisis of the Tarinmens' con j troversy are self explanatory: | Washington, D. C. Aug. 30, 1916. , R- C. Badley: following telegrams which ! The situation regarding efforts of I railroad men to enforce eight hour ; workday is being placed in critical position by Labor's powerful oppo nents. Won't you telegraph imrne , , . ,, -, „ diately to both your United States c , . _ ; Senators and to your Congressmen , , . _ _ . . . n ° W a '. Washington D. C. insisting l" P ° n ^ hour ™ rkd *y at P resent compensation and in your telegram , . n . * emphatically protest against enact r f . . . r ment ot any law imposing upon A . , . . . . I Americas workers involuntary servi . , c . . , . tude even for a day. please have la , . f . , . bor and other friends in your com . . . .. . munity send similar telegrams, ! SAM UH I GOMPERS n * \ " ,V ! . ' e President American Federation of | j a ^ or A . n • . ^ Acting upon President Gompers • . „ „ request Secretary Badley sent tele ; . T1 . . grams to the Idaho Congressional . , .. . . . . f „ delegation and received the following replies: . , . . ^ o . . rtl , Waishington. D. C., Sept. 1, 1916. MR. R. C. BADLEY: Secretary Boise Trades and Labor Council Boise, Idaho. By a large majority we passed the eight hour bill in the house today no attempt will he made by this con gress to compel involuntary service. I ROBERT M. McCRACKEN. [ Washington, D. C., Sept. 1, 1916. [R. C. BADLEY: Secretary Boise Trades Union, Boise. Idaho. I am unalterably opposed to a law providing for compulsory arbitration, I am in favor of an eight hour day hut the bill as presented does not provide for an eight hour day but for a le» 1 l 10111 " 'lays I»ay for eight hours work, 1 cannot vote for it in that form, I could not look my constitu dits in the face if I should do so [ cowardly and dishonorable an act, you must hear in mind that I represent all [the people of my state and this added j expense will he put upon the people generally in the way of rates and thereby add to the cost of living I cannot vote to put it on them with out any evidence or facts furnished as [ to its justice and without those who [ must ultimately pay it having an op portunity to be heard; there are in dttstries in our state crippled and lan guishing because freight rates are al ; ready so high farmers, fruit growers, stockmen and buisness men generally have a right to he represented. and heard before a still greater burden is put upon them, the hill provides only for a part of the men employed in railway service. I am noit willing to j di8CriminatCi i am anxious to serve ■ tho#e who , ahor hut T wimt to do it in a fair and honorable fashion and wJth doe consi(Ieratioil for the ri ghts of a] , concerned . j i ! WM. E. BORAH. Tlicre was practically the same ex change of telegrams between Secre tary s , )anKenherK . of thc State Fed . eration of Labor and the State dele gation. \ A partial report of the Labor Day committee was read and approved, which proved the celebration had been a financial success. Further time was grantet f the committee to make a complete report. E p Cato| , p re , 5dcnt of , 1le State Federation of Labor, reported on his tr ; [( j,, i^oeatello, where he was the chief speak , r on Labor Day. He stated thc celebration was a great [ succeM and that dty i# boomin „ ri ght ialong.