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Laws That Are Violated.
It cannot be said that Police Judge Pefley, of Boise, was over-lenient when he imposed a fine of $200 upon a saloon keeper in punishment for the Sunday sale of intoxicants over the bar of his establishment. He manifested high respect for the law it is his duty to enforce and applied it with severity, perhaps, un der the theory that a few instances of heroic treat ment will more quickly eradicate disease than a mul titude of weak efforts. The community had not been accustomed to any thing more than perfunctory observance of Sunday regulations and looked for the imposition of a merely nominal fine by the police magistrate. Such has been the fashion from the beginning of municipal time and the $200 tax was an innovation so startling that the court will not soon have another opportunity to place its homage at the feet of the blind goddess. That the judge did the right thing will be the conclusion of history, which is more impartial than the preju diced present. Now that municipal reform is well under way, it might be well for the authorities to give active atten tion to the violation of other wholesome laws that have long been honored in the breach. One of them refers to the pool-room and billiard-room business. The law very properly prohibits the presence of minors in such establishments and their participation in the games there played. Yet is a matter of common knowledge that the boys of Boise are permitted to play whenever they are able to pay for the indulgence and that there is no pretense of compliance with the provisions of the prohibitory ordinance. These establishments are an open temptation to boys and are often a stepping-stone to something The associations and the privileges are un worse. safe and habits are formed under them that lead immature youth away from home influences and the ambitions that should be the guide of every pure minded bo}'. For these reasons the public statutes have recog nized an unwholesome influence in the surroundings of the pool-room and the billiard-room and have declared that no young man shall be exposed to that influence before he becomes the master of his own future and personally responsible for his conduct. That the laws thus made for the safe-guarding of the young are not enforced is the cause of these remarks. The Capital City should be made an ex ample of civic cleanliness, that it may show appre ciation of the favors bestowed upon it by nature and by well-ordered society. The boys of today are the men of tomorrow. If they are started aright they will carry on the scheme of citizenship launched un der the auspices of wholesome regulation. If they are permitted to go the other way, the future will inherit the penalty. They are amply protected in theory. In practice they are not protected. Kentucky Night Riders. The "night riders" of Kentucky, of whom much has recently been printed in the newspapers, are not men without a grievance, though lawless in their methods, even going so far as to destroy human life. They are the product of the tobacco trust. They represent something of the medevial spirit, which exacted reprisal for injuries, atonement for losses when there was no law to punish. Law there now is, but it does not compel trusts to disgorge, to restore the economic law of trade. It despoils the producer in an ever increasing ratio and the tobacco growers of Kentucky, with the crude sense of justice that is their inheritance, have taken punishment into their own hands, assuming the func tions of judge, jury and executioner. They ride by night in bands of hundreds. They assail the tobacco centers. They burn warehouses and contents and are not careful to protect other property. They even loot the communities they at tack and do not hesitate to kill if interfered with. Yet is said of them by a magazine writer who has been in their midst and studied the conditions, that they "are peaceful farmers, goaded by extortion and fraud, against which they had no protection, to avenge themselves in the qnly way in their power upon the men who oppressed them." In their later operations they are assailing inde pendent tobacco buyers and destroying their prop erty and are visiting corporal punishment on to bacco growers who sell to independent buyers. A few years ago the tobacco planters of Ken tucky found that their tobacco was selling for less than it cost to produce it and they formed the Planters' Protective Association, pooled their crops and undertook to hold them until prices should rise. There are 27,000 members in their association and they are applying the law of force to those who re fuse to come into the compact. Hence their war upon the trust, the independent buyers and the inde pendent sellers. They are exercising the principle of the trust, but in so crude a way that, while the trust is composed of gentlemen, their organization is com posed of outlaws. The purpose of both is the same. Each is after the mighty dollar and while society tolerates and encourages the trust robber, it ought not to frown too severely on the night-prowling avengers from the plantations. Says a writer in the New York Independent: Night-riding is wholly, utterly, entirely indefensible —those who do it are enemies of the common weal— yet it is born of a deep, dumb conviction that, since the trust either owns the law or is beyond its reach, the only recourse of the plain people is to be thus a law unto themselves. The organization of night-riders is increasing and its raids are becoming more numerous. Should all the sufferers from the operations of trusts take to the road, anarchy would speedily occupy the place of government. Tuberculosis In Cattle. Congress is to be asked by the Department of Agriculture to provide for a system of interstate inspection, to be undertaken by the Bureau of Ani mal Industry. This step is to be taken, if authorized, to check the spread of tuberculosis, which is trans mitted from cattle to human beings, from cattle to swine and from swine to human beings. A bulletin issued by the Bureau of Animal Industry states that forty per cent of the cattle afflicted with tuberculosis manifest no external symptom of disease. Its presence can be detected only by experts. The department therefore suggests that inspection be made by experts, having become fully convinced that tainted milk and meat are largely responsible for the increased number of victims of the white plague. In the cattle States of the Missouri Valley, States that were formerly places of resort for consumptive patients, the statistics show a steady increase in the number of original cases of tuberculosis and the death rate from that cause is growing right along. It has been definitely decided that the disease is transmitted from cattle and the situation is serious enough to alarm the guardians of the public health. As far as it is possible, the States of the far West ought to be rigorously protected against the intro duction of tuberculosis cattle, protection being au thorized through legislation. The Department of Agriculture is on the right track in its efforts to combat already established epidemic. But in the uncontaminated regions, prevention is possible, and that is a vulnerable point of attack. Through the investigations of Government seien* tists, it has been ascertained with a tolerable degree of accuracy that this old earth of ours was once in collision with some other solid body that was journeying through space. A depression in a desert near Canyon Diablo, Arizona, three-quarters of a mile in diameter and 600 feet deep, has been inves tigated by a professor of the National Museum. It is his opinion that the depression was cdused by contact between the earth and an enormous meteoric body, which may have glanced off and continued on its way, as it is nowhere to be found. Curious Facts. Mile. Lena Cavalieri, the grand opera singer, has recently insured her larynx for £10,000. If, by any mischance, the prima donna is deprived of her voice for any period she will recompensed by the insur ance company who issued the policy. + An English contracting firm engaged upon the construction of harbor work in Rotterdam, Holland, says The Railway and Engineering Review (Chi cago), has built, for the purpose of sharpening the driving ends of piles, a machine which resembles a gigantic pencil sharpener. Piles of up to twenty eight inches in diameter are sharpened to a five-inch point in fifteen minutes. * Simon Guggenheim, of Colorado, is the richest man in the United States Senate. Some of the here tofore far-famed millionaires look like poor men beside this mining and smelter king, whose personal fortune is estimated at $100,000,000, and who has many other millions of interests in the Congo, South America, Alaska and other parts of the world. * The number of wholesale establishments engaged in slaughtering and meat packing in the United States during the calendar year 1904 was 929, and their combined capital was $237,714,090. They fur nished employment to 74,145 wage earners, paid $40, 326,972 in wages, consumed materials costing $805, 856,969, and manufactured products to the value of $913,614,624. Many old houses in Holland have a special door which is never opened save on special occasions— when there is a marriage or death in the family. The bride and bridegroom enter by this door, and it is then nailed or barred up until a death occurs, when it is opened and the body is removed by this exit. * In a collection of Egyptian papyri Professor Jules Nicole is reported to have found among some Greek texts an ancient Latin guide through Rome. As it contains an inventory of sculpture and indicates the locality where each piece was located, as well as describes each, it may prove of importance in sup plying us with data for the attribution of as yet nameless statues. * Mrs. Russell Sage has given $25,000 to the city of New York to restore the Governor's room in the City Hall to its original condition, as shown by plans in the possession of the historical society. The offer has been accepted with the approval of Mayor Mc Clellan. It is understood that the restoration will be restricted to the ceilings and walls, as most of the historic furniture, including Washington's desk, is still in the room and in good condition. t Mexico ranks probably first in the capitals of the world in the general lighting of its streets. There are many cities where the lighting of the boulevards and avenues is more handsomely and lavishly done, but there is no other city anywhere, where, through out its full length, there is light on every street cor ner, with the chief streets correspondingly lighted with too or three arc lamps to a block. There are 1,744 arc lights and 764 incandescent lights used in the public illumination of the city and the suburbs in the federal district. Of this number 1,336 arc lights and 259 incandescent lamps are used in the city proper. + Glass or "paste," as it is called, is made which can not when new be distinguished from diamonds by any one but an expert, armed with the necessary tests. And the same is true as to paste imitations of all precious stones excepting the emerald (whose beauti ful green cannot be exactly obtained), the cat's-eye, which has a peculiar fibrous structure, and the opal, The real value and quality of precious stones, as com pared with glass, depends on their durability, their hardness, their resistance to scratching, and "dulling" of face and edge.