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Photography In Colors.
The Century: Color photography proves incon testably the general truth of Monet's observation that, in shadows, colors continue their vibrations, weakened but still existent, in contradistinction to the practice of the academic painters in making burnt umber and lamp black serve as shadows in their paintings. It also proves that the color of flesh is not always rose color, the color of foliage not always green, or the color of a tablecloth not always white, and that color may be brilliant—indeed, sparklingly vivid—without being a patriotic demonstration in red, white and blue, and that what has long been accepted as "tone" in painting, that much coveted and widely exploited golden amber glow, does not exist in nature, which is wholly innocent of such petty subterfuges with which to harmonize its dis cordant elements, being frankly and blatantly crude when it is not exquisitely harmonious, as in the case of the butterfly's wing. The artist is the divine angler who fishes out these harmonies, revealing somewhat of the wondrous beauty and mystery of It demonstrates for the first time scientifi nature. callÿ that there is no fixed color whatever, that ob jects have no color of their own, but solely that which is imparted to them by the reflection of the sky and the enveloping atmosphere. Color photography also shows that the line, as drawing defines it, is an error, an artificial means of determining forms ; that everything in nature is a succession of perspective planes and surfaces which join on to one another; that nothing is abruptly terminated by a contour; and that the vibrations of the atmosphere envelop everything and obliterate the contours which the weakness of our mind is con strained to create. In a word, color photography ushers in a new era in the study of color that prom to revolutionize color printing, and that will surely exert a most important influence on the art of painting, establishing as it does the soundness of the much abused theories of the impressionists. Moreover, it will prove ah invaluable aid to the ac curate study of disease, notably skin diseases; it will make possible art lectures illustrated with abso lute fascimiles of the paintings discussed by means of lantern slides; and for the first time indisputably authentic family portraits can be produced of a beauty and veracity far surpassing the most delicate and masterly miniature, and this in the short space of half an hour, avoiding the tedium of repeated sittings. While color photography will undoubtedly reveal the fallacies and empty pretensions of poor painting, rendering it more inutile and ridiculous than ever, it will also open the eyes of all intelli gent and unprejudiced students of contemporary art to the beauty and truth of the work done by certain modern painters, confining in no uncertain terms what is best and most expressive in the art of today. ises Uses of Timber. Figures based upon statistics of forest products in 1906, compiled by the Census Bureau and the Forest Service show that three times as much timber is used for lumber as for all the other items combined. Next to lumber come shingles, requiring 6.3 per cent as much timber as is used for lumber ; hewn cross ties require approximately the same amount, mestic pulp wood takes 4.3 per cent as much timber as is used for lumber, and in addition large quanti ties of pulp wood are imported. Cooperage stock and round mine timbers require approximately equal quantities of timber ; laths take 2 per cent, wood used for distillation 1.7 per cent, veneer 0.9 per cent, and poles 0.6 per cent of the quantity used for lumber. The total quantity of timber used annually for lumber and the other products mentioned above is equivalent to approximately 50 , 000 , 000,000 board feet. Do In the cut of lumber by. species in 1906 yellow pine is far in the lead, furnishing 31.1 per cent of the total amount. Douglas fir comes second, with 13.2 per cent; white pine third, with 12.2 per cent; hem lock fourth, with 9.4 per cent, and oak fifth, with 7.5 per cent. Spruce and Western pine furnish 4.4 per cent and 3.7 per cent respectively. These seven kinds of timber furnish over four-fifth of the total, and no other kind reaches 1 , 000 , 000,000 feet of lum ber annually. Under lumber is included sawed rai road cross ties. . , , The three kinds of lumber which are most largely exported are yellow pine, redwood and Douglas fir, the first going principally to Europe and the others most largely to Australia, the Orient and South America. In 1906 the exportations of yellow pine amounted to about 8 per cent of the total cut of yellow pine lumber, that of redwood to over 6 per per cent and that of Douglas fir to nearly 8 per cent of the cut. Considering all kinds, the exports of hewn and sawed timber and lumber amounted to about 5 per cent of the total lumber production in 1906. The lumber cut by States in 1906 was : Washing ton 11.5 per cent, Louisiana 7.4 per cent, Wiscon sin 6.2 per cent, Michigan 5.6 *'er cent. Eleven other States cut over one billion feet each. The fifteen States which cut over on billion feet each in 1906 supplied nearly three-fourths of the total pro duction. In 1880 nine States—Michigan, Pennsylvania, Wis consin, New York, Texas, Arkansas, Washington, Mississippi, Louisiana—produced 52.8 per cent of the total amount, and in 1906 51.5 per cent, practically equal proportions, but the changes which have taken place in the output of individual States are very striking. Michigan, for instance, cut 23 per cent of the total in 1880 and but 5.6 per cent in 1906; Louis iana cut 0.7 per cent of the total in 1880 and 7.4 per cent in 1906 ; Washington furnished but 0.9 per cent of the lumber production of 1880 and 11.5 per cent of that of 1906. The cutting out of the virgin timber in the North and East has been followed by increased drains upon the forest resources of the South and West. In 1906 the soft wood cut was over four times the hard wood cut. There has been a very decided change in the ratio of hard woods to soft woods in recent years. In 1899 the hard woods furnished nearly 25 per cent of the total, against less than 19 5 per cent in 1906. This has been caused by a greatly increased cut of certain soft woods, together with a strong decrease in leading hard woods. In the last seven years yellow pine has increased 20.7 per cent, Western pine 46.9 per cent, cypress 69.3 per cent redwood 83.2 per cent, and Douglas fir 186.2 cent which far more than counterbalances the decrease of 40.8 per cent in white pine. On the other hand, the cut of the two most important hard woods, oak and poplar, has decreased 36.4 per cent and 38.7 per cent, respectively, in the same period. The total lumber production has more than dou bled since 1880, and it is probably safe to say that, could wholly complete statistics be obtained, at least 40,000,000,000 feet would be shown at present. The many substitutes for wood that have been proposed, and to some extent used, have not lessened the de mand for lumber, as is shown by the fact that the per capita consumption was 360 board feet in 1880 and 440 board feet in 1906. However, the rate of increase in lumber production has been very small in recent years, which indicates that the maximum cut for the country as a whole has been nearly if not quite reached. per Liability For Accidents. A decision of great importance and interest to all responsible railway officials was rendered by lusticc Kellogg, of the New York Supreme Court, in di recting the jurv to acquit Mr. Alfred H. Smith, general manager and vice president of the New Yo.k Central Railroad, of the charge of manslaughter in the second degree, says an editorial in a railway Mr. Smith had been indicted in con publication. nection with the Brewster express wreck in Febru last when twenty-four persons were killed and a was derailed ary large number injured. The express at the Woodlawn bridge curve, and it was contended by the State that the vice president of the road had been guilty of criminal negligence in his manage ment of the road in that he did not provide for con ditions which would have made this accident im possible Justice Kellogg in his decision held that there was no proof of personal negligence on Mr. Smith's part; on the contrary the Justice pointed v _ the evidence clearly showed that he had efficiently performed the duties of general manager, and that any responsibility for the accident lay with his sub ordinates. On the ground that Mr. Smith could only be charged criminally with his own personal negli gence, the court, without hearing any evidence from the defense ordered the jury to bring in a verdict out of "not guilty. . . . . „ . The court in its decision gave the following state ment of the responsibility of railway officials: "You must remember that we are dealing here with the general manager of a railroad who had under his control more than 50,000 men, more than 7,000 miles of track and about 1,500 miles of curved tracks. He could not be expected to give his personal and indi vidual attention to every inch of the road, to the action of every man under his care. Some of his powers and responsibilities must be delegated to his subordinates. All he could do was to provide a gen eral scheme for traffic and for the safety of the pas sengers. The defendant is not liable criminally ex cept where his omission to act can be shown to have a direct connection with the disaster. The super intendent of way has testified that the duty of mak ing speed regulations for curves fell upon him, and that he had made no such regulation regarding the Woodlawn curve, as he did not believe any such regulation was necessary. So it seems to me that Mr. Smith could have had nothing to do with this feature of the case, on which the prosecution bases most of its charges against him." to pass through the parish. The people there, fancy Named By Irving. Chicago News : "Gotham" was first applied to the city of Manhattan in a book of humorous sketches called "Salmagundi," written about 1807 by Wash ington Irving in collaboration with his brother Peter and the poet Paulding. It was intended to suggest that the people of New York made undue preten tions to wisdom. Gotham was a parish in Nottinghamshire, Eng land. The old story tells how King John wished ing that the passage of the King over a route made it a public road, decided to prevent the transit by , „„„„ in ^ ' . . When the King and his paity arrived they found every one of the inhabitants employed in some pe culiarly foolish task. Thus, a gioup were joining hands around a thorn bush to keep a cuckoo from getting away, some were trying to drown an eel, others dipping water with a sieve, and so on. When the King saw these performances he swore at the people for being a pack of idiots, and, turning, de parted with all his retinue. The Gothamites were delighted with the success of their scheme for turn ing aside the King, regarding it as superlatively clever. . . 4 . , After this Gotham came to have the reputation of being a sort of headquarters for conceited fools In the time of Henry VIII a book entitled The Merry Tales of the Mad Men of Gotham was published, Among these was the story of the Three W ise Men of Gotham, one of whose exploits was to go to sea in a bowl, a Lost the Bet. John W. Gates, of New York, was riding with friend and fellow plunger the other day in a Pull man car. It was raining, and the rain was coursing down the window panes. Gates watch the droos. Two were trickling down side by side. "Bet you $500," said Gates, "that my drop reaches the bottom of the window before your drop gets there." . , , .. , . . ° ™'er made a final spurt and nestled, a ghstenmg slobule, on the bottom sash. ,111 I »", *"d John W pocketmg the yellow backs, which had been hastily counted out and put up while the drops were dropping. "I'll go you," said the other man. Both watched with eager interest the two drops. First one was ahead then the other. Gates' drop Where to Find Him. Chicago Tribune : next Pres,dent my fnends g'vmg the desk before htm a tremendous thump wtth his fist, "must be a wise, conservât, ve statesman, yet »ot worslupmg the traditions of the past. He must be a man of the people, far-sighted, sagacious, lead j ng them while seeming to follow, ever solicitous for the welfare of his country, with no ambition but f or hi s country's glory; a man, my friends, who can r j se above partisan politics and administer the affairs of this Nation with an eye single to its moral an( j ma terial advancement—a man whom everybody can trust and of whom all his countrymen can be proud! Where shall we find such a statesman?" "You might look for him in the Oklahoma con stitution," suggested a tired man in the audience. 'The man we want for our exclaimed the orator, In the course of a hundred years, unless some force of nature interferes, the world's population will be 1,600,000,000, an increase of nearly a billion people. Think of the value of sage brush land with that many mouths to feed. Now is the time to buy.