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known according to its color by a variety of names.
The red is rubellite, the pale blue of bluish black is indicolite, the Berlin blue is called by jewelers Bra zibian emerald, and so on. "Tourmaline is found in separate crystals in the interstices of hard granitic looking rock. As a con sequence men with no means find it occasionally prof itable when they have leisure to dig down eight or ten feet on the off chance of finding some not very valuable bits," says C. S. George, deputy commis sioner, Ruby Mines District, Burma. "This system is called Käthe talk or Käthe system, after the idea of the original ruby diggings at Käthe. The next method is the ordinary Twinlon method of sinking a vertical shaft about four or five feet square. By custom the owner of the shaft is entitled to extend his workings underground anywhere to a radius of five fathoms from the center of the shaft. "The vein is formed by a vein of white, hard gran ite rock, in the interstices of which the tourmaline is found, at time adhering loosely to the rock, at others lying separate in the loose yellowish earth that is found with the granite. When a vein is once found it is followed up as far as possible, subject to the five fathom limit alluded to above. What, however, makes the mining so exciting and at the same time keeps the industry fluctuating is that the tourmaline crystals are only found intermittently in the vein. "One may get several in the length of one yard, and then they will unaccountably cease. Directly one man strikes a vein yielding crystals every one who can commences digging along the line of the vein, but is all a toss-up as to whether, when the vein is reached, there will be tourmaline therein. Adjoining Twinlons give absolutely different results, and it is calculated that at least two-thirds of the shafts sunk yield nothing at all, while only an occasional one is at all rich.' Of the sixty-two Twinlons at the time of Mr. George's visit only three were yielding, and of these only one had traces of the best quality stone. The veins are fairly deep down, none having ever been reached at a lesser depth than nine fathoms, while an ordinary depth is forty or fiftv cubits ; when the "vein" takes a downward direction it is followed as far as possible, but that is rarely over about sixty cubits, for at that depth the foulness of the air puts the lamps out. "The vein is said rarely, if ever, to show an out crop. •and it is a matter of pure speculation where •to dig," said Mr. George. As the whole place is covered with jungle, prospecting any way would be laborious. There have been three finds, each causing a rush. The first was seven years ago at Hpai Baing (Milaunggon), about a mile to the south of the pres ent place and near where the Chinese had worked formerly. The next was a year or two later at Htaukat, between Milaunggon and Sanka. Then there were three or four lean years, and then, early in 1905, one Konhkan struck a vein, near Sanka village, which has attracted the present growth of population to Maingnin, but, as explained above, though the area within one hundred yards of Konh kan's original shaft is honeycombed with pits, only ' three are yielding, and Konhkan's twin has ceased to yield. All the material dug out from the inside Twinlon is pulled up to the surface in small buckets, all worked by enormously long pivoted bamboos worked with a counter-poise, and the tourmaline is stored out of hand, the granitic fragments being piled in a wall around the mouth of the shaft. Digging For Tourmaline. London Globe: Tourmaline is a beautiful mineral Making Hard Times. Says diaries N. Crewdson, author and philos opher : The Great Power lets the sun shine ; it lets the rain fall ; it sprouts the seed planted in the earth. Man wants to work. A few financiers are now say ing, man must stop work and that the sun must shine and the rains must fall upon many unplowed fields, that when the grain be harvested the people shall have no money for their crops, and that many men who want to work must stop work and that every busi ness man and nearly all bankers themselves must suffer. Many writers wade through interminable pages without making their point so clear. Mr. Crewdson shows that some force has cornered the money and in so doing has stopped all the wheels of industry. The value that is in a product is all labor and when the potentates of a financial system withdraw from labor its compensation, production must cease. It is the power over money that a few men possess that renders the country and the world continuously insecure and though prudence preaches confidence, j t w jji not assert itself when it knows that the sys tern is endlessly gravitating the money of business into the hands of a few manipulators who cut. off the share of labor when there is not enough for both. It was in 1893 that William J. Bryan, then a mem ber of Congress, introduced a bill to secure National bank depositors from loss by providing a fund from which they could be reimbursed in case of bank fail Mr. Bryan has since seen no reason to repent. ure. He still believes in protecting bank depoistors and the public is paying attention to him now. fieri of New England. (Bliss Carman in Collier's Weekly.) It is the mellow season When gold enchantment lies On stream and road and woodland, To gladden soul's surmise. The little old gray homesteads Are quiet as can be, Among their stone-fenced orchards And meadows by the sea. Here lived the men who gave us The purpose that holds fast, The dream that nerves endeavor, The glory that shall last. Here strong as pines in winter And free as ripening corn, Our faith in fair ideals— Our fathers' faith—was born. Here shone through simple living, With pride in word and deed, And consciences of granite, The old New England breed. With souls assayed by hardship, Illumined, self-possessed, Strongly they lived, and left us Their passion for the best. On trails that cut the sunset, Above the last divide, The vision has not vanished, The whisper has not died. From Shasta to Katahdin, Blue Hill to Smoky Ridge, Still stand the just convictions That stood at Concord Bridge. Beneath our gilded revel, Behind our ardent boast, Above our young impatience To value least and most, Sure as the swinging compass To swerve at touch of need, Square to the world's four corners, Abides their fearless creed. Still fired with wonder-working, Intolerant of peers, Impetuous and sanguine After the hundred years, In likeness to our fathers, Beyond the safe-marked scope Of reason and decorum, We jest and dare and hope. Thank we the Blood that bred us, Clear fiber and clean strain— The Truth which straightly sighted Lets no one swerve again. And may almighty Goodness Give us the will to be As sweet as upland pastures And strong as wind at sea. After about a year of service, Commissioner Bal linger, of the general land office, has retired and Fred Dennet, his assistant, takes the chief place. This is so sudden as to cause the guessers to begin guess ing. - QJ_ASSIFIED DEPARTMENT, Classified advertisements for The Idaho Scimitar accepted at the following rates : One week 3 cents per word; one month 8 cents per word; charge 25 words. All advertising matter taken subject to approval. are minimum ASSAYERS. JAMES A. PACK—Assay Office and "Chemical Lab oratory. Prompt attention to samples by mail. 910 Idaho St., Boise, Idaho. ARCHITECTS. PROFITABLE BUILDING—The most stable, in dependent investment is a good building. To build a good building at a fair price, that will rent or sell, is a problem for experts. J. E. TOURTEL LOTTE & CO., Architects, Overland Block, Boise, will guarantee results. ATTORNEYS AT LAW. Chas. Clifton. Herbert A. Alden. ALDEN & CLIFTON, attorneys and counsellors at law. Office, rooms 1. and 2, 823J4 Main St. Mining, water right and corporation law special ties. Collection department. Boise, Idaho. MILTON G. CAGE, Attorney at Law, rooms 414 415 Overland Block, Boise, Idaho. General law practice in all State and U. S. Courts, Land Office and Interior Department. Also handle Land Scrip that will secure title to any vacant public land, un withdrawn and non-mineral, surveyed or unsur veyed, without residence or cultivation. HAWLEY, PUCKETT & HAWLEY (James IL Hawley, Wm. H. Puckett and Jess B. Hawley), attorneys at law. Rooms 5 to 10 Odd Fellows Block, Boise. RICHARDS & HAGA (J. H. Richards, Oliver O. Haga), attorneys and counsellors at law. Practice in all courts, state and Federal, in civil cases. First National Bank Building, Boise, Idaho. BANKS. THIS BANK IS EQUIPPED to transact a general banking business in all its branches and will, therefore, welcome accounts of banks, bankers, firms, corporations and individuals, to whom it assures courteous treatment and every facility con sistent with prudent and conservative banking methods. BOISE CITY NATIONAL BANK, Boise, Idaho. DENTISTS. DR. A. W. CATE, dentist. Rooms 9 and 10 Gem Building. Hours 9 a. m. to 12, and 1:30 to 5 p Ind. phone 482. Boise, Idaho. C. A. SOUTHWELL, D. D. S. Room 313 Overland Building. Office hours 9 to 12; 2 to 5. Bell phone 1382 red. Residence 1319 Warm Springs Ave., Boise Idaho. . m. EYE, EAR, NOSE AND THROAT. DR. ROBERT L. NOURSE. Practice limited to eye, ear, nose and throat. Office hours : 9:30 to 12; 2 to 5. Bell phone 571 red. Overland Block, Boise, Idaho. DR. L. WARDELL-BOECK, eye, ear, nose and throat specialist. Hours : 9-12 a. m. ; 2-5 p. m. Office 315 N. Eighth St., opposite Government Building. Residence 135 Warm Springs Ave. Both phones. Boise, Idaho. IDAHO PROPERTY WANTED. IDAHO PROPERTY wanted in exchange for prop erty in Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa or Missouri. A good proposition for some one moving back. Address W. G., care Scimitar. PATENT ATTORNEY. A. H. BRICKENSTEIN, Patent Attorney, the only registered patent attorney in Idaho. Special at tention given to matters before the Government departments. General Practice. Office 332-333-334 Idaho Trust Bldg., Boise, Idaho.