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Twice-a-week plain dealer. (Cresco, Howard County, Iowa) 1895-1913, December 06, 1895, Image 2

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88059319/1895-12-06/ed-1/seq-2/

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TWICE-A-WEEK
4 r?LAIN DEALER.
i' '-'"FRIDAY, DECEMBER 6, 1805.
'*Vt- W.R.iF. J. MEAD, PUBLISHERS
'A'"
1
W. R. MEAD, EDITOR.
Official Paper of County.
THE MESSAGE.
Full Text of the Views Presented
by the President to Congress.
CAUSE AND CORE OF BOND ISSUES.
Treasury Notes Should lie Retired—Evils
Threatened by Free Coinage—Neutrality
with Reference to Cuban Revolt—
Armenian Outrages.
Washington, Dec. 3.—The following
is the full text of President Cleveland's
annual message to congress:
To THE CONGUESS OP THE UNITED STATES:
The present assemblage of tho legislative
branch of our government occurs at a
time when the Interests of our people and
the needs of the country give especial
prominence to the condition of our foreign
relations and the exigencies of our na
tional finances. Tho reports of the needs
of the several administrative departments
of the government lully and plainly ex
hibit what has been accomplished within
the scope of their respective duties, and
present such recommendations for the the
.betterment of our country's condition as
patriotic and intelligent labor and obser
vation suggests.
I therefore deem my executive duty ade
quately performed at this time by pre
senting to congress the Important phases
of our situation as related to our inter
course with foreign nations, and a state
ment of the financial problems which con
front us, omitting, except as they are re
lated to these topics, any reference to de
partmental operations. I earnestly invite,
however, not only the careful consldera
•t tion but the severely critical scrutiny of
tho congress and my fellow countrymen to
the reports concerning these departmental
operations. If Justly and fairly examined
they will furnish proof of assiduous and
painstaking care for the public welfare. I
press the recommendations they contain
upon the respectful attention of those
charged with the duty of legislation, be
cause I believe their adoption would pro
mote the people's good. -n
FOREIGN RELATIONS.
Neutrality with Reference to Cuba—Ar
menian Outrages—Venezuelan Dispute.
By amendatory tariff legislation in Jan'
uary last the Argentine Republic, recog
nlzlng the value of the large market opened
to the free importation of its wool under
our last tariff act, has admitted certain
products of the United States to entry at
reduced duties. It is pleasing to note that
the efforts we have made to enlarge tho
exchanges of trade on a sound basis of
mutual benefit are in this instance appre
ciated by the country from which our
woolen factories draw their needful sup
ply of raw material.
Decided In Brazil's Favor.
The missions boundary dispute between
the Argentine Republic and Brazil, re
ferred to the president of the United States
as arbitrator during the term of my prede
cessor, and which was submitted to me for
determination, resulted In an award in fa
vor of Brazil upon the historical and docu
mentary evidence, thus ending a long-pro
tracted controversy and again demonstrat
ing the wisdom and desirability of settling
International boundary disputes by re
course to friendly arbitration.
Specie Resumption by Chill.
Negotiations are progressing for a re
vival of the United States and Chilian
claims commission, whose work was ab
ruptly terminated last year by the expira
tion of the stipulated time within which
awards could be made.
The resumption of Bpecie payments by
Chili is a step of great interest and impor
tance, both in its direct consequences
upon her own welfare and as evincing the
ascendency of sound flnancial principles in
one of the most influential of the South
American republics.
,.0 Serious Domestic Condition in China.
The close of the momentous struggle be
tween China and Japan, while relieviHg the
governnygifrom
aertook re
quest of both countries, of rendering such
service to the subjects of either belliger
ent within the territorial limits of the other
as our neutral position permitted, devdl
oped a domestic condition In the Chinese
empire which has caused much anxiety
ana called forth prompt and careful atten
tlon. Either as a result of a weak control
by the central government over the pro
vincial administrations, following a dimi
nution of traditional governmental author
ity under the stress of an overwhelming
national disaster, or as a manifestation
upon good opportunity of the aversion of
the Chinese population to all foreign ways
and undertakings, there have occurred in
widely-separated provinces of China se
rlous outbreaks of the old fanatical spirit
against foreigners, which, unchecked by
the local authorities, if not actually con
nived at by them, have culminated in mob
..attacks on foreign missionary stations,
causing much destruction of property and
"attended with personal injuries as well as
loss of life.
tween China and Japan, whl
~rr' Wplcraatte-ageijts of this go
-'the delicate duty tfieyTrnufel
Although but one American citizen was
reported to have been actually wounded,
and although the destruction of property
may have fallen more heavily upon the
missionaries of other nationalities than
our own, it plainly behooved this govern
ment to take the most prompt and de
cided action to guard against similar or
perhaps more dreadful calamities befall
ing the hundreds of American mission
states which have grown up throughout
the Interior of China under the temperate
rule of toleration, custom and imperial
edict.
The demands of tho United States and
other powers for the degradation and pun
ishment of the responsible officials of the
respective cities and provinces, who, by
'neglect or otherwise, had permitted up
risings, and for the adoption of stern
measures by the emperor's government
for the protection of the life and property
of foreigners are followed by the disgrace
and dismissal of certain provincial of
ficials found derelict in duty, and the pun
ishment by death of a number of those
adjudged guilty of actual participation in
.the outrages.
Good Effect of the American Commission.
This government also insisted that a
special American commission should visit
the province where the first disturbances
occurred, for the purpose of investigation.
This latter commission, formed after much
opposition, has gone overland from Tlen
Tsln, accompanied by a suitable Chinese
escort, and by its demonstration of the
readiness and ability of our government
to protect its citizens will act, it is be
lieved, as a most influential deterrent of
any similar outbreaks. The energetic
steps we have thus taken are all the more
'likely to result In future safety to our citi
zens in China because the Imperial govern
ment Is, I am persuaded, entirely convinced
that we desire only the liberty and protec
ii tlon of our citizens and redress for any
wrongs they may have suffered, and that
we have no ulterior designs or objects, po
litical or otherwise. China will not forget
cither our kindly service to her citizens
fs during her late war, nor the further fact
T'i that, while furnishing all the facilities
S at our command to further the negotia
Hon of a peace between her and Japan, we
4' sought no advantages and Interposed no
counsel.
Victor and Vanquished Grateful.
The governments of both China and Japan
ijiave in dispatches transmitted through
3? •. their respective diplomatic representatives
expressed In a most pleasing manner their
grateful appreciation of our assistance to
.their citizens during the unhappy struggle
and of the value of our aid in paving the
•way to their resumption of peaceful rela
tions.
The Waller Incident.
The customary cordial relations between
this country and France have been undis
turbed, with the exception that a full ex-
JSanation
of the treatment of John L. Wat­
er by the expeditionary military authori
ties of France still remains to be given.
Mr. Waller, formerly United States con
sul at Tamatave, remained in Madagascar
after his term of office expired and was ap
parently successful In procuring business
concessions from the Hovas' of greater or
less value. After the occupation of Tama
tave and the declaration of martial law
Tjy the French he was arrested upon va
rious charges, among them that of com
municating military Information to the
enemies of France, was tried and convicted
by a military tribunal and sentenced to 2J
years' imprisonment.
Following the course Justified by abun
dant precedents, this government request
ed from that of France the record of the
proceedings of the French tribunal which
reunited in Mr. Waller's condemnation.
This request has been complied with to the
•stent of supplying a copy of the official
A
-V
record, from which appear the constitu
tion and organization of the ceurt, the
charges as formulated, and the general
course and result of the trial, by which it
Is shown that the accused was tried in
open court and was defended by counsel.
But the evidence adduced In support of the
charges, which was not received by the
French minister for foreign affairs till the
first week in October—has thus far been
withheld, the French government taking
the ground that its introduction in re
sponse to our demand would establish a
precedent. The efforts of our ambassador
to procure it, however, though Impeded by
recent changes In the French ministry,
have not been realized, and it is confident
ly expected that some satisfactory solu
tion of the matter will shortly be reached.
Meanwhile, It appears that Mr. Waller's
conlinement has every alleviation which
the state of his health anl all the other
circumstances of the case demand or per
mit.
In agreeable contrast to the differences
above noted respecting a matter of com
mon concern, where nothing Is sought ex
cept such a mutually satisfactory outcome
as the true merits of the case require, is
the recent resolution of the French cham
bers favoring the conclusion of a perma
nent treaty of arbitration between the two
countries.
An invitation has been extended by
France to the government and people of
the United States to participate in a great
international exposition at Paris In 1900 as
a suitable commemoration of the close of
this, the world's marvellous century of
progress. I heartily recommend its ^ac
ceptance, together with such legislation as
will adequately provide for a due represen
tation of this government and its people
on the occasion.
Injures Our Interests In Germany.
Our relation with the states of the Ger
man empire are, in some aspects, typical
of a condition of things elsewhere found in
countries whose productions and trade are
similar to our own. The close rivalries of
competing Industries the influence of the
delusive doctrine that the internal devel
opment of a nation Is promoted and its
wealth Increased by a policy, in under
taking to reserve its home markets for the
exclusive use of its own producers, nec
essarily obstructs their sales in foreign
markets and prevents free access to the
products of the world: the desire to retain
trade In time-worn ruts, regardless of the
Inexorable laws of new needs and changed
conditions of demand and supply, and our
own halting tardiness In Inviting a freer
exchange of commodities, and by this
means imperiling our footing in the ex
ternal markets naturally open to us, have
created a situation somewhat Injurious to
American export interests, not only In
Germany, where they are most noticeable,
but in adjacent countries.
Interests Affected.
The exports affected are largely Ameri
can cattle and other food products, the
reason assigned for unfavorable discrim
ination being that their consumption is
deleterious to the public health. This Is
all the more Irritating in view of the fact
that no European state is as jealous of the
excellence and wholesomeness of its ex
ported food supplies as the United States
nor so easily able on account of Inherent
soundness to guarantee those qualities.
Nor are these difficulties confined to our
food products designed for exportation.
Our great insurance companies, for ex
ample, having built up a vast business
abroad and Invested a large share of Ihelr
gains In foreign countries In compliance
with the local laws and regulations then
existing, now find themselves within a nar
rowing circle of onerous and unforseen
conditions, and are confronted by the
necessity of retirement from a field thus
made profitable, if Indeed they are not sum
marily expelled, as some of them have late
ly been, from Prussia.
Hints at Retaliation.
It is not to be forgotten that interna
tional trade cannot be one-sided. Its cur
rents are alternating and its movements
should be honestly reciprocal. Without
this It almost necessarily degenerates into
a device to gain advantage or a contrivance
to secure benefits with only the semblance
of a return. In our dealings with other
nations we ought to be open-handed and
scrupulously fair. This should be our pol
icy as a producing nation, and it plainly be
comes us as a people who love generosity
and the moral aspects of national good
faith and reciprocal forbearance. These
considerations should not, however, con
strain us to submit to unfair discrimina
tion nor to silently acquiesce in vexatious
hindrances to the enjoyment of our share
of the legitimate advantages of proper
trade relations. If an examination of the
situation suggests such measures on our
part as would involve restrictions similar
to those from which we suffer, the way to
such a course Is easy. It should, however,
by no means be lightly entered upon, since
the necessity for the Inauguration of such
a policy would be regretted by the best
sentiment of our people, and because it
naturally and logically might lead to con
sequences of the gravest character.
I take pleasure In calling to your atten
tion the enconlums bestowed on those ves
sels of our new navy which took part in
the notable ceremony of the opening of the
Kiel canal. It was fitting that this ex
traordinary achievement of the newer Ger
man nationality should be celebrated In
thenrasfljice of America's exposition of
St developments of the world's
naval energy.
Beliring Sea Affairs Unsatisfactory.
Our relations with Great Britain, always
Intimate and important, have demanded
during the past year even a greater share
of consideration than Is usual. Several
vexatious questions were left undeter
mined by the decision of the Behrlng sea
arbitration tribunal. The application of
the principles laid down by that august
body has not been followed by the results
they were Intended to accomplish, either
because the principles themselves lacked
In breadth and deflnlteness or because
their execution has been more or less im
perfect. Much correspondence has been
exchanged between the two governments
on the subject of preventing the extermi
nating slaughter of seals. The insuffi
ciency of the British patrol fit Behring sea,
under the regulations agreed on by the two
governments, has been pointed out, and yet
only two British ships have been on police
duty during this season In those waters.
The need of a more effective enforcement
of existing regulations, as well as the adop
tion of such additional regulations as ex
perience has shown to be absllutely nec
essary to carry out the intent of the award,
have been earnestly urged upon the British
government, but thus far without effective
results. In the meantime the depletion of
the seal herds by means of pelagic hunting
has so alarmingly progressed that unless
their slaughter is at once effectually
checked their extinction within a few years
seems to be a matter of absolute certainty.
A Judicious Arrangement.
The understanding by which the United
States was to pay, and Great Britain to re
ceive, a lump sum of $425,000 in full settle
ment of all British claims for damages
arising from our seizure of British sealing
vessels unauthorized under the award of
the Paris tribunal of arbitration, was not
confirmed by the last congress, which de
clined to make the necessary appropria
tion. I am still of the opinion that this ar
rangement was a judicious and advan
tageous one for the government, and I
earnestly recommend that it be again con
sidered and sanctioned. If, however, this
does not meet with the favor of congress,
it certainly will hardly dissent from the
proposition that the government Is bound
by every consideration of honor and good
faith to provide for the speedy adjustment
of these claims by arbitration as the only
other alternative. A treaty of arbitra
tion has therefore been agreed upon, and
will be Immediately laid before the senate,
so that in one of the modes suggested a
final settlement may be reached.
Notwithstanding that Great Britain
originated the proposal to enforce inter
national rules for the prevention of col
lisions at sea, based on the recommenda
tions of the maritime conference of Wash
ington, and concurred in suggesting March
1, 1895, as the date to be set by proclamation
for carrying these rules into general effect,
her majesty's government, having en
countered opposition on the part of British
shipping interests, announced its Inability
to accept that date, which was conse
quently cancelled. The entire matter is
still In abeyance, without prospect of a
better condition in the near future.
The commissioners appointed to mark
the International boundary in Passama
quoddy bay according to the description of
the treaty of Ghent have not yet fully
agreed.
The Alaskan Boundary.
The completion of the preliminary sur
vey of that Alaskan boundary which fol
lows the contour of the coast from the
southernmost point of Prince of Wales
island until it strikes the 141st meridian at
or near the summit of Mount St. Ellas,
awaits further nccessary appropriation,
which Is urgently recommended. This
survey was undertaken under the pro
visions of the convention entered into by
this country and Great Britain Jul/ 22,
1892, and the supplementary convention of
Febraary 3, 3894. As to the remaining sec
tion of the Alaskan boundary, which fol
lows the 141st meridian northwardly from
Mount St. Ellas to the Frozen ocean, the
settlement of which involves the physical
location of the meridian mentioned, no
conventional agreement has yet been
made.
The ascertainment of a given meridian
at a particular point is a work requiring
much time and careful observations and
surveys. Such observations and .surveys
were undertaken by the United States
coast and goedctlc survey In 1890 and 1891,
while similar work In the same quarters
under British auspices are believed to give
nearly coincident results but these sur
veys have been independently conducted,
and no International agreement to mark
these or any other parts of the 141st meri
dian by permanent monuments has yet
been made. In the meantime, the valley
of the Yukon is becoming a highway
through the hitherto unexplored wilds of
Alaska, and abundant mineral wealth has
been discovered in that region, especially
or iioar Uie lunation or the bound&rv
rAJ k^r
meridian with the Yukon ana it* trtou
tarles. In these circumstances, it is ex-
Jurlsdlctlonal
iedlent, and. Indeed, Imperative, that the
limits of the respective gov
ernments in this new region be speedily de
termined. Her Britannic majesty's gov
ernment has proposed a Joint delimitation
of the 141st meridian by an international
commission of experts, which, If congress
will authorize It and make the provisions
therefor, can be accomplished with no un
reasonable delay. It Is impossible to over
look the vital Importance of continuing the
work already entered upon, and supple
menting It by further effective measures
looking to the exact location of this en
tire boundary line.
Needs Immediate Attention.
I call attention to the unsatisfactory de
limitation of the respective jurisdictions
of the United States and the Dominion of
Canada in the great lakes at the ap
proaches to the narrow waters that con
nect them. The waters in question are
frequented by fishermen of both nation
alities and their nets are there used. Owing
to the uncertainty and ignorance as to the
true boundary, vexatious disputes and in
jurious seizures of boats and nets by Ca
nadian cruisers often occur, while* any
positive settlement thereof by an accepted
standard is not easily to be reached. A
Joint commission to determine the lino in
Uiose quarters, on a practical basis, bv
measured courses following range mark's
on shore, is a necessity for which imme
diate provision should be made.
Venezuelan Dispute.
It being apparent that the boundary dis
pute between Great Britain and the repub
lic of Venezuela concerning the limits of
British Guiana was approaching an acute
stage, a definite statement of the Interest
ana policy of the United States as regards
the controversy seemed to be required
both on its own account and in view of its
relations with the friendly powers directly
concerned. In July last, therefore, a dla-
f'atch
was addressed to our ambassador at
London for communication to the British
government, In which the attitude of the
United States was fully and distinctly set
forth.
Monroe Doctrine Upheld.
The general conclusions therein reached
and formulated are in substance that tho
traditional and established policy of this
government is firmly opposed to a forcible
Increase by any European power of its ter
ritorial possessions on this continent that
this policy Is as well founded in principle
as it is strongly supported by numerous
precedents that as a consequence the Unit
ed States Is bound to protest against the
enlargement of the area of British Guiana
In derogation of the rights and against the
will of Venezuela: that, considering the
disparity in strength of Great Britain and
Venezuela, the territorial dispute between
them can be reasonably settled by friends
and impartial arbitration, and that the re
sort to such an arbitration should Include
the whole controversy, and Is not satisfied
If one of the powers concerned is permitted
to draw an arbitrary line through the"
ter
ritory in debate and to declare that It will
submit to arbitration only the portion lying
on one side of it.
have been put forth to discover and pun
ish the authors of this atrocious crime.
The dependent families of some of the un
fortunate victims invite by their deplor
able condition gracious provision for their
needs. These manifestations against help
less aliens may be traced through succes
sive stages to the vicious padrone system,
which, unchecked by our Immigration and
contract labor statutes, controls theBe
workers from the moment of landing on
our shores, and farms them out in distant
and often rude regions, where their cheap
ening competition In the fields of bread
winning toll brings them into collision with
other labor interests.
While welcoming, as we should, those
who seek our shores to merge themselves
Into our body politic and win personal com
petence by honest effort, we cannot regard
such assemblages of distinctively alien
laborers, hired out In the mass to the prof
It of alien speculators, and shipped hither
and thither as the prospect of gain may In
dicate, as otherwise than repugnant to tho
spirit of our civilization, deterrent to indi
vidual advancement, and hindrances to
the building of stable communities resting
upon the wholesome ambitions of the citi
zen. and constituting the prime factor in
the prosperity and progress of our nation.
If legislation can reach this growing evil,
It certainly should be attempted.
Japan Eulogized.
Japan has furnished abundant evidence
of her vast gain In every trait and charac
teristic that constitutes a nation's great
ness. We have reason for congratulations
In the fact that the government of the
United States, by the exchange of liberal
treaty stipulations with the new Japan,
was
first to recognize her wonderful advance
and to extend to her the consideration and
confidence due to her national.enlighten
ment and progressive character.
The boundary dispute which lately threat
ened to embroil Guatemala and Mexico
has happily yielded to pacific counsels, and
Its determination has, by the Joint agree
ment of the parties, been submitted to the
sole arbitration of the United States min
ister to Mexico.
The commission appointed under the con
vention of February 18, 1889, to set new
monuments along the boundary between
the United States and Mexico has complet
ed its task.
1
1
In view of these conclusions, the dispatch
In .question called upon the British govern
ment for a definite answer to the question
whether or not it would submit the terri
torial controversy between ItBelf and Ven
ezuela in its entirety to impartial arbitra
tion. The answer of the British govern
ment has not yet been received, but is ex-
pected shortly, when further communica
tion on the subject will probably be made
to the congress.
Relations with Hawaii.
Early in January last an uprising against
the government of Hawaii was promptly
suppressed. Martial-law was forthwith
proclaimed and numerous arrests were
made of persons suBpeoted of being In sym
pathy with the royalist party. Among
these were several citizens of the United
States, who were either convicted by a
military court and sentenced to death, im
prisonment, or fine, or were deported with
out trial. The United States, while deny
ing protection to such as had taken the
Hawaiian oath of allegiance, Insisted that
martial-law though altering the forms of
justice could not supersede Justice Itself
and demanded stay of execution until tho
proceedings had been submitted to this
government and knowledge obtained
therefrom that our citizens had received
fair trial.
The death sentences were subsequently
commuted or were remitted on condition
of leaving the islands. The cases of cer
tain Americans arrested and expelled by
arbitrary order without formal charge or
trial have had attention, and In some in
stances have been found to justify remon
strance and a claim for indemnity which
Hawaii has not thus far conceded, llr.
Thurston, the Hawaiian minister having
furnished this government abundant rea
son for asking that he be recalled, that
course was pursued, and his successor has
lately been received.
Padrone System Should He Uprooted.
The deplorable lynching of several Ital
ian laborers in Colorado was naturally fol-
In Humanity's Name.
As a sequel to the failure of a scheme
for the colonization in Mexico of negroes,
mostly emigrants from Alabama under
contract, a great number of these helpless
and suffering people, starving and smitten
with contagious disease, made their way
or were assisted to the frontier, where. In
wretched plight, they were quarantined
by the Texas authorities. Learning of
their destitute condition, I directed rations
to be temporarily furnished them through
the war department. At the expiration of
their quarantine they were conveyed by
the railway companies at comparatively
nominal rates to their homes In Alabama,
upon my assurance In the absence of any
fund available for the cost of their trans
portation that I would recommend to con
gress an appropriation for Its payment. I
now strongly urge upon congress the pro
priety of making such an appropriation...
It should be remembered that the measures
taken were dictated not only by sympathy
and humanity, but by a conviction that It
was not compatible with the dignity of
this government that so large a Dody of
our dependent citizens should be thrown
for relief upon the charity of a neighbor
ing state.
The Mosquito Affair,
In last year's message, I narrated at
some length the Jurisdictional questions
then freshly arisen in the Mosquito In
dian strip of Nicaragua. Since that time,
by the voluntary act of the Mosquito na
tion, the territory reserved to tnem has
been incorporated with Nicaragua, the
Indians formally subjecting themselves
be governed by the general laws and rei
Indians formally subjecting themselves to
be governed by the general laws and reg
ulations of the republic Instead of by their
own customs and regulations, and thus
availing themselves of a privilege secured
to them by the treaty between Nicaragua
and Great Britain of January 28,1800.
After this extension of uniform Nlc
araguan administration to the Mosquito
strip, the case of the British vice consul,
Hatch, and of several of his countrymeifc
who had been summarily expelled from
Nicaragua and treated with considerable
Indignity, provoked a claim by Great
Britain upon Nicaragua for pecuniary in
demnity, which, upon Nicaragua's re
fusal to admit liability, was enforced by
Great Britain. While the sovereignity and
Jurisdiction of Nicaragua was in no way
questioned by Great Britain, the former's
arbitrary conduct In regard to British sub
jects furnished the ground far this pro-'
ceedlng. A British naval force occupied
without resistance tho Pacific seaport of
Corlnto, but was soon after withdrawn
upon the promise that the sum demanded
would be paid. Throughout this incident
the kindly offices of the United States
were Invoked and were employed in favor
of as peaceful a settlement and as much
consideration and indulgence toward Nic
aragua as were consistent with the nature
of &e cage.—fiuMO&rte kftY# ilaer
l** "trt 1 'W (1
HUM
maci© tne HVDjeCt ot aijprvciactremraB'ww
ful recognition by Nicaragua.
Relations with Rassla.
The coronation of the czar of Kussfa at
Moscow in May next invites the ceremonial
participation of the United States, and in
accordance with lisare ai.d diplomatic pro
priety our ministerto the Imperial court has
been directed to represent our government
on the occasion.
Coirc&ponuciice is on foot touching tflc
practice of Russian consvlr, within tho
jurisdiction of the United States to inter
rogate citizens as to their race and rell
gious faith, and upon ascertainment there
of to deny to Jews authentication of pass
ports or legal documents for use In Ilussla.
Inasmuch as such a proceeding imposes a
disability, which in the case of succession
to property in. Russia may be-found to In
fringe the treaty rights of our citizens
and which is an obnoxious Invasion of our
territorial jurisdiction, it has elicited fit
ting remonstrance, the result of which it
is hoped will remove the cause of com
plaint.
The pending claims of sealing vessels
of the United States seized in Russian
waters remain unadjusted. Our recent con
vention with Russia establishing a modus
vlvendi as to imperial jurisdiction in such
cases has prevented further difficulty of
this nature.
The Russian government has welcomed
in principle our suggestion for a modus vi
vendi, to embrace Great Britain and Ja
pan, looking to the better preservation of
seal life in the North Pacific and Behring
sea and the extension of the protected area
defined by the Paris tribunal to all Paciflo
waters north of the 35th parallel. It Is es
pecially noticeable that Russia faVors pro
hibition of the use of firearms In seal hunt
ing throughout the proposed area and a
longer close season for pelagic sealing.
An Inconslstei^ Position.
In my last two annual messages I called
the attention of the congress to the posi
tion we occupied as one of the parties to
a treaty or agreement bv which we became
jointly bound with England and Germany
to so Interfere with the government and
control of Samoa as in effect to assume
the management of its affairs. On the Dth
day of May, ism, I transmitted to the sen
ate a special message with accompanying
documents giving Information on the sub
ject and emphasizing the opinion I have
at all times entertained, that our situation
in this matter was inconsistent with the
mission and traditions of our government,
in violation of the principles we profess,
and in all its phases mischievous and vexa
tious. I again press this subjcct upon the
attention of the congress and ask for such
legislative action or expression as will
lead the way to our relief from obligations
both irksome and unnatural.
The Revoiutlou In Cuba.
Cuba is again gravely disturbed. An In
surrection, in some respects more active
than the last preceding revolt, which con
tinued from 18G8 to 1878, now exists in a
large part of the eastern interior of the is
land, menacing even some populations on
the coast. Besides deranging the commer
cial exchanges of the island, of which our
country takes the predominant share, this
flagrant condition of hostilities, by arous
ing sentimental sympathy and inciting ad
venturous support among our people, has
entailed earnest effort on the part of this
government to enforce obedience to our
neutrality laws and to prevent the terri
tory of the United States from being
abused as a vantage ground from which»to
aid those in arms against Spanish sover
eignty.
Alu*t Maintain a Position of Neutrality.
Whatever may be the traditional sym
pathy of our countrymcn. as individuals
with a peoplfe who seem to be struggling for
larger autonomy and greater freedom,
deepened as such sympathy naturally must
be in behalf of our neighbors, yet the plain
duty of their government Is to observe in
good faith the recognized obligations of
international relationship. The perform
ance of this duty should not be made more
difficult by a disregard on the part of our
citizens of the obligations growing out of
their allegiance to their country, which
should restrain them from violating as in
dividuals the neutrality which the nation
of which they are members is bound to
observe in itB relation to friendly sover
eign states. Though neither the warmth
of our people's sympathy with the Cuban
insurgents, nor our loss and material dam
age consequent upon the futile endeavors
thus far made to restore peace and order,
nor any shock our humane sensibilities
may have received from the cruelties
which appear to especially characterize
this sanguinary and fiercely conducted
war, have in the least shaken the determi
nation of the government to honestly ful
fill every international obligation, yet it
is to be earnestly hoped, on every ground,
that the devastation of armed conflict may
speedily be stayed and order and quiet re
stored to the distracted island, bringing
in their train the activity and thrift of
peaceful pursuits.
Tint Allluuca Iiicldent.
One notable instance of interference by
Spain with passing American ships has oc
curred. On March 8, last, the Allianca,
while bound from Colon to New York, and
following the customary track for vessels
near the Cuban shore, but inside the three
mile limit, was tlrea upon by a Spanish
gunboat. Protest was promptly made by
theUnited Statesagalnst this act as not be
ing justified by a state of war, nor per
missible in respect of vessels on the usual
paths of commerce, nor tolerable in view
of tho wanton peril occasioned to innocent
life and property. The act was disavowed,
with full expression of regret and assur
ance of nonconcurrencc of such just cause
of complaint, while the offending officer
was relieved of his command.
Arrests of Amoricuns in Cuba.
Military arrests of citizens of the United
States In Cuba have occasioned frequent
reclamations. Where held on criminal
charges, their delivery to the ordinary
civil jurisdiction for trial has been de
manded and obtained, in conformity with
treaty provisions, and where merely de
tained by way of military precaution un
der a proclaimed state of siege, without
formulating accusation, their release or
trial has been insisted upon. The right of
American consular officers in the island
to prefer protests and demands in such
cases having been questioned by the in
sular authority, their enjoyment of the
privilege stipulated by treaty for the con
suls or Germany, was claimed under the
most favored nation provision of our own
convention,, and was promptly recognized.
Settlement of tho Mora Claim,
The long-standing demand of Antonio
Maximo Mora against Spain has at last
been settled by the payment, on the 14th of
September last, of the sum originally
agreed upon in liquidation of the claim.
Its distribution among the parties entitled
to receive it has proceeded as rapidly as the
rights of those claiming the fund could be
safely determined.
The enforcement of differential duties
against products of this country exported
to Cuba and Puerto RiCo prompted the im
mediate claim on our part to the benefit of
the minimum tariff of Spain in return fcr
the most favorable treatment permitted bv
our
laws as regards the production of Span
ish territories. A commercial arrangement
was concluded in January last securing the
treatment so claimed.
Vigorous protests against excessive fines
imposed on our ships and merchandise by
the customs -officers of these islands for
trivial errors have resulted in the remis
sion of such fines in instances where the
equity of the complaint was apparent,
though the vexatious practice has not been
wholly discontinued.
The Armenian Mastmcreg.
Occurrences in Turkey have continued
to excite concern. The reported massacres
of Christians in Armenia, and the develop
ment there and in other districts of a
spirit of fanatic hostility to Christian in
fluences, naturally excited apprehension
for the safety of the devoted men and
women, who as dependents of the foreign
missionary societies in the United States,
reside in Turkey under the guarantee of
law and usage, and in the legitimate per
formance of their educational and re
ligious mission. No efforts have been spared
in ?their behalf and their protection In per
son and property has been'earnestly and
vigorously enforced by every means with
in our power. •.
I regret, however, that an attempt on our
pari to obtain better information concern
ing the true condition of affairs in the dis
turbed Quarter of the Ottoman empire by
sending thither the United States consul at
Sivas to make investigation and reports
was thwarted by the olijections of the
Turkish .government. This movement on
our part was in no sense meant as a
gratuitous entanglement of the United
States in- tho so-called ea,stern question,
nor aB nn officious interference with the
right and duty which belong by treaty to
certain great European powers, calling
for their intervention in political matters
affecting the good government and re
ligious freedom of the rion-Musselman
subjects of the sultan, but it arose solely
from our desire to have an accurate
knowledge of tho qohditions4n our efforts
to care for those entitled to our protection.
The presence of our naVal vessels which
are now in the vicinity of the disturbed
localities affords .opportunities to acquire
a measure Qf familiarity 'with the condi
tion of affairs, and will enable us to take
suitable steps for the protection of any in
terest^ of our countrymen \yithln reach
of our ships that might be found im
perilled.
Will Koop a.Watchful Eje.
The Ottoman government has lately is
ned an imperial irade ^exempting forever
from taxation an American college for
girls at Scutari. Repeated assurances
nave also been obtained by our envoy at
Constantinople that -similar institutions
maintained and administered by our coun
trymen shall b6 secured in the enjoyment
of all rights, and thatour citizens through
out the eihplre shall be protected. The gov
ernment, however, in view of existing facts,
is far from relying upon such assurances
as the limit of its duty. Our minister has
been vigilant and alert in affording all pos
sible protection in individual cases where
danger threatened or safety was Imperiled.
W« lia/yA sant. uhlua am far tOWfU'd th*
points ot actual dlsturD&nce as it is pos
sible for them to go, where they offer ref
uge to these obliged to flee, and we have
the promise of other powers which have
ships in the neighborhood that our citi
zens as woll as theirs will be received and
protected on board those ships. On the de
mand of our minister orders have been Is
sued by the sultan that Turkish soldiers
shall guard and escort to the coast Ameri
can refugees. These orders have been car
ried out, and our latest Intelligence gives
Assurance of the present personal safety of
our citizens and missionaries. Though tlius
far no lives of American citizens have been
sacrificed, there can bo no doubt that
serious loss and destruction of mission
property have resulted from riotous con
flicts and outrageous attacks.
By treaty several of the most powerful
European powers have securcd aright and
have assumed a duty, not only in behalf
of their own citizens and in furtherance of
their own Interests, but as agents of the
Christian world. Their fight Is to enforce
such conduct of Turkish government as
will restrain fanatical brutality, and If
this falls their duty is to so Interfere as to
Insure against such dreadful occurrences
in Turkey as have lately shocked civiliza
tion. The powers declare this right and
this duty to he theirs alone, and it Is earn
estly hoped that prompt and effective ac
tion on their part will not be delayed.
The new "consulates at Erzeroum and
Harpoot, for which appropriation was
made last session, have been provisionally
filled by trusted employes of the depart
ment of state. These appointees,, though
now In Turkey, have not yet received their
exequaturs.
Store Aid to Venezuela.
The arbitration of the claim of the Ven
ezuela Steam Transportation company un
der the treaty of January 19, 1892, between
the United States and Venezuela resulted
In an award In favor of the claimant. The
government lias used Its good offices
toward composing the differences between
Venozucla on the one hand, and France
and Belgium, on the other growing out of
the dismissal of the representatives of
those powers on the ground of a publica
tion deemed offensive to Venezuela. Al
though that dismissal was coupled with a
cordial request that other more personal
ly agreeable envoys be sent in their stead,
a rupture of Intercourse ensued and still
continues.
Needed Improvement In Consular Service.
In view of the growth of^rnr Interests
In foreign countries and the encouraging
prospects for a general expansion of our
commerce, the question of an Improvement
in the consular service has increased in
Importance and urgency. Though there
Is no doubt that the great body of consular
officers are rendering valuable services to
the trade and industries of the country,
the needs of some plan of appointment and
control which would tend to secure a
higher average of efficiency is not denied.
The Importance of the subject has led the
exocutive to consider what steps might
properly be taken without additional legis
lation, to answer the need of a better
system of consular appointments. The
matter having been committed to the con
sideration of the secretary of state, in pur
suance of his recommendations, an execu
tive order was Issued on tho 20th of Sep
tember, 1S95, by the terms of which it is
provided that after that date any vacancy
in a consulate or commercial agency, with
an annual salary or compensation from
official fees of not more than J2.E00 or less
than Jl,000, should be filled either by trans
fer or promotion from some other position
under the department of state of a char
acter tending to qualify the incumbent
for the position to be filled or by the ap
pointment of a person not under the de
partment of state, but having previously,
served thereunder and shown his capacity
and fitness for consular duty or by the ap
pointment of a person who, having been
selected by the president and sent to a
board for examination. Is found, upon such
examination, to be qualified for tho posi
tion. Posts which pay less than |l,000 be
ing usually, on account of t{ielr small com
pensation, filled by selection from resi
dents of the locality, It was not deemed
practicable to put them under the new
system.
The compensation of $2,600 was adopted
as the minimum limit In the classification
for the reason that consular officers receiv
ing more than that sum are often charged
with functions and duties scarcely In
ferior In dignity and importance to those
of diplomatic agents, and it was therefore
thought best to continue their selection in
the discretion of the executive without
subjecting them to examination before a
board. Excluding 71 places with compen
sation at present less than $1,000, 53 places
above the maximum in compensation,
the number of positions remaining within
the scope of the order is 196. This number
will undoubtedly be increased by the in
clusion of consular officers whose remun
eration in fees, now less than $1,000, will
be augmented with the growth of our for
eign commerce and a return to more fa
vorable business conditions. In execution
of the executive order referred to, the sec
retary of state has designated as aboard
to conduct the prescribed examinations
the third assistant secretary of state, the
solicitor of the department of state and
the chief of the consular bureau, and has
specified the subjects to which such ex
aminations shall relate.
Offlolnl Residences for I)tplnD]Atn.
I am thoroughly convinced that In ad
dition to their salaries our ambassadors
and ministers at foreign courts should be
provided by the government with official
residences. The salaries of these officers
Is comparatively small, and in moat cases
insufficient to pay, with other necessary
expenses, the cost of maintaining house
hold establishments In keeping with thelb
Important and delicate functions. Theuse
fulnessof anatlon's diplomatic representa
tive undeniably depends much upon the
appropriateness of his surroundings, and
a country like ours, while avoiding un
necessary glitter and show, should be cer
'a'n that It does not suffer
111
I**1"*•
Its relation*
with foreign nations through parsimony
and shabbiness in its diplomatic outfit
These consideration* and the other advan
tages of having fixed and somewhat
permanent locations for our embassies
would abundantly justify the moderate ex
penditure necessary to carry out this sug
gestion.
It Is not assumed that this system will
prove a full measure of consular reform,
it la quite probable that the experience
will show particulars in which the order
already issued may be amended, and
demonstrate that, for the best results, ap
propriate legislation by congress Is im
peratively required. In any event these
efforts to improve the consular service
ought to be immediately supplemented by
legislation providing for consular inspec
tion. This has frequently been a subject
of executive recommendation, and I again
urge such action by congress as will per
mit the frequent and thorough Inspection
of. consulates by
"officers appointed for that
purpose or by persons already in the dip
lomatic or consular service. The expense
attending such a plan would be insignifi
cant compared with its usefulness, and I
hope the legislation necessary to set it on
foot will be speedily forthcoming.
NATIONAL FINANCES.
Cause and Care of Bond Issues—Dire Ef
fect ot Free Coinage,
As we turn from a review of our foreign
relations to the contemplation of our na
tional flnancial situation we are immedi
ately aware that we approach a subject of
domestic concern more important than any
other that can engage our attention, and
one at present in such a perplexing and del
icate predicament as to require prompt and
wise treatment. We may well be encour
aged to earnest effort in this direction
when we recall the steps already, taken
toward Improving our economic and finan
cial situation, ana when we appreciate how
well the, way has been prepared for fur
ther progress by an aroused and Intelli
gent popular Interest in these subjects.
Monetary Kvlls Not Cured.
By command of the people a customs
revenue system, designed for the protec
tion and benefit of favored classes at the
expense of the great mass of countrymen,
and which, while inefficient for the pur
pose of revenue, curtailed our trade rela
tions and Impeded our entrance to the.
markets of the world, has been superseded
by a tariff policy wh'lch in principle Is
based upon a denial of the right of the gov
ernment to obstruct.avenues to our pep
pie's cheap living, or lessen their comfort
and contentment for the sake of according
especial advantages to favorites, and
which, while encouraging' our intercourse
and trade with other nations, recognizes
the fact that. American self-reliance,
thrift and lngentilty, can. build up our
country's- Industry and develop Its re
sources more surely than enervatlng-pa
ternallsr.i.
The compulsory purchase and coinage of
silver by the government uncheckect-and
.unregulated by business conditions and
heedless of our currency needs, which for
more than 15 yea^s diluted our circulating
medium, undermined confidence abroad In
our financial ability, and at last culminat
ed In distress and panic at home, has been
recently stopped ty t(io repeal of-the laws
-which forced this reckless scheme upon
the country.- The-things thus Accom
plished, notwithstanding their extreme Im
portance and beneflcient effects, fall far
short of curing the .monetary evils from
which we suffer as a result of long In
dulgence In Ill-advised flnancial expedi
ents.
Kavlew of Financial Legislation.
The currency denominated United States
notes, arid commonly known as green
backs, was Issued in large volume during
the late civil war and was Intended origin
ally. to meet the exigencies of that period.
It will be seen by a reference to the debates
in congress at- the time the'laws were
passed authorizing the Issue of these notes
that thilr advocates declared they were In
tended for only temporary use and to meet
the emergency of war. In almost, If not all,
the laws relating to theni soma provision
was made contemplating their voluntary
or compulsory retirement. A large quan
tity of them, however, were kest on toot
hi-'wf,,
ifff
'•'A'
filf''
bbtt£*
V*
JUST SEE
WHAT A
REAT '0|ECE
OF
10 CENTS
LARGEST PIECE OF GQflfi TOBACCO
EVER SOLD FOR THE MONEY
fiaor/stMaaii
Haden & Son upright, a good
case, $85
\k Steiff square, sound and service
able, $75
Ki-ell upright, brand new, old
W style, $240
3 Hallet & Davis upright, used
A very little, $215
No trouble to manage and don't break or
.warp. ~.^--
ss* sr.'?,',). In all styles for any fuel. Sold by
ANDERSON& SOBOLIK
S There's No Need
I
TO BE WITHOUT A FINK
Piano or Organ
when such unusual bargains are being offered at our Graiid
Clearance Sale. Every economically disposed purchaser
should make it, a point to write us without delay. Every
J. one of. our older styles, every slightly shop-worn instrument,
every, second hand instrument must be sold regardless of A
prolit. We must have the room for our new stock. Here
3 1„„.
&
area few samples:
W. 1. DYER & BR0.
I and 23 Wost 5th St., 509 and 511 Nicollet Ave.,
St. .Paul. Minneapolis.
The Oven
19 the most important part pf a cooking apparatus.
The fire-box is the digestive organ the draught is
the circulation. These vital organs are those which,
mm
E
1
"IS*
•"4*•-{
v-*' 3
&
iijf
YOU
CAN GET FOl^
•ns
-n "Si.
1
Cook and
Save

I- y?.
x*
a*,--'
,-if
vs.
time money and fuel on a
Better.
Pease upright, fancy walnut
case, $215
Fisher square, an especial bar
gain, $65
Gabler upright, brand new, old
style, $830
Ivers & Pond, very fine $295
Stool and scarf included. No advance in price when
W easy terms of payment are desired
J?
You can't afford to miss this opportunity. Write today.
Range
Are different, and work upon different principles
from those in any other stove or range.
The MAJESTIC oven is the most sensative oven
ever made the fire-box is the most economical in
operation, and the draught is the simplest and most
perfect.
These are 3 of the points
that make the Majestic the
perfect Cooking Range.
T. J. LOMAS, Agent, Oresco, Iowa.
4 irt ty v*
if I v-"S" 4?

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