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" KEEPING EVERLASTINGLY AT IT BRINGS SUCCESS."
BIG STONE GAP, WISE COUNTY, VA., THURSDAY, APRIL 20, 1893. NO. 20. VOL. I A. L. PRIDE MORE, ATTORNEY AT LAW, Jonosville, Virginia. ? ?? T ? 11 k-"v' I "in. n. ni \NKKvmur, .!> I He, V.t. .CKSON & BLANKENSHIP, VT l"ORNEYS-AT LAW, Jonesvillo; Virginia. nl all limes, a pftrciallv. A. AVERS. - - JOS. L. KELLY. W OFFICES IN AYERS BUILDING, B-;i Stono Cap. Va. 'mi VKl.l. .::t B?LLITT & IV! c DO WELL, ^TORNEYS AT LAW, ... , ? .... RIG STONK HA I*. VA H. A. W. SKEEN, ATTORNEY-AT LAW, Big Stono Gap, Virginia. r. T. irvine, ATT< >RNEY-AT-LAW BIiz Stone Cap. Virginia. L. TURNER MAURY, ATTORNEY-AT-LAW. Big Stone Cap, Virginia. WALTER E. ADDISON. attorney at law. Bi? Stone Gap, Virginia. BCaNS. !,?:?. I HI, V.l. K. M.H.I.TI S, WIsO (Ml. V BURNS & FULTON, VTTORNEYS AT LAW, ?I 11 I!' V s. .I"S r M ?VW?, ?j?ii?: Gap. Iii.- Stohi' Gaii. jncan, m a th e w s & mayn o r. \TTORNEYS AT LAW, (Iftlpr Iii XI? ?' !?- ?II Wun ! Vvi'inu', Big Stone Gap, Virginia. if An? itfi"ii ' 1' cii'iii.N iiini i'." ii,ii licuiltance. W. J. HORSLEY, ATTORNEY-AT-LAW, Big Stone Gap, Virginia, Whites b?rg, Ky. fl?l afifiil r naainl UmlTil . ii mns.iv. v .. ? i i kk, Norton. A LD ER SON & MILLER, Ktt< irneys at-law. tllpl ??iilrusttil in us. Ai! . or Xoi! in. Va. M. G. ELY, attorney at-law Turkey Cove, Lee Co., Va, J? W. KELLY, VSICIAN SURGEON, uiii.-.- p., ? v .. _ Wer?. ! '.ii?'? Big Stone Cap, Virginia. UfA|ioiu| i'i.i |v (o Cat In, Kotli Oa> itiul Night. ir,.,f C. D. KUNKEL, [YSICIAN* i SURGEON, I)g Stone Gap, Virginia, N H. REEVE, M. D. EATS DISEASES OF WOMEN EXCLUSIVELY. St. Bristol, Tenn. DR.J.C. PR UN ER, DENTIST, -RoomNo.9, Central Hotel. "? l'-'P '- ?*;?! H.lav In each 't ,,ls >"'.i - x shuiihl make ' ' ? ililig days diiriiiff s- W, TH ACKER, |L ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR, Stone Cap, Virginia. ?"d Luri Wut' :i >i.-i"..i!lv [MALCOLM SMITH, h ENGINEER and ? SURVEYOR. HHk ... to i-ost Office. tonk ga.\ va. b- D- HURD, CHITECT, l *^C,.,, Va. C,F,CATI0NS kjkp|tt|>a1?d F-STIMATES ?irr,.' , 'N * TU IROUGH a no A?rtSTlc 4IANNKK, How the World'* K?lr Will lie Lighted. A sight more beautiful than the World's Fair .-it Jackson Park will be at night cannot be conceived, ho lib? eral will be the use <-t'electric lamps and so artistically are they arranged. For illomlinating the grounds and entrances t<> the buildings lamps to , the number of 1550 arc placed at in I tervails of from sixty-five to seventy ; live feet, except at the extreme south j 1 eastern part of the grounds where distances between some of the posts is increased to 125 feet. Around the main cnteranccs t<> the principal buildings (dusters of lamps will be placed. The arc lamps, employed for exterior illumination will he support? ed on ornimcntal posts, designed to receive one, two, or three lamps, and where expedient to have arm-support? ing incadescent lamps of high candle power, inclosed within colored glass lanterns that will afford a richly dec? orative effect. A problem of different character was presented when the question of ailse lighting with arc lamps came up, owing to the varied nature of the exhibits, the character of the enclosures, the height of show cases, proximity of suports, and these! have not yet been determined, owing) tu the withdrawals and changes in tlte various locations of exhibitors. I I In the fin.il allotment of lain in: in . I round numbers l'jno were assigned j to the manufacturer.; building, 500 to the agricltural building and annex, 850 to the transportation building proper; horticultural building, 250; mines and minfhg, 200; the fisheries, 50, and the Illinois bnilnig, T)7. These will nil he supplied with ein? teilt by the exposition company from the power plant, as will also gome 250 arc lamps required in machinery hall. In addition to this last 250 there will be a greater number sup? plied by a few of the leading exhib? itors under contract, who will also supply the arc lamps required in the annex to (h<- transportation building, in the forestry building, pumping plant, and the choral building. Special lighting affects will be secur? ed in the great glass dome of the hor? ticulture building by suspending from the trusses fifty arc lamps in three circular rows, having ten in the upper and twenty each in the lower rows. A problem of different nature was encountered in lighting the mammoth manufacturers building, owing to the unusual height of the arches and the great area requiring illumination. The plan deemed the most practical promising the best results includes five circular electroliers, lour of which are sixty in diameter, and the ceute:- one one scventv-fivc feet, built of an angle iron and suspended from the arches, [fere the lamps will he 140 feel above the floorand forty to sexenty feet below the roof. The electroliers are suspended by means <d'a steel shaft securely bolted to a bridge passing across the center of the circle, bridge and circle having a footpath three feet in width and guarded bv a suitable railing, along which the carbon thinner travels when carbonizing the lamps, the trimmer ascending one of the big arches to the supporting shaft and then descending bv means of a ladder I attached t?? the latter. The four) smaller electroliers seventy-five arc lamps will be suspended, and to the large centerpiece lun are lamps, the lamps being hung in pairs ami sus? tained by cords passing over insulat? ed pulleys, each balancing the weight of its mate. Electricity "On Tan." [New York Sun.] Electricity, once a playing, then a scientific study, is now a commercial product. Twenty years ago electri? cal energy was generated in the labo? ratory for experimental purposes by a few physicians as a medicine of somewhat questionable repute* anil in weak currents by those who applied it to the use in the arts. From, the cylender of tho glass or mastic, ex? cited by friction to the set cork mani? kins or pitch balls a dancing, to the dynamo that runs from one to a dozen powerful engines is a long step, but one that has been taken within the memory of men who call themselves ; young. j Electricity as a commercial product is to those that deal in it as common? place an affair as eggs or butter. The conditions and costs of its pro-; duetion arc positively known, and that the product may be measured al? most as the clerk with his yardstick measures dry goods. You may buy your electricity by specified quant^f ties, and, if you have the conven icnccs, may carry it home with you as you would carry any other pur? chase. Jt can be sent you by express or delivered by messenger, or it may be served out over a wire in measur? ed quantity, as gass and water are served through-pipes. All this seems mysterious to those not technically educated, because the electricity shops do not count their products by dozens or measures it by yards or gollons, but use outlandish denomi? nations and a puzzling scientific nomenclature. Nevertheless the shop keepers arc at home with the myste? rious limber thing in which they deal, and they never stop to think about its mystery, nit hough just beyond the small field which their knowledge covers then lies an unknown men of conjecture. Electricity is a commercial product and a handy tool, appicable to any? thing that mechanical power can ac? complish, it is a thing approximately of only the last ten years. Before that time its cost made it mostly.a matter of splendid practical possibilities. Now, with conditions given, a skilled electrician can estimate to a hair the cost of producing the amount of elec? tricity necessary to yield a specified power. It is chiefly a question ofthe cost of coal. The existence of two simple laws makes electricity a practical power for the world's work. One is that when an armature is caused to rotate within the magnetic field a current of electricity is existed in the arma? ture and may he taken up. carried out over a wire, and returned to the place of beginning. That is what the electricians call the law of the dynamo. The other law is that when a current of electricity is passed through an armature inclosed within the magnetic field the armature is caused to rotate, That is what the electricians call the law of the moter. By the first law the current of elec? tricity is set up, anil by the second that current is enabled to establish mechanical motion. When these two laws became known the problem of applying electricity to the world's work mainly nee-led for solution only a cheapening of processes, such as should make it possible to produce a current at commercial rat?'n. Every dynamo, whatever its form, as re? gards the communication of electrical energy is essentially an electro-mag? net with a core of soft iorn, the arma? ture inclosed within the magnetic field, which is tie1 space between the two poles of the electro magnet. Every under, whatever its form, is essentially the same thing, with the core revolving under the influence of the magnetic Hehl, is a shaft, the current generated is the belt commu? nicating power to another shaft, the core of the moter. It is this.trans ferrencc of power by the invisible belt fron the dynamo t<> the moter thai makes the trolley cars run, the elec? trical engine revolve, or any other mechanism perform its work under the influence of electricity thus gen? erated. The storage battery is sim? ply an insulated reservoir of electri? cal energy, for the time being inde? pendent of the generating source, as if a user of water should prefer to till a tank in the top of his bouse once a week rather than draw from faucets directly connected with the main source of supply. .-_? -O- ? RATES TO TUB WORLD'S FA IK. The Railroad ^ompnnles Finally Come to an Agreement. The presidents of all the Chicago roads met and setteled on the World's Fair rates. The matter was osten? sibly left in the hands of the special committee of the Western Passenger Association, which is to report at an? other meeting of the association, but the presidents took the matters in their own hands, settled the rates and will hand their conclusions over to the passenger agents who will approve them, and they will then be formally adopteil as the regular rates to the Exposition. It is not definitely known just what rate will be adopted, but it will either be one and one-third or one and one-half, with the probabili? ties in favor of the former. The pres? idents have been compelled to take the question into their own hands, be? cause of the impending danger of a general demoralization of passenger rates, which would have been the le? gitimate outcome of a delayed decis? ion on the subject. ; Matty of the roads were quietly preparing to handle excursions at their own figures, and it would have been only a short time before there would have been a general scramble for business, which the presidents fwere afraid would bring rates too low for prafits. I 8EAKCH1XG THE HEAVKW8. Something Afcont The Glgnntlc New T??lesoopt? Now in Vrngren* of Construction. Kirch off and Turn sen wrought a i revolution when they perfected the es? sentials of spectrum analysis in 1860, ami the application of the Photogra? phy on an extensive scale within the last dozen years has marked an era in the science. These two discover? ies transformed the old into the neu*, the lesser into the greater astronomy, and nut of its needs has come the perfection of the magnificent Lick equatorial, which crowns Mt. Hamil? ton. Ca I. The old telescope, like the old as? tronomy, was comparatively simple. Spcctroscophy and photography mul? tiplied its functions by thee. The old telescope, every one in fact, prior to the Lick, was capable of but one function. If used in regular obser? vation it could not he readily charged for use in spectroscopic study, and if fitted for work with the spectroscope it was difficult to arrarnge for pho? tography. Indeed, an instrument was usually built, for one of the three uses; the Lick was buil for all three, the first of the kind ever constructed. It was so successful and its advan? tages were so grcai and obvious that the [Tinted States Government at once threw away the old mounting of the line 26-inch equitorial in the na? val observatory at Washington, which cost $20,000 no longer ago than 1870, and entered into a contract with Messrs. Warner <A: Swascy, the Cleve? land builders, who achieved such a triumph in the Lick, for a telescope new throughout, and similar to the Mt. Hamilton instrument. It has just been completed, and all that re? mains from the old telescope are the lenses. The Washington instrument was not yet (?ut of the shops, before work in drawings being made for another ami vastly greater one?the new Verkcs telescope for the University of Chicago. The Lick has a 36-inch object glass, the largest ever mount? ed; the Ycrkes will have one forty inches in diameter. The Lick com? plete weighs forty tons, the Washing? ton equatorial thirty tons; the Verkcs will almost if not quite, equal the weight of the two. The lenses for this great instrument were ground (?evcral years ago by the Clarks for the University of Southern Califor? nia, but the instrument was never built, and when Mr. Verkcs, the Chi? cago street railway millionaire, hit upon the splendid gift of an observa? tory to the great University of Chi? cago,he was able to secure these lenses without dificulty. The Cleveland builders will accordingly be able to complete the great seventy-ton tele? scope, an instrument 25 per cent, more powerful than the Lick, and nearly 50 per cent, more powerful than any other in the world, within a year. The vast size of this magnifi? cent star-searcher is best conveyed perhaps, in the fact it would require a six-story building for its construc? tion as a whole, and that it will ac? cordingly be impossible to set it up until it readies the observatory, the location of which has not yet been de? cided. The construction will be in sections, and even to do that the sec? ond and third floors of the large shops of the builders will bu partially removed. The tube which holds the lenses will alone weigh six tons. The mere mention of these great weights and dimensions gives a faint idea of the greatness of euch a tele? scope, but it is only when we begin to analyze the fact that we really ap? preciate something of the difficulties met and the wonderful niceties of construstion and adjustment involv? ed. Such an instrument with its complex functions is in fact a great machine combining the ponderous weight of the locomotive with the delicacy of a watch. For this rea? son it is that the Cleveland builders have made such a notable success. Prior to their embarking in the work, it had been largely in the hands of instrument maker who were much better qualified to judge of the man? ufacture of Hint glass for the lenses and the proper grinding of the great object glass than the application of the best mechanical principles to the difficult task of constructing a proper j mounting. Vet to mount a fine lens well is hardly less important than its optical perfection. Unless the great tube can be handled easily and direct? ed quickly to any desired poiut in the heavens, if it is constructed so as to ayoid deflection, as far as possible, through changing tempatures, and except it be free from jar or tremor, its usefullness is greatly discounted. A variation of a tenth of an inch from perfection in a tube thirty inches in diameter and thirty feet or more in length is a grave fault that must be allowed for in all the elaborte circula? tions, and render it almost useless in many important respects. The sheet steel for the tube, therefore, must have its strength ami resistance cal? culated as carefully as the girders, beams, and braces of a great bridge, and its quality must be beyond ques? tion. In the case of the Washington equatorial for the naval observatory, the sheets are about one-twelfth of an inch thick at the end of the tube and increase in thickness as they ap? proach the center, where they are over one-tenth of an-ineh. Steel is now used in all great telescops, be? cause it meets all requirements best. It is as plain and free from ornamen? tation as the surface ofasleam boiler. The instrument is for use, not for ornament, and fancy brass-work or polished steel surface would simply increase the labor (d ealing for it with no gain in unity. Besides the expansion ami contraction of brass is too great to permit its use in any quantity. The mechanical problem id" the tube appears in different guics in every part of the instrument. The resistance of the forty-ton wrought iron pier on which the instrument is mounted, must be calculated, means must be devised for taking up as much as possible of the thrust which comes upon the polar axis, in order thai the movement of the tube may be easy. This is done by a necklace of anti-friction rolls at the upper end of the polar axis, while below the weight is horn by hardened stell ball bearings similar to those in use in the best bycicles but larger. Then, too. it is a matter of no small delica? cy to so balance a tube weighing live tons, as does the Lick, or six, as will the Verkes, that it can be moved readily by the touch of the hand, ami the whole instrument be operated by one man for hours at a time. These arc all the problems of the mechanical engineer, yet strangely enough they had hardly been approached from that standpoint until the Cleveland builders began in constructing a small instrument for their own use eight years ago. A telescope mounted cquatorially has the polar axis, directed exactly to the pole of the heavens, that (.?en? ter about which the North star cir? cles, in its small orbit. The tube is mounted parallel with the eclestical equator. These axes arc arranged with gearing so that the tube can swing around them to almost any angle. As it revolves about the po polar axis it changes in celestial lon? gitude, or right ascension, and its movement on the declination axis marks its celestial latitude, or declin? ation. The graduate circles fitted to these axes enable the astronomer to measure exactly the point in the heavens to which his instrument is directed. The large coarse scale is shown on the outside and does for rough calculation, but the utmost aeuracy, down to fractions of a second must be secured, and for this a much finer scale of silver is fitted inside the other ami graduated so delicately that it must he read with a micro? scope. By a very ingenious contri? vance this fine scalt is illuminated as necessary by a small incadccscent electric light. These inner circles require the most careful and delicate workmanship, comparing in some re? spects with the mechanism of a watch and are the other extrem from calcu? lating the strength of steel and the necessary weight and dimension of the wrought iron pipe. Within the great pier is the driving clock, another remarkable piece of mechanism. By its power the great j tube is swung in precisely the motion of the sun, moon or stars under ob? servation ami the object kept directly in the center of the lield of vision. Solar time differs from lunar, ami both from stellar, and the clock is accordingly fixed to move the in strumeut in whichever time the ob? server wills. In the new Wasington telescope when the weights reach a certain point and the clock is almost run down, they switch on an electric current which winds the clock again. This clock alone in the new Ycrkcs instrument will weigh a ton. When the tube is once clamped in place on polar and declination axe?, the clock swiugs it like a great arm across the sky, the effect in an instrument where the tube is seventy-five feet in length, as it will be the case in the new Yerkes when all accessories are at tachcil, being most striking and im? pressive. The observer at the eyepieee of the instrument in the Lick or Washing? ton telescope has almost everything close at band to give him complete command of the great machine. With new Ycrkes this will be still better, as electric motets will be used for more purposes. The great object glass is, of course, only a light gath? erer. Strictly speaking, all this mag? nifying power is in the microscopic eyepiece, the great lease serving to focus a large amount of light from the object and thus make it possible to use higher magnifying powers successfully. The larger the object glass, as a rule, the smaller the field covered. One can sweep a wide area with an opera glass, and from that to the Lick telescope the Held of vis? ion grows regularly smaller. In the new Verkcs instrument it will be im? possible to see all the moon at one time. Because of this characteristic the small telescope, or finder, is at? tached To the tube and used to get the object located fairly in the field of vision, (.'lose at hand areThe thumb screws, by a twist of which the ob? server at the eyepiece in effect reaches 30 feet in the Lick telescope and clamps the tubes to the axes .so that the driving clock will keep it contin? uously on the stars, Besides this, the harnessed forces of nature arc at the bidding of the astronomer to min? ister to Iiis convenience. \\ hen a star, far down toward the horizon, is under observation, the eyepieces is brought high above the floor, and it was formerly necessary for the as? tronomer to perch on a broad ladder or eiect a platform. Now the touch jofan electric button, while standing at the eyepiece, sets hydraulic rams in operation and the great door itsell I is slowly raised to suit the needs ol the operator, if necessary as high as the balcony. This most unique and remarkable appliance was first pul in operation in the Lick observatorv and . ... is a feature of both the Washinton land the Ycrkes instrument. _;_^ ^_ Stockholder**' Meeting'. The annual meeting of the stock? holders of the Big Stone (lap Elec? tric Light and Power Co., for the purpose of electing officers for the en? suing year, and to transact any other business that may be brought before them, will be held,'Th?rs.lay, May 4, 1893, in the office of said company, at Big Stone < Jap, Va. dos. L. Kei.lv, Sc.- . Stockholder!*' Meeting*. The annual meeting of the Stock? holders of the Central Land Compa? ny will be held in the Directors room of the Appalachian Bank, Big Stone Crap, Va., on Thursday, May the4th, 1893, at two ('!) o'clock p. m. <mi cers for the ensuing year and a!! other genera] business of the compa? ny will be transacted. Jah. W. Cerow, President, R. T. Ervixe, Secretary. -<? ?>- ? Stockholder's* Meeting. The annual meeting of the stock? holders of the Big Stone Cap and Powell's Valley Railway Co., for the purpose of electing officers for the the ensuing year, and to transact any other business that may be brought before them, will be held Thins lay, May 4th, 1893, in the office of said company, at Big Stone Cap, Va. W. C. Harrington, Sec -?? Stockholders' Meeting, A special meeting of the stock? holders of the Big Stone Gap Build? ing & Investment Company is hereby called to meet at the Appalachian Bank, Big Stone Cap, Va.., on Wed? nesday, May 3rd 1893, tit '1 o'clock p. m. The object of this meeting is to elect officers, supervise the accounts and condition of the company, ami adopt such measures as may be deemed best for the general welfare of the company. By order of the Board of directors. I?. T. Irvine, President, C. H. Berryman, Secretary. Stockholder's .Meeting. The annual meeting of the stock? holders of the Appalachian Bank, of Big Stone Gap, Va., for the purpose of electing officers for the ensuing year, and to transact any other busi? ness that may be brought before them, will be held at 4 o'clock p. m., Mon? day, May 8th, 1898, in the offices of said bank. W. A. McDowell, President. Statistics of mortality in the South show that the -death rate is -A colored to one white. Li out wrruur ukat. TIio Discoveries NlfcolN Tclsw I? Ulvlng flio Worltl. [From tin' UrfKunore Sun.] Almost from the time that the vi? bratory theory of the light was accept? ed scientific men have looked forward to the day when it would he possible to produce light without heat. Tor it is an unfortunate f?ct thatlso far every effort to produce light Was been accompanied by an enormous wast of energy due to the production of use* less heat. The simplest way of pro? ducing light is by means of the com? bustion of some compound of carbon. It does not matter whether the cai bon compound is solid, as in a candle, or a fluid as in a lamp, or is a gas, as in ordinary illuminating ga:?the process is the same. The union of the carbon of the substance with the oxygen of the air produces the rapid vibration that the eye recognizes as light. Carbon though the element usually employed, is not a necessary factor, tor magnesium, potassium, iron?indeed, almost any of the ele? ments?will take its [dace. Neither is oxygen a necessary part in the pro? duction of light. Chlorine will pro? duce an even more brilliant light with certain substances. It. in evident, therefore, that the rate of vibration and not the element employed is the principal factor in producing light. Unfortunately all methods of produc? ing- light by means of chemical com? binations (such as the union of the corbon of the candle with the oxygon of the air) arc accompanied by a very large production of heat waves, which in the majority of cases, are utterly useless, if not absolutely troublesome. The old simile of a musician desiring to produce a certain high note being compelled to press down all the keys of Iiis instrument is an apt one. The lower notes are not merely useless, but they are positively annoying. Singularly enough, the first solu? tion of the problem thai was attempt? ed successfully was by the aid of heat. A very small amount id'light waves are required for recognition by the wonderfully developed special sense which man possess. It is in? tensity, not quantity, that is wanted to use a technical term. Conso? rtia tly if a very small particle is heated to incadeseuce the light which it throws out hears a far greater ra? tio to the amount of heat required than it does if a large mass is simi? larly heated. This is one of the radical bases of utility of the incades cent (ledlie light. An extremely filament is heated to incadcscenco through the resistance which it oilers to the How of an electric current. It generates heat, it is true, but the amount of heat thus produced, how over, is amply sufficient for all ordi? nary purposes. This solution, however, is highly unsatisfactory to scientists, however, useful it. is to the public at large. Light apart from heat together was wanted. The firefly, the phosphor? escent sea animalcules and even the exhausted tubes of Gcissicr furnished the hope that yet there was some method of reaching the high note without pressing down the whole key? board. Recently an extraordinary genius has appeared in this country who seems upon the verge of discovering, if not have actually discovered, a method by which this might be done. Nicola Tcsla, a man of indipendent fortune and most brillant mind, who was for h time connected with Edison, has dared to experiment with rapidly, alternating electric currents. The result has surpassed the widest dreams of the theorizers. He has succeed in producing light of com? paratively high intensity without the production of heat and apparently directly by the use of electricity. The halls <d' the Royal Society of London and the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, have been illuminat? ed by means of light radiated from bat e copper wires in the open are car? rying these so-called Tesla currents. The wires were not hot, but they ra? diate from their surface light and sent from one to another bands and streamers of the mysterious light which we see in the aurorar borealis. The effect must be seen to the thor? oughly appreciated, but when it is stated that the experimenter without difficulty succeeded in radiating light not only from an exhausted glass tube held in his hand, but also from his thumb,his nose and other feature*, the enthusiasm which swept over his audience in London and in Philadel? phia may be appreciated. As yet no useful application has been found for these wonderful new developments in electrical science, but they should he welcomed as a harbinger of further progress.