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?KEEPING EVERLASTINGLY AT IT BRINGS SUCCESS."
":::==~~ BIG~STONE GAPTWISE COUNTY, VA., THURSDAY, MAY 25, 1893. HO. 25." VOL. I. Professional Card.?. A. L. PRIDEMORE, ATTORNEY-AT-LAW, JonosviJIe, Virginia. ICOOK T. B. JACI SOX. <;;:i<- City, Va. Ofcfl v . pi \MCKNKIIir, Jonesvillc, V?. JACKSON & BLANKENSHIP, ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW, .lor.e.V.;;:;. Virginia. p _, attention clven to busUoe ? :iI all times. ,. ,, . ' i . - ?t VI . ' .? specialty. r. a. ay:- rs. DS . L. KcLLY. LAW OFFICES IN A VEHS BUILDING, Big Stone Cap, Va, m \? i u Jit. BULL ITT & McDOWELL, ATTORNEYS AT- LAW, ?T< N'K GAP, VA i ? 'V \A/ G '.' tr M It. A. Vv. ? v t~*1?, ATTORNEY-AT-LAW, Office In Sliortt Priming, Big Stone Gap, Virginia. R. T. IRVINE, ATTORNEY-AT-LAW. Office In Suinmcrfielsl Building, '?V.....! Avenue Bk; Stone Gapx Virginia. L. TURNER MAURY, ATTORNEY-AT-LAW. Offlco In Ay ??>' i". lildhig, \V.: Xvenue, Bi^' Stone Gap, Virginia. WALTER E. ADDISON. ATTORNEY AT-LAW. CiL?; Stone Gap, Virginia. w.k. ui-arcsn^banon, Va. i:. m.kcltox, Wise (.'.11. Va. BURNS & FULTON, ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW, ConiTs:-!:e.???!'. v.'i ;ami nicken ui Counties,ami Court ..f Appi als at V.ytl,. , ille. Va. C. 7. lil'M' \ V. VV. 8. JIATJIft'.VS, JOS. O.MAi'NOIt, Jotiesvllle, V.:- IHg Stone Gap. P.igStone Gap. DUNcan, M aJ hi Ews & m AYNOR, ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW, Office in Ni.-i.??!.- HullUiug, Wood Avenue, Ba; Stone Cap, Virginia. Close Attention to Colli ti - and Prompt Heniltnuc W. J. hUnoLh ? , ATTORNEY-AT-LAW, Big Stone Grip, Virginia, A I.So Whitest) urg., Ky. peelul attention i to Collections and Land Titles. t. v. vi.i'Kitsov. WU xv.t. r.tn.t.Kit, Norton. ALDEi. SON & MILLER, ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW. (Prompt attenl dress. ::li ni ent rusted v> us. Ad . ..... or Norton, Va. M. G. ELY, ATTORNEY-AT-LAW, Turkey Covo, Lee Co., Va, J. W. KELLY, HYSICIANandSURGEON, Offic i-i I'n:- Store, Avers lUucl:, Big Stone Gap, Virginia. "1 Respond Promptly Calls, Both Day Htul Nicrhc. 13-if C. D. KUNKEL, [YSICIAN ? i>SURGEON, Big Stone Gap, Virginia, t!>e people of tin- city N, H. REEVE, M. D. RESTS DISEASES OF WOMEN EXCLUSIVELY. w: Main St. Bristol, Tenn. DR. J. C. PR UN ER, ce* R?om No. 9, Central Hotel - I Monday in each lili 9 rvlci - sli >uld make .' tor succeeding days during W, TKACKER, IL ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR, Stone Gap, Virginia. x Land Work ;i RpcciaUv. MALCOLM SMITH, L ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR. ce N^xt to Post Office. KIG STOXK (1A ', VA. s- D. HURD, C H ITECT, M ' Stone Gap, Va. .CATIO.Ni^ > ESTIMATES " ' *1 IN \ Tiioao&lll \M? '1;,''-'TIC 31 iXKKR, Ii If? Stone Gup Cornea rile?;*i?d Corpo ntUon*;. Bra Stoxk r, m' Imtrovkkkxt Co. Cnj IUI stock, |2,500,000. Bonded issue, .?/.ofx?,000. Officer*.?It. A. Aver*,President, J. F.Bullitt,Jr. Vice-President. W C. Harrington, Secretary and Treasurer, BigStoue Gap; 1'.- C Bnllnrd Thruston, Trustee, Louisville, Ky. Directors.?It. A. Ayers, J. F. Bui litt? jr., J. K. Tnggart, Big Stone Gap; Chan. T. Ballarri, Lonifl villc, Ky.: Jas. W. Fox. Jno. C. Haskell, New York; II. C. McDowell, sr., Lexington, Ky.; Wm; McGcorRc, jr.. Philadelphia; I:. P.. WTiltrldgc, Boston.. KxecntivcCommittee.?R. A. Ayerg, J. K. Talari. Rig StoiicGsp: Jas. W. Fox. Jno. C. naskell, S>w York; II. ?'. McDowell,sr., Lexington. Ky. Bui Stosk ?; \r \.m> rowKi.i.'s Vai.i.ky Haiiayay Co. Capital stock, #0,000. Officers.?R. A. Ayers, President, .1. K. Taggart. Vicc-rre*Ident. W. C. Harrington, Secretary and Treasurer, Big Stone Gap. Directors.?R. A. Ayers, II. C. McDowell, jr.. J. K. Taggart, Big Stone Gap; \Y. P. Clyde, New York; II. ('. Wood, Bristol, Trim. Bin Stoxk Gap Ei.bctkic Lioiit ami Powmi: Co. (Capital stock. $50,000.) President, I?. A. Avers; Secretary, Jos. L. Kelly; To-nsuror, H. 11 Rnllitt. Directors.?If. A. Ayers. II. If. Bullitt. It.T.Irvim Gus. W. LovelL II, C. McDowell, jr. Bio Stoxk Gap Watkh Co. (Capital stock $200,000. Bonds issued, ?Gf>,000.) OOlecra.?Prcsincat, .1. i'. Bullitt. jr.; Big Stone Gap; Vice-President, James^V. Fox, J?ew York : Scc retarj ami Treasurer, W, A. McDowell; Superintend? ent, .1. L. Jennings, Iii? Stone Gap. Directors.?I). C Anderson. R. \. Avers,.!. V. Bul? litt. jr., Big Stone Gap; J- \V. Gerow, Glasgow; I. 1'. Kane, Gate City, V.t. Big stoxk GAr Buir.nixn asm Invkstmk.nt Co. Capital stock?minimum?$50,000. Capita! stock?authnrlxedf-$100,fl00. (No bonded Issue.) Officers.?Presidents I'.. T. Irvine; Secretary and Treasurer, W. A. McDowell, Big Stone Gap. Directors.?U. A. Avers, John \V. Fox, jr., John M. Goodloe, K. M. Ilardln, It. T. Irvine, VC. A. McDow? ell, Big Stone Gap; Joltn E.Green, Louisville, Ky. Aitalaciii \x Bank. Capital stock?authorized?$50,000. Capital stock?paid in?$25,000. Officers.?President, VC. A. .McDowell; Teller, Jno. B. Payne. Directors.?J. F. Bullitt, jr., C. VV. Evans, .1. M. Goodloe, U. T. Irvine, II. ('. McDowell, jr., \V. a. McDowell,J. B. F. Mill , Big Stone Gap; B. J. Bird, Iron ton, Ohio. Daisy litox and Minim; Co. (Mines located at Hagau. Lee Co., Va ) Capital, attthorixed, ?100,000. Capital, paid in, $15,000. Officers.?D.S. Pleasants, President, \V. A. Mc Dawell,Treasurer, Big StoncGap; Secretary, Walter Graham, Gruliam, v.l., Secretary; H. I.. Montciro, Manager, Hagau, Va. Directors.?Walter Graham, Graham, Va.; II. L. Monteiro, llngun, Vt.; L. Turner Miiury, W. A. Mc? Dowell, D. S. I'lcasauts, Big Stone Gap, Va. l.vtkustatk ixvkstmrxt Co. Capital a>ck, $100,(10(1. President, Chas. T. Bnllard; Vice President, A. T. Pope; Secretarv, T. G. Williams, Lou? isville. Directors.?('Las. T. Ballard, .lohn Church? ill, \Y. .V. Cnli.. A. S. Hughes, A. V. Lafay? ette, A. T. Pope, S. Zorn, Louisville. Interstate Tunnel Co. Capital stock, $10,000,000. President, II. C. McDowell, sr., Lexington; Vice President, St. John Boyle: Secretary, T. W. Spindle, Louisville. Directors.?St. .John Boyle,.). W. Gaulbcrt, .John E. Green, K. T. Flulsey, Louisville, Ky.; Arthur Carey, Clay City, Ky.: F. D. Carley, New York; 11. ('. McDowell, Lexinirton, Ky.; Jno. H. Procter, Frankfort, Ky. Fayette Land Co. Capital stock, $200,001?. ^President, J. P. Sitnrall; Secretary and Treasurer, G. II. Whiinev, Lexington, Kvv Directors.?Atila Cox, J. M. Kelter, II. K. Smith, Louisville, Ky.; Tims. Marlin, J. U. Sitnrall, Cr. II. Whitney, Lexington, Ky.; Horace K. Fox, Pig Stone Gap. South Appalachian Land Co. Kapital stock,$200,000. President, II. ('. McDowell, sr., Lexington, Ky.: Secretarv and Treasurer, T. W. Spindle, Louisville, Ivy. Directors.?St. John Bot le, J. W. (Jaulbert, John ES. Green, Louisville, Kv.: Arthur Carev, ('lav City, Ky.: K. D. Carley, New York; H. ('. McDowell, sr.."Lexington, Kv. West 12nd La mi Co. Capital stock, $200,000. President, Jas. T. Shields,Knoxville, Tenn. Directors..?E. P. Brvan, St. Louis, Mo.; R. \V. McCrarv, Frankfort, Ky.: Jus. T. Shields, Knoxville, Tenn. Virginia Coal and Ikon Co. Capital stock, $1,500,000. President, E. P. Leiscnring, Philadelphia, Pa.: Vice President, Dr. J. S. Went/., Manch Chunk, Pa.; Treasurer, M. S. Keinnierer, Mandl ('hunk, Pa.; Secretary, W. C. Kent, Philadelphia; General Manager, J. K. Tag' gart, Pig Stone Gap, Directors.?II. A. Avers, Big Stone Gap; John C. Bullitt, E. \V\ Clark, Sani'l Pickson, Philadelphia, M. S. Kernmerer,t?auch (.'hunk, Pa.: K. B. Leiscnring, Philadelphia; Robert H. Saver, Bethlehem, Pa.; Sani'l Thomas, Catasqua, Pa.; Dr. J. S. Went/., Mauch Chunk, Pa. powki.l's RtVKIC COA] ASH [llON Ct). Capital stock, $12t>,000. President, K. P. Leisenring; Secretary and Treasurer, W. C. Kent, Philadelphia. Appalachian Steel and Ikon Co. Capital stock. $800,000. President, E. J. Bird, jr., Ironton, Ohio; Secretarv and Treasurer, M. T. Rideuotir; General Manager, E. J. Bird, sr., Pig Stone (Jap. Va. Directors.?R. A. Ayers. P. J. Bird, sr.; M. T. Ridenour, Big Stone Gap; S. P. Bacon, Cincinnati; 11. V? . Dates, Greenup, Ky.; E. J. Bird, jr., Ironton. Ohio.; Jno. C. Haskell, New Vork. Southwest Virginia Minkral Land Co. Capital Stock, $65,000. President, Barton Myers; Secretary and Treasurer, L. I!. Shields, Norfolk, Va.; Gen? eral Manager, Jas. W. Gerow, Glasgow, Va. Directors?.las. AY. Gerow, Glasgow, Va.: R. M. Hughes, David Lowenberg, Barton Mvers, L. II. Shields, W. F, B. Slaughter, Norfolk. Dank of Bid Stone Gap. Capital?authorized?$100,000. Capital- paid iu?$4-1,300. President, W. II. Nickels, Dullteld, Va.; Cashier; H. II. Bullitt: Teller, W. M. McEl wee. Big Stone Gap. Kentucky-Carolina Timbek Co. President and General Manager, T. H. Ma? son: Yiee President, L. 0. Petti t; Secretary and Treasurer, II. II. Bullitt, Big Stone Gap. Central Land Company. Capital, $200,000. President, James W. Ger?tv, Glasgow, Va.: Secretary and General Managet', R. T. Irvine, Treasurer, W. A. McDowell, Pie; Stone Gap. Directors.?J, E. Abraham, Louisville, Ky.; James W. Gerow, Glasgow, Va.. J. Ilolliday, Columbia,Ky.; R. T. Irvine, W. A. McDow? ell. Big Stone Gap; Ration Myers, L. H. Shields. Norfolk, Va. East Big Stone Gap Land and Improve? ment Co. Capital Stock, $500,000. President, J. B. F. Mills; Vice President, R. T. Irvine; Secretary, S. C. Berryman, Big Stone (iap. Directors.?Geo. E. Dennis, Rocky Mount, Va.: R. T. Irvine, 1. N. Jones, Gus \V. Lov ell,J.P. K. Mills, Pig Stone Gap; M. B. Wood, Bristol, Tenn.: J. W. Yates, Flint JIM, Va. Bio Stone Gap Grate and Mantle Co. Capital stock- prefurredr $10,000. Capital stock?common?-$1.5,00?'. President, W. K. Harris; Secretary and Treasurer, J. B. Dowden, Big Stone (Jap. Directors.?J. B. Dowden, John Giilev, W. T. Goodloe, W. E. Harris, K. T. Irvine, Big Stone Gap. BIG STONE GAP COAL FIELD Its Advantages and Location. Interesting: Document by Prof. Jas. M. Hodge. Below is given the body of an in tereHting document, prepared by Prof. James M. I lodge, on the'Big Stone Gap coal-field and read before a recent meeting of the American Institute of .Mining Engineers : The Cumberland Gap extension of the Louisville and Nashville railroad, recently completed from Cumberland Cap to Norton, 71 miles, connects at the latter point with the Norfolk and Western, making a direct through line from Louisville to Nor? fork. The whole of this connecting link strikes the southern boundary of the southwest Virginia coal region, hut for the first 57 miles of its course it is separated from the coal by a moun? tain range (Cumberland mountain and its extension. Stone mountain), which bars entrance to the field from that*dircction, excepting at Penning? ton Cap, where access may be had to a small area only, which has not yet developed any very satisfactory coal. The railroad passes through the range at Big Stone Ca]), and for the last 14 miles of its course to Norton is in direct contact with that part of the coal region known as the Big Stone Gap coal-tied. By this road a western and south? western outlet from the field is se? cured; the Clinch valley extension of the Norfolk and Western railroad gives exit eastward from Norton, and the South Atlantic and. Ohio rail? road, built through Big Stone Cap simultaneously with the L. Ar N. It, R., delivers the coal to points south and southeast. Besides these lines already built, an early connection with the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia railroad, via its Rogcrsville branch, is probable, and connections with the railroads of eastern Kentucky are projected. The Charleston, Cincin? nati and Chicago railroad has already done some grading on one of the lat? ter, but the rugged country interven? ing will prevent its cost ruction till the demand for it becomes urgent. The coal-field embraces in Virgin? ia about 120 square miles, to which should be added some 30 sqare miles in Kentucky, also tributary to Big Stone Gap, the whole of it underlaid by coal, probable of workable thick? ness, and much of it by two or more such beds. The determination of the boundaries of the field, however (ex? cept on the south, where Stone moun? tain forms a natural limit beyond which only a small, isolated tract of coal is found), is involved in much ueertaity; for the coal extends far be? yond the assumed boundaries east, north, and west, and the area which may rightly be included in this field depends upon what means may be adopted in the future for reaching the coal and shipping it through other channels. As here circumscribed, the area in Virginia includes the region drained by the headwaters of the Powell riv? er, north of the crest of Stone moun? tain, in Wise county, and in Lee county to a distance of about 10 miles west from Big Stone Gap. The width of this area is, on the west, about o miles, and toward its eastern end, 1U miles or more. Its length is about 20 miles. The area in Ken? tucky included as a part of the field is a strip on the north side of Big and Little Black mountains (the State line lying along their summits), as? sumed to average 2 miles in width and to be 15 miles loiig. The main topographical features are given by Black mountain (which, on the west, divides into Big and Lit? tle Black, with a short, high spur between them) and Stone mountain. The latter ranges nearly straight northeast and southwest; the former is quite crooked, and has more north? erly general direction. It attains 4000 feet at its higest point, while the greatest height of Stone moun? tain is about 3000 feet, or some 1500 feet above the town of Big Stone Gap. From Black mountain spurs pro? trude southeasterly to Powell river, at the base of Stone, mountain, and northwesterly to Cumberland river, at the base of Pine mountain, enclos? ing between them the principal sources of those rivers in extremely narrow valleys. From the end of Little Black moun? tain a very low spur connects with Stone mountain. It is so low that it presents no serious obstacle to en? tering by railway the western end of the field, but it forms the divding-line between the drainage to Pennington and to Big Stone Caps, and between Lee and Wise, counties. At Norton, the easter limit of the field, the Pow? ell river valley ^Continues into that of the Guests river, beyond. All coal-land drainage of Wise county west of Norton passes through Big Stoue Gap, already occupied by railroads, while that of the eastern part of Lee county, flowing through Peunington Gap, penetrates a region so rough as to preclude carrying coal in that direction. Geologically, Stone and Pine moun? tains from the sides of a trough ris? ing to a height of 10?? to 1500 feet, at angles varrying from 20 degrees from horizontal up to, and even past, vertical. The bottom of this trough, about 12 miles wide, is comparative \\% flat, but numerous flexures and cross-flexures have inclined the strata in all directions: The priucipat axis of the trough, however, is clearly ap? parent, lying somo 3 miles from the base of Pine mountain. Black mountain lies partly across I the trough. South of that mountain, and hence over most of the field, this synclinal involves a- pitch against drainage, hut as the rate seldom ex-| coeds 150 feet per mile, and is gener ally much less, and as cross-flexures may often be taken advantageously, the deep erosions made by the streams will make mining possible over a large area, from outcrop openidgs and on an ascending grade. The coal-measures exposed in this field embrace a section extending from the base of the lower conglomerate (XII. of the Pennsylvania Survey) nearly or quite up to the Pennsylva? nia "Barren Measures." This section attains here probably the greatest de? velopment to be found in the Appa? lachian region, and is estimated tobe about 3,000 feet thick. The lower third of the section con? tains the conglomerate series, with three to five beds of coal, while the upper two thirds?the "Lower Pro? ductive" measures?contain fully twenty distinct coal-beds, averaging less than 100 feet apart. The exact number, however, must always re? main indefinite, since the different seams combine or separate, to form one large bed or two or more small ones, in a manner which defies enum? eration. Jn tracing the identity of the beds, even within the confined limits of this field, this feature has been a source of great uncertainty, and other difli-1 cullies are added in the frequent changes of the character of beds (of their thickness and partings, and oc? casionally of the coal) and a lack of characteristic intervening rocks. But enough work has been done to identi? fy the most important beds over the greater part of the field, and two or three can be included in the Kentucky nomenclature with sufficient certainty. But the fact of such varation in the beds renders the need for identifica? tion proportionally slight. Each bed in its own field must be tested there, and be valued according to the re suits of the testing, without regard to what may have been proved of it elsewhere. | The field is not wholly without characteristic rocks. Besides the lower conglomerate, unmistakable as ever, a persistent fossiliferous lime? stone, 1 to 3 feet thick, is found at a height of 1,'200 to 1,400 feet above it (one must usually climb 800 feet or more to see it), and above this is an upper conglomerate. This rock, some? times 150 feet thick, appears to be included in the "upper scries" of Kentucky, containing Coals 10, 11 and 12. Over parts of the field it forms a conspicuous crest or thrusts high dill's out upon the sides of the mountain; at. other points it is in? distinguishable from the; rocks above and below it. In the former case it is thickly studded with pebbles, while in the latter they are wholly absent, or so few that only most careful search reveals them. As in Kentucky, the rock encloses one or more beds of coal, with attendant shale and clay. In describing the principal beds numbering is avoided as liable to be confused with numbering of other lo? calities and only local names are used. The highest bed of importance has its chief development in the western part of the field, and though not easily accessible and of comparatively small area, is especially valuable, and will probably be brought into early use, on account of its containing from 5 to 7 feet of exceptionally fine splint coal. It has been thoroughly ex? plored in tins western part of the field, and has been found most relia? ble both in size and quality.. The coal is remarkably clean, mines in large blocks, like cannel, and, being light in ash and sulphur, should be nearly as desirable for domestic uses as cannel-coal. Several beds below this (one of them containing a pocket of cannel coal) have not yet been much ex? plored, because of the greater value of still lower ones; but they will be? come highly valuable as the latter are exhausted. The next bed requiring especial mention has also been thoroughly in? vestigated only in the western part of the field. It has been opened in Lee county along the face of Little Black mountain about 200 feet above the base. On the northern side of the mountain it is mostly below drainage within the field-limits, but on both sides it shows a thickness of 4? to Q-k feet of coal, not including a portion rendered unavailable by thin partings. The bed yields a bituminous coal, in which is a little splint, the whole' making a good coke, as obtained by trials in open ricks, in each of which 3 to 4 tons of coal were burned, cov? ered with leaves and dirt. The coal j is even purer than that of the previ-j ously described bed, and it is not too j dry in volatile matter for economical coke-waking. The analysis of the coke puts it in the front ramk, as far as its chemical constituents are con? cerned', and it is not lacking in favor? able mechanical conditions. The excellence of this coke, the large area and satisfactory thickness of the coal and its moderate height above the valley should lead to an early attack upon this part of the .field, though to reach it n branch railroad 10 miles long must be built. Still, lower l>e<ls will have precedence in other parts of the field. Next in the series is a bed varying much in thickness, often altogether wanting, and probably covering but little area with workable coal. Its maximum thickness,, as yet known, is about 8 feet, on Mill- branch, an eastern tributary of Powell river. On Callahan creek, ajoining, it is known as a 5-foot coking-coal bed, but its inferiority to the bed immediately be? low it casts it wholly into the shade. Averaging, perhaps, 50 feet lower than the bed just mentioned, and 300 to 350 feet above the lower con? glomerate, lies the "Imbodcn" bed, the equivalent of No. 3 of Kentucky, where it is now well known as the "Elkhorn" coking coal of Pike and Lctcher counties. It has been pretty thoroughly ex? ploited over most of the Big Stone Cap field, where accessible in outcrop, and for nearly two years has been mined, on a small scale, for supplying the South Atlantic and Ohio railroad and local demands along its line. Its outcrop lies along the base of Little Black mountain in Lee county, but in Wise county it generally goes under drainage 2 miles or more south from Black mountain, thus giving exposures along each main stream for a distance of 2 to 8 miles. Along Powell river, from Big Stone Cap nearly to Norton, it is found in the ends of the spurs on the north from 300 to 400 feet above the river. Making full allowance for indenta? tions of streams and absence of the bed from the southern part of the field, there remains not less than GO per cent, of the total area covered by it, or fully 90 square miles. East ami south of the limits assigned to the Held the bed has comparatively little or no value ; west of it the coal is thicker, but still considerably below the average of the field; but on the north the coal holds well in thickness as far as to the Cumberland river. Most of the openings made in the bed within the field disclose a thick? ness of coal of over 5 feet, varying with great irregularity up*to 16 and even 20 feet of coal. Only in a lew open? ings near the extremities of the field has the coal been found less than 4 feet thick. Though varying so greatly in thickness along its hundred or more miles of outcrop on the Virginia side of the field, its ample proportions there, combined with its favorable showing along the Cumberland river, warrant the assumption that the main body of the coal under Black moun? tain is also undoubtedly of abundant thickness. The excessive thickness has been found always within a few miles of Stone mountain, and may be attributed to the uplifting of that mountain as a cause. On the Cane Patch, an eastern branch of Roaring Fork, the bed has 20 feet of coal with heavy partings, but it diminishes to about 5 feet on the eastern head of the branch and on Bear Pen branch, a mile or two south. Still further east, on the main head of Powell river, the coal is again 14 feet or more thick, with a parting of 5 feet, but here, at the eastern end of the field, it is too near the tops of the hills to be of value. It is to be said of most of the open? ing made that they are merely sur? face openings, and consequently that the many partings sometimes shown would undoubtedly diminish in num? ber and size on entrance underground. This has proved to be the case in sev? eral instances in this locality. On the other hand, a qualification is also necessary in regard to the ex? treme thickness which the bed so fre? quently displays. A middle bench of this is so soft that it is often im? possible to mine it except as slack, and it has, intimately mixed with it and so abundant as to seriously afreet its quality, thin particles of soft shale, rarely more than ? in diameter. Though much of this shale may be eliminated by washing, the cost of so doing, and the inferior quality of coke resulting, must detract largely from the value of the bed. In extreme cases, the expense of disposing of tin; whole bench may be a total loss. The thickness of the bench varies with considerable regularity accord? ing to the total thickness of bed. It is generally absent when the coal is less than 7 feet thick. The quality of the rest of the coal throughout, except in the extreme western part of the field, is remarka? ble fine. The coal is very low in ash and sulphur (as regards ash, the re? sults for Looney creek and Mud Lick coals would probably have been bet? ter, but that the samples were taken from outcrop-openings), and that the proportion of volatile matter is suit? able for economical coking and pro? ducing a strong coke. The coal of the neighboring PocohontaS field, having but about 18 per cent, of vol? atile matter, loses part of its fixed carbon in coking, and its coke is somewhat deficient strength. The annalyses of Big Stone Gap coke show higher fixed carbon and lower ash than any other of the principal cokes in the market, while the percentage of sulphur is among the lowest. The table is given with the knowedgc that some of the local? ities named have published anayscs I giving better results than here appear. While it is not intended to dispute these,the talde is given with confidence in the high authority quoted. Much depends on the manner of sampling, and the writer acknowedges that from his open-rick tests he chose the finest looking coke as samples for analysis by Dr. Peter though in the coals be? took full working coal-sections for the same analyst, as is known to be the custom of Prof. McCreathe. In appearance the Imbodon coke gives no indication of inferiority to any of the others, and only the test of use remains to be applied to establish its reputation. In a group of coals lying close above the lower conglomerate, occurs another coking coal almost identi? cal in character with that just de? scribed. It is above drainage in the field for only a very short distance north from the base of Stone mountain, ex? cepting at its eastern extremity, where a cross-fold has brought the bed to the surface for some miles northward. At points except this latter, where the bed is expossed, it is broken up into several thin scanies too thin for working. But at and near Norton they are combined in one bed, varying from 8 to 10 feet in thickness, and having one to three partings, usually small. In this condition it has a frontage against Stone mountain of only one mile, extending from Powell to Guest' river Two miles northward it has 8 feet of coal, with parting of 15 inches, and a mile beyond, where it disappears below drainage, it still shows thick coal. Apparently it lies in a narrow band, cutting diago? nally across rather sharp local north? east and southwest flexure. On ei? ther side of the strip two seams of the bed rapidly sepcrate, to form two distinct beds, which, for an undeter? mined' distance, but on the west for several miles, contain each from 3 to 5 feet of coal. The coal is so like the "Jmboden" (without the central bench of soft mixed coal and shale) that a descrip? tion of one will answer for the other. The coke, from the open ricks, gave a little less fixed carbon on analysis than the "Imboden," but that is probable due to an accident of manip? ulation. The amount of ash is re? markably small. The last beds to be mentioned lie within the lower conglomerate series. No attempt has been made within this field to investigate any of the conglomerate beds; but two of them have.been exposed in driving a rail? way tunnel in Big Stone (rap. The larger one of these are hidden by the tunnel-timbering. It contains 0 feet of handsome coking gass-coal, which was highly appreciated as a grate and blacksmith's fuel by those* who had an opportunity to try it. No sulphur was detected in it. The bed outcrops all along the crest of Stone mountain dropping down to cross the streams in Big Stone and Pennington Gaps, but the steep inclination of the strata form? ing that mountain will debar early attack upon the bed there, while throughout the rest of the field, its depth below drainage of 500(?)feet minimum, will cause a like delay. But the bed situates an important reserve supply, to be drawn upon as the more convenient higher beds ap? proach exhaustion. It is hardly necessary to enter into a computation of the total amount of coal which may he produced from this field. According to the last United States Census, the Pocahontas field has yielded 1,400 tons per foot thick? ness per acre; at Conncllsville it is claimed that 90 per cent, of the total coal per acre is obtained, which amounts to rather more than 1,400 tons per foot of coal. Assuming that the '"Imboden" bed will yield an aver? age of but 5 feet of coal, or 7,000 tons per acre over its 00 square miles, a total amount of over 400,000,000 tons is reconed to be available in this bed alone. This is regarded as a con? servative estimate. And this bed contains only a minor part of the workable coal in the field, of the area of which it covers but 00 per cent. It will hardly admit of doubt that there need be no delay on the score of quan? tity and quality of coal and coke in constructing such mining plants and systems of transportation as a practi? cally unlimited supply would justify. ***** The activity now displayed in build? ing new ovens at the older Pocahontas mines, and in the long line of those newly opened on Elkhorn creek, a few miles farther north, is conclusive proof of satisfactory profits. Under like methods of mining the cost of production at Big Stone Gap will not vary materially from that at Pocahontas. Both fields present large areas which have as nearly perfect conditions in the chief elements of mining?character and thickness of coal, ease of access, drainage, ami ventilation?as can be found in any competing field. In cost of labor these fields may have some slight advantage over more northern ones, but its poorer quality and unreliability are believed to offset most of the apparent gain of lower wages. It is to be hoped that an early introduction of mining machinery will be made, which, though it may more nearly equalize what difference there may be in that respect, will greatly cheapen the cost of production. Cost of transportation need be ex? amined relatively only, distance to the market being the controlling element. On this account the uortheastern markets must always be supplied by the nearer coking coul-fieUs in that direction. Luke Erie ports will continue taking their supplies from CoimeHaviHc as long a? that ?eUl Is able !?> furnish them, but the enormous drain on it is rapidly ex? hausting tta small area.** The Pocahontaf field, Tfith it* direct nothcrn outlet now just opened is farorubly situated for com? pctingin thin direction;- but an equal op? portunity ?rill he gi??fii tu Hip Stone Gap by the completion of one of its projected railways northward. Tin's gain, however, will he offset by tho consequent develop* ment of the eastern Kentucky field, and probnbly others in Dickinson an Buchanan counties, Va., which will compete with Big Stone Gnp in the southern market. West of Lake Erie, Big Stone Gap may well look for a favorable market. Under existing railroad facilities, it is abouft equidistant with Vocationtas from Cincin? nati, but projected lines arc likely to give it the advantage. The southern Kentucky fields will compcto in this direction, as in the Louisville market: but the difference in distance in their favor is too slight to cut out Big Stone Gap. The principal market In be looked to, however, are, and will donliuue to be, southwest and south. The Cumberland river region will, in part, share in this, but the coke of Middlcsborough and Pine villc do not appear to be altogether sali* factory lor furnace use, mid the better coke which may he had front the upper Cumbcrluud has not the advantage of po? sition which pertains to those places. Birmingham, Ala., and other places near the Alabama fields, will doubtless contin? ue using native coke; but the higher cost of mining the comparatively thin beds' there, and the poorer quality of coke, prevents its wide distribution. Chatta? nooga now consumes a large amount ot Pocahontas coke, which is carried 4'M miles against 14:2 miles from Birmingham. .More than that, Pocahontas coke ha? been used in Birmingham, but to what extent, or whether its usu was until limed, is not known to I he w riter. Itig Stone Gap is but miles from Chattanooga, and that distance is likely to !>e shortened soon. Tho northern Ala? bama markets are open to its coke, and from Chattanooga eastward through Ten? nessee it will have no serious competition. In this direction lies its greatest field of usefulness, for it is the nearest coke to the great iron-ore deposits in northwest? ern North Carolina, to which direct rail connection is already made. To tois point of*first importance is In be added the tuet of an immense, though scattered, supply of iron-ore throughout southwest Virgin? ia and Tennessee. There unbounded resources of ore hare heeii made so well known within the lust four years that they need only be referred to now. They are evidenced in that fact that there are now over twenty iron bhist-furnacus using coke, or about lo uso it, built northeast ot Birmingham between it.mid Big Stone Gap and Bristol, Tenn. Of these, seven have been built within the last two years mid are within 100 miles of Big Stone Gap. Five of them were built in reliance of l?g Stone Gap coke as fuel. .HONKKY TALK. Prof, (turner Keporrs Wonderful Kucce*s In Learning mid Tran Hinting It. Prof. Garner lias written a letter to Iiis brother in Australia, in which lie declares he has "succeeded beyond his ,widest anticipations" in his experiments with monkey talk in Africa, lie says: "lam safe on the coast, just reeking with quinine, the proud possessor of a chimpanzee that can say 'Tcnakoo Pakeha.' which is, you know, the 'Maoria for'good day, stranger;' a gorilla that knows about twenty words of Fijian, and u female orango-outntig that has picked up 'donner and blitzen' from my German valet, and has, judging from her actions, quite fallen in love with him. I have also got written down which is more important, nearly two hun? dred monkey words. Hero are a few spelled phonetically: 'Achru,' mean? ing, sun fire, warmth, etc,; 'knkcha,' meaning water, rain, cold, and, ap? parently anything disagreeable; 'goshku,' meaning food, the act of eating. You will see from this that it is a very primative language. There are perhaps, not more than twenty or thirty words in it that 1 have not already got, so my task is now practi? cally completed." When his battery, phonograph and revolving mirror began to work, he says that the "glitter of the mir? ror soon attracted a host of chatter? ing monkeys. I watched them for an hour and then eautiosusly ap? proached. They disappeared like magic when they saw mi?all but one, a chimpanzee. When I got close to it I found that it took no notice of me,but stood as if transfixed, with widely opened eyes and dialat ed pupils, gazing at the mirror. There was a slight tremulous motion in the limbs and a spasmodic twith of the ears. 1 could hardly believe it. The animal was hypnotized. It was making a gutteral sound like 'achru.' When I susequently listen? ed to the 'gram' I found that a simi? lar sound was frequently recorded thereon amid what was then an unin? telligible jumble of monkey chattor. I put the monkey in a bamboo cage, and on examining him about an hour afterwards fouud him still under the hypnotic influence. 1 revived him with a good strong sniff of ammonia and held a lighted tapir before his eyes. He was quite tractable and said 'achru,' and a few more tests satisfied me that this word embodied the idea of heat, light, warmth and brightuess. Other words followed, aud it was wonderful to take note of hts awakening intelligence."