POLK COl'NaV NEWS-GAZETTE. DENTON. TENNESSEE.
How If If Done in Europe and May Be Done
in America to the Profit of Both
Farmer and Consumer
By MAI HEW
(Copyright. 1314. Western Newspaper Lnion.)
THE "GOMBEEN MAN."
It v: tti
- 1 V iW;-fife' " 1 iVA 111
-8 (II ' ' Jy v VI -l
v f ,-41 J f J a - ' I
1 Where the Gombeen Man Flourishes Among the Rockt.
2 Paddy Gallagher Tells the American Visitors How the Gombeen Man
Charged Him 144 Per Cent. Interest.
Dunglow, County Donegal, Ireland.
This is the old haunt the habitat
of the "gombeen man." He is our
American city "loan shark" trans
planted with all his bloodsucking
propensities and his starvation in
ducing qualities into rural Ireland.
Here conditions are right for his activ
ities. Where the need for money is
greatest he prospers best. The poorer
the country, the richer be grows. And
poor enough this country certainly is.
Wide, low-lying peat bogs stretch be
tween great slopes of rising hillsides
where the soil shows only between
masses of outcropping rocks. No
fields are there here large enough to
offer opportunity for work with horses
even if plowing and cultivating were
not made impossible by the huge half
buried rocks. Every enclosure de
mands fertilizers as a condition prece
dent to production. Nature is stingy
- -.- and hesitates to let go of any product
J of value to humans. Yet here and
I there is a cottage upon a barren hill
side ;' around it we see children that
are not starving nor insufficiently
a - . . i-i :
' ' Here was the haunt of the gombeen
man. But as relative prosperity comes
in he goes out. They tell us that co
operation has numbered tbe days of
the gombeen man and that he is pass
ing. As he formerly operated his
business here he was the worst enemy
to rural prosperity to be found upon
the island. "The gombeen man is
worse than the non-resident landlord,"
Bays Paddy Gallagher of Dunglow,
which is an extreme statement when
made by one whose father and family
have suffered cruelly from many evic
tions. Seldom was tbe gombeen man ad
mittedly In the loan business. Fre
quently he was a trader or shop keep
er. Generally he kept a public house.
Often he was a dominating influence
politically, and held some office. In
variably he was an economic scourge
and made rural prosperity impossible.
We have spoken of him in the past
tense, not because he has altogether
ceased to exist but because co-operation
seems to be developing a plan
for rural credit which will eventually
put him out of business.
Patrick Gallagher's Story.
. ; Patrick Gallagher, now the man
ager of the local co-operative society,
probably knows as much about the
trials of the poor farmer In Ireland as
any one. He was born in a little one
room farm cottage and was at nine
years of age forced to leave home and
hire himself out as a farm laborer re
ceiving the wage of three pounds tor
six months' work. From these begin
nings he has risen to be a rural finan
cier in County Donegal and has raised
the condition of the poor farmers from
i abject poverty to comparative comfort
through his co-operative enterprises.
Here Is what Paddy Gallagher says of
. . I . Via
the gombeen men, speaaing irom u
personal experiences and verifying
. much that he says from documents
and account books:
"Here is one transaction, of my own
with the gombeen man. On the 28th
of May, 1906, my father and I bought
seven stone of flour and ono hundred
weight of Indian meal, each. My
, father paid for his $4.25. I was not in
i ' a position to pay for mine until the
1 11th of July, 1906, forty-four days
later. The gombeen man then pre
sented me with a bill for $6.31. I dis
puted his right to charge me $106 in
terest on $4.25 for only forty-four days
and pointed out to him that my father
bought the same goods on the same
date for $4.25. The gombeen man ar
gued that my father paid $4.50 and
that he was only charging me eighty
one cents extra, or 144 per cent in
terest per annum. During the twenty
years my father was bringing up his
family, he paid interest at this rate.
"Here is a writ that was issued
against a poor farmer. The amount
is $37.75. and here is the pass book
which proves that $18.25 of that is in
terest. You will also note that the
gombeen man charges this customer
$3.37 for seven stone of flour; on the
same date the co-operative society's
price was $2.25."
So the gombeen man was robbing
everybody as he tried to rob Paddy
Gallagher and his friends.
An Old Man's Story.
The story that' we get in Dim
glow tallies with the account which
Sir Horace Plunkett and his col
leagues in Dublin gave us of the situa
tion. But as scientific investigators
we are anxious to get as much mate
rial from original sources as possible.
So on Sunday afternoon "it is us" for
a jaunting car and a ride into the
country in search of fundamental
facts. We hear of a patriarchal citi
zen five miles out who they say is as
honest as the dav is long. We find
Donald O'Boyle (otherwise Shane
O'ge) in a habitation which from out
ward, appearances hardly merits the
name of cottage. But when warm
hearted Irish hospitality invites us
inside we find a neat, clean, com
fortable place, that is indeed home to
the family which has been for genera
tions the tenants of a line of non
evicting landlords. Shane O'ge, with
his son, his daughter-in-law, and some
shy, blue-eyed little grandchildren,
welcomes us warmly. The mother is
feeding the children mashed potatoes
and milk from a bowl (about all many
Irish children get to eat). To them
this is much more interesting than a
discussion of tbe gombeen man.
Yes, he and his father knew well
the gombeen man. "We'd buy of the
trader but we'd not know the price at
all," he said. "It would do us no
good. We'd have to pay in the end
what he'd ask us anyway when he
had the money. It was hard to get It
round here we mostly had to go over
and work in the Scottish harvests to
get any at all. When we had the
money we would ask what we owed
and the trader would tell us what it
was. We never knew what the items
were. We never dared to ask. He
would say, 'How dare you dispute my
books?' And it's more than one poor
man I've seen kicked out for asking
a civil question. But everybody sayB
they charged the highest price the
stuff had been from the time it was
bought until we paid for it aud I guess
that's the truth, and of course the
added interest, though I don't know
how much. And so of course, we paid
what they asked and enough it was
though we never knew much about it.
They let us get meal or anything else
on credit without money for they
knew it meant more to them in a high
price besides interest. Things are dif
ferent now; they're a lot better."
Co-operative Credit Conquering.
Things are different in Ireland now.
The farmers themselves are driving
out the gombeen man. Co-operative
credit associations have changed all
this. As that eminent Irishman, Sir
Horace Plunkett, says In his book on
Ireland In the New Century: "The
exact purpose of these organizations
Is to create credit as a means of intro
ducing capital into the agricultural In
dustry. They perform the apparent
miracle of giving solvency to a com
munity corr.popd almost entirely of
Paddv GaJlazher In tollice US how
X i the association operates here at Dun
T glow, says: "A credit society In Dun-
glow was organized and established In
October, 1903, by the Imh Agricul
tural Organization society and has
been regularly audited and inspected
by that body ever since. Although
we had at first only 220 of working
capital, we have now a reserve of
26, 16s. The members are equally
responsible for the success or failure
of the society. Each man has one
vote no matter how much or how
little his investment in the concern Is.
They take such keen interest in it
that during its nine years working
there has not been an over due loan at
the end of the year. The society is
undoubtedly of great assistance to the
people in the district. We want the
time to come when every man can
walk up the street in Dunglow and
say he owes nothing.". . f
These co-operative banks have, as
it were, capitalized character. The
early organizers of co-operath credit
associations held, and experieiJle has
confirmed the opinion, that n the
poorest communities there is a per
fectly safe basis of security in the
honesty and industry of its members.
This security is not valuable in the
ordinary commercial sense. The or
dinary banker has no intimate knowl
edge of the character of those who
apply for a loan. Neither has he any
way of testing whether or not those
who borrow "for productive purposes"
actually apply the loan to such pur
poses. The borrower must bring two
sureties, who like the borrower Him
self, must be men of approved char
acter and capacity. The character of
these three men is the sole' basis of
The rules provide and this is the
characteristic feature of the system
that a loan shall be made for a "pro
ductive purpose" only. That is. tbe
borrowed money must be used for a
purpose which, in the judgment of
the committee, will enable the bor
rower to repay the loan out of the
results of the use made of the money.
The farmer buys a sow to raise pigs;
he must have fertilizers; he needs
some high-grade eeeds; he wants to
huild better shelter for his cowTaaVl
these are productive purposes. In
case money to send the borrow
boy to school for eight months sy
to' increase his earning capacity was
considered a productive purpose Justi
fying a loan, as it proved to be when
the boy himself repaid the loan. The
rules of the co-operative society pro
vide for the expulsion of a member
who does not apply the money to the
agreed purpose. It is said, however,
to the credit of the Irish members of
these societies, that there has never
been the necessity of putting this rule
in force in a single instance anyw
throughout the entire island, ff
and moral influences seem
sufficient to secure obec
rules and regulations :V.
; Co-operative urea
There are other
regular bank is generally miles away,
It costs money for the borrower to go
and take his sureties, paying car fare,
meals and maybe drinks, while the co
operative association is right at hand.
The bank will loan for only 90 days,
u-hiin the co-oDerative society will
make it up to a year. And a 90-day
loan gives the fa'rmer no chance to
realize on seed or fertilizer or stock
bought with the money borrowed. But
here in the local credit bank if a man
is honest he can get the loan he needs.
He must bring two sureties, but co
operation breeds and develops neigh
borly helpfulness and they say no
honest man ever fails because he can
get no sureties.
Neither the association nor its mem
bers have any considerable capital.
When they organize they begin by bor
rowing a sum of money on the joint
and several liability of the members.
Deposits are received from both mem
bers and non-members. The society
usually borrows at four or five per
cent, and lende at five or six per cent.
In some cases government funds have
been loaned to them at three per cent.,
thus enabling them to make a very
low loan to their members. The ex
pense of administration is almost noth
ing. Lesson, for Rural America.
It is such societies as these that are
putting the gombeen men out of busi
ness in Ireland. We have in rural
America gombeen men. They are not
so called, but American loan sharks
and credit men are first cousins to the
Irish gombeen men.
The question we Americans are try
ing to answer is this: Have Irish rural
credit methods a lesson for the rural
sections in our own land? Can our
loan shark, whether in city or country,
be fought and conquered by 6imilar
American co-operative societies?
There are hundreds of poor farmers
who must ask credit either of mer
chants and dealers or must secure
loans from some source. Most of them
get credit of the local merchant. It is,
of course, well recognized that any
dealer who extends credit not only
charges interest but charges a higher
price than when he gets cash payment.
Why cannot the American farmer
get a loan at a nearby banking Insti
tution for six months or ten months or
a year instead of for 90 days? Why
cannot he capitalize his character as
does the Irishman? In some states
there are under existing laws plenty
of small Joint ptock banks throughout
the smaller towns and villages which
are accessible. The directors and of
ficers know the farmer's needs. They
are so intimately acquainted with
those who might become borrowers
that.they could do as the Irish credit
banks do and arrange for capitalizing
character. But they don't do it.
H. R. HOWARD CHOSEN PRESI
DENT FOR ANOTHER YEAR.
EVENTS IN STATE CAPIIAL
Doings of the Various Departments of
the Government of the Common
wealth Reported for Ben
efit of Our Readers.
At the session of the Tennessee
State Horticultural Society Tuesday
the following officers were elected:
President Henry It. Howard of
Vice-President for Middle Tennes
see T. I). Heed.
Vice-President for East Tennessee
R. L. Walker.
Vice-President for West Tennessee
K. T. be Berry, assistant commis
sioner of Agriculture.
Secretary-Treasurer I. G. BripRs.
The re-election of Mr. Howard as
president of the society is a deserved
compliment to a man who is doing a
great work for horticulturists of the
state and who has mapped out a plan
for still further development of the
Several very interesting and help
ful addresses were made, and much
interest was manifested by those in
attendance, the assembly room of the
Maxwell being taxed to its capacity.
Dr Lillian Johnson Heard.
Following the meeting of the State
Horticultural Society, the Nursery
man's Association held an all-day ses
sion, most of the time being devoted
to the reading and discussion of pa
pers. Among the speakers were F. D.
Fuller, and Dr. Lillian Johnson, of
Memphis. Mr. Fuller said he did not
know much about the subject assigned
to him, "The Growers and Buyers of
Nursery Stock," from experience, bu.
he discoursed the importance and
value of smaller orchards, and said if
nurserymen would give more atten
tion to them and avoid the unscrupu
lous nurserymen, their troubles would
not be so great. He suggested the
ting of miniature orchards at the
bi fairs of the state as an object
lesson of what could be done. Dr.
Johnson discussed the importance of
improvement of rural conditions as
an incentive to people to stay on the
Will inspect Convict-Made Roads.
Governor Hooper has written to
Governor Slatop of Georgia, proposing
a vi'Vto the4-.'Jrt camps of the
1W,rac?n toj68- mitee repre-
7 tV Offered him a million Aw .. r,
r - slant and the good will la tjufti.
&Ue?e?BinV' 6 Governor
Finns' PeDsin. . Vontlv
eiM Yt2S5e subect and
advanWyj;. U'We purpose of Governor Hooper's let
ter is to ascertain -when it will suit
Governor Slaton's convenience for the
committee to make the contemplated
visit, and also to ascertain the loca
tion of the convict camps. Governor
Hooper will accompany the commit
tee and look thoroughly into the mat
ter of road building by convicts.
Revenue Agents Appointed.
E. S. Haston of Spencer, Tenn., has
been appointed by the department at
Washington internal revenue agent
and assigned to duty under Knox
Booth, internal revenue agent for this
district. Ernest Hammock of Der
mott, Ark., has been appointed inter
nal revenue inspector and has also
been assigned to duty under Revenue
Agent Booth. The appointments were
made in accordance with the act of
Congress October 3, 1913. Both Mr.
Haston and Mr. Hammock will be as
signed to income tax work exclusively,
the former in Tennessee and the lat
ter in Arkansas. The appointments
were made on the recommendation of
Internal Revenue Collector E. B.
Will Not Reduce Salaries.
At the meeting of the City Board of
Education Albert E. Hill was unani
mously re-elected president. Verner
Tolmie was re-elected secretary.
Messrs. A. E. Potter and T. F. Bonner,
recently appointed members of the
board to succeed Messrs. Aaron Ber
geda and H. M. Clunan, presented
their credentials and following the ad
journment the old board participated
in the proceedings of the new organi
zation. It was decided not to reduce
the salaries of the teachers.
Peyton Attends Banquets.
John M. Peyton, general manager
of the Nashville. Chattanooga & St.
Louis Railway, who will become presi
dent of the road April 1, Is getting ac
quainted with the people who do busi
ness with his road by attending meet
ings and banquets in various towns.
Mr. Peyton is being accompanied by
other officials of his road and of the
Louisville & Nashville.
t Liquor Shipments Increase.
Liquor shipments for Individual use
are steadily on the increase In Da
vidson county, according to the rec
ords in die office of County Clerk
Hunt, sine the order to the saloons
to close November 15.
Co-OperatUn Is Urged.
At a session of the Tennessee State
Horticulauitl Society Prof. Harry
Clark of the University of Tennessee
delivered ai address on "Co-operation
of Fruit Growers," pointing out the
advantages to be gained.
A Doctor's First
"How are Your Bowels t" A Sim
ple Remedy that Guarantees
Good Dowel Action.
Trace the origin of the comnioi.fr
ills of life and almost invariably you
will find that constipation was the
cause. It is not to be expected that a
mass of fermented food can remain in
tbe system beyond its time without vi
tiating the blood and affecting the
nerves and muscles. It congests the
The results are colds, fevers, piles,
headaches, and nervousness, with its
accompanying indigestion and sleep
lessness. There is only one thing to
do, and that is to remove the trouble;
and when nature seems unable to do
it, outside aid is necessary. You will
find the best of all outside aids a rem
edy that many thousands are now us
ing for this very purpose, called Dr.
Caldwell's Syrup Pepsin. Many hun
dreds of letters are received by Dr.
Caldwell telling of the good results
obtained, and among the enthusiattic
letters is one from Lieut. G. W.
Vaughan, of 623 W. North St., Decatur,
111. He is 72 and has had a bad liver
and stomach since he came out of the
army. He says be tried about every
thing, but never succeeded in getting
permanent relief until he took Dr.
Caldwell's Syrup Pepsin. He is never
without a bottle in the house, and he
is never without good health.
It has untold advantages over pills,
salts and the various coarse cathartics
Common Form of Insanity.
A party of Clevelanders entertained
some holiday visitors and having
showed them everything interesting in
Cleveland proper they had to take
them to New-burg for a view of the
asylum. The superintendent was in
a genial frame of mind and he con
ducted the bunch personally.
"Here is a queer case, ladies," he
said, pausing at a particular cell.
"This man has the delusion that he
possesses the motive power that runs
the universe. He is perfectly harm
less, but he actually believes that
without him the world would not
move. Strange notion, isn't it?"
"Why, not at all!" exclaimed one of
the women. "My husband has the
same idea and he always has bad it.
Is he crazy, too?"
SALTS IF BACKACHY OR
KIDNEYS TROUBLE YOU
Eat Less Meat If Your Kidneys Aren't
Acting Right or If Back Hurts or
Bladder Bothers You.
When you wake up with backache
and dull misery in the kidney region
it generally means you b&Jjfi3-eai--f
HUiuuruy. .ueai. iui uis unc ttuiu nuitu
overworks' the kidneys In their effort
to filter it from the blood and they be
come sort of paralyzed and loggy.
When your kidneys get sluggish and
clog you must relieve them, like you
relieve your bowels; removing all the
body's urinous waste, else you have
backache, sick headache, dizzy spells;
your stomach sours, tongue is coated,
and v hen the weather is bad you have
rheumatic twinges. The urine is
cloudy, full of sediment, channels oft
en get sore, water scalds and you are
obliged to seek relief two or three
times during the night.
Either consult a good, reliable physi
cian at once or get from your pharma
cist about four ounces of Jad Salts;
take a tablespoonful in a glass of
water before breakfast for a few days-r
and your kidneys will then act fine.
This famous salts is made from the
acid of grapes and lemon juice, com
bined with lithia, and has been used
for generations to clean and stimulate
sluggish kidneys, also to neutralize
acids in the urine so it no longer irri
tates, thus ending bladder weakness.
Jad Salts is a life saver for regular
meat eaters. It is inexpensive, cannot
injure and makes a delightful, effer
vescent lithia-water drink. Adv.
Had the Proof.
Stonemmason (in box describing as
sault) He walks into my yard and
rams me up agen one o' me own
Counsel Did he hurt you?
Stonemason Hurt me! Why, I've
got "sacred to the memory of stamp
ed all down me back. Tatler.
Putnam Fadeless Dyes will last un
til the goods wear out. Adv.
Little Elsie after being lectured)
Mamma, the commandments break
awful easy, don't they?
" Actors imitate mankind; amateurs
That WesakBGckjy j
ceompaniad by pain her or there extreme nenrquaness
leeplouneas may be faint spella or jMtfmll are signals of
distress for a woman. She may be growing from girlhood Into
womanhood passing from womanhood to motherhood or later
suffering from that change into middlo life which leaves so many
wrecks of women. At any or all of these periods of a woman's life
be should take a tonic and nervine prescribed for just euch case
j a physician of Tut experience in tbe diseases of women.
baa succes-folly treated more eases in past forty
ran now be had in sugar-coated, tablet form aa
dealers or trial boa by mail on receipt oi ov cent- in vvhuv.
HIM Elizabeth Lordahl of Brlwl. Cel.. in a rxwnt letter to 0
. . . ' .rvT-TTL. t t.in..nhl nainaal lover my body am
FlSIcUoi I bar. n.r bad an occmIoo to eonault a phyalcUn alnc
IIr. Pleree'a Plraaant relict rewlate
LIEUT. G. W. VAUGHAN
and purgatives, for while these do but
temporary good. Syrup Pepsin cures
pi-rmaiieiitly. The effect of its action
is to train the stomach and bowel
muscles to do their work naturally
again, and in a Bhort time all forms of
medicine can be dispensed with. It
can be bought without inconvenience
at any nearby drug store for fifty
cents and one dollar a bottle, the latter
size being regularly bought by those
who already know its value. Results
are always guaranteed or money will
Families wishing to try a free sam
ple bottle can obtain it postpaid by ad
dresting Dr. W. B. Caldwell, 203 Wash
ington St., Montlcello, 111. A postal
card with your name and address on
it will do.
A crabbed old misogynist said to
Ethel Parrymore at a dinner in Bar
"Woman: Feminism! Suffrage!
Bah! Why, there isn't a woman alivp
who wouldn't rather be beautiful than
"That's because," said Miss Barry
more, calmly, "so many men are stu
pid while so few are blind."
TAKES OFF DANDRUFF
HAIR STOPS FALLING;
Girls! Try This! Makes Hair Thick,
Glossy, Fluffy, Beautiful No
More' Itching Scalp.
Within ten minutes after an appli
cation of Danderine you cannot find a
single trace of dandruff or falling hair
and your scalp w-ill not itch, but what
will please you most will be after a
few weeks' use, when you see new
hair, fine and downy at first yes but
really new hair growing all overt)b.e
scalpv .. 1 -''
A little Danderine immediately dou-
ference how dull, faded, brittle and
scraggy, just moisten a cloth with
Danderine and carefully draw it
through your hair, taking one small
strand at a time. The effect is amaz
ingyour hair will be light, fluffy and
wavy, and have an appearance of
i abundance; an incomparable luster,
I softness and luxuriance,
j Get a 25 cent bottle of Knowlton's
I Danderine from any store, and prove
that your hair is as pretty and soft
as any that it has been neglected or
injured by careless treatment that's
all you surely can have beautiful hair
and lots of it if you will Just try a lit
tle Danderine. Adv.
Deadly Work of Scorpion.
Some scorpion bites cause little
m0re than burning pain and numbness
in the part affected for a few days.
But the more poisonous varieties cause
death, and that especially, when
they stlng young children or de
bilitated old people. The lower class
es of people in Mexico suffer more than
tbe w ell-to-do, because of their custom
of going about half naked most of the
Will cure your Rheumatism and all
kinds of aches and pains Neuralgia,
Cramps, Colic, Sprains, Bruises, Cuts.
Old Sores, Burns, etc. Antiseptic
Anodyne. Price 25c. Adv.
"Er ah, beg your pardon, miss, but
haven't you lost something?" began
the would-be flirt.
"No, I haven't. But there goes a
lady with a dog chain. It's probably
her you're looking for."
Aatjtnlahlnr Tnhftrrct Kfflfv Go&mntafld
to inunlly rnoum uutm for ciaarrlU't or totmiwo
In hit form, or monev cheerfully rfundd. Hund
ilhc nd rcile wtiDdnrful rumedf by n-ttirn mall.
Addrehl Una K, TbCM cmmm w mcaiia, UHu,lfr,
The only exercise some people get
is throwing bouquets at themselves.
years than any other known remedy. Ib
well as in tbe liquid, bold by medicine)
been cured by Dr. Pierre's
alnoe am In exoallemt health.
slat f smell.
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