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CTRIC AID FOR FARMERS
y OF HEAVY LABOR FOR HORSES WILL PASS AWAY, Machinery Will More and Maqre 4 Operated by Steam, Gasolene .ad Electricity-Greatest Epoch in Wricultural History Unfolding. ie day of the ihorse as a hiavy ia gr on American farms is ended and machinery will more and more 0 operated by steam, gasclene and yetricity. In Germany and France _-y creameries and small dairies we been long in operation by this -t.od. American farmers have been ~e leading users of labor-saving ma .inery, but mostly on the large h, whre the weight of the ma iserY was a constant drawback to adoption cf electric motor power. machines are now being made ter without destrcying their effi cy, and #ectricity is rapidly play an important part in their devel The trackless trolley farms have y loomed up as experimental in ttments which thoroughly work cut that was claimed, for them. With alper power derived from the rivers -0 waterfalls electricity will extend 4 parts of the country, and small large farming implements will be told thereby. Electric power is per than horsepower, even when ary fuel is used to operate the ies, and when the power can be pplled from some river it will be cheaper than steam in any form. .Conditions at present promise the olding of one of the greatest ha in American agricultural his y. The last half century has been rkable fcr its agricultural ma ery, but in the next fifty years use of electric power for cultivat farms, stimulating and planting harvesting crops will far eclipse Importance anything yet achieved. the new era of electric farming the stry will attract men who now upon farm work as drudgery, and appearance of this new type of in fields and crchards will tend more to create revolutionary The application of the electric cur t to the growing plants by means wire netting in the soil or by the rays has received peculiar atten from those inter sted iPt truck -den g and greenhouse work. In latter the are and inca:t lisceat p have been employed more than - imentally. The color of the be of the electric lamps has been to change the effect cn the By repeated experiments different d globes are in use for different es. The red rays are too high Itimulating for many plants and the et rays yield with the soft yellow the best results. It is p:ssible this way to stimulate the growth certain plants without materially sating their vitality or weaken the reproductive power of the 'Many planthouses and hothouses employ the electric arc lamp with success in forcing plant growths the- cold winter days and t.. By keeping the plants flooded electric rays day and night the is are forced to quick groweh, they prove tender and crisp in ease of lettuce and radishes. The use of electricity for the prc n of crops from insects, worms fungi is one of the latest develcp in this method of agriculture. dering that millicns of dollars' of crops are annually ruined by Is, the employment of any agen must be a matter of widespread 5±, Electricity as an insect destroyer is d and effective. It kills the eggs larvae of tAe bugs and worms live in the ground almost as py as the insec:s that crawl above. tact, it is to reach the eggs and in the soil that the agent is led most generally, for heavier ki of electricity can be adminis in the spring cr fall, when no a. are growing, than in the sum season. garden or field covered with a k cf wires can be given a series electrlc shocks between crops or which no life can withstand. the early spring, when the soil is 4 up for the first sowing, the C Power is turned on and the I. so heavily charged with the that all insects and eggs that been wintering in the ground be Instantly killed. Aftb been repeatedly demonstrat that by destroying the eggs and ie the soil the attacks of in Pesta are, practically reduced to and little actual injury need hed. When the warm weather the multitudes of insects appear in the gardens and have been hatched ou. in their hrmes a few inches beneath fro.t line. In wiring gardens for purpose it is ersential that the 'Ihculd be placed sufficiently the surface of the soil to in DIvple.te destruction to the in which burrow below the frost their winter habitation. A:mospheric electricity is now ccl lec:ed on some farms and distributed by underground wires to different parts cf the field. The more or less abuPadance of electricity in the air de tcrmin,=s the value of this method, but it is certain that little of this can be used by the plants fr the:r own growth unless artiicialiy supplied to them. By means of tall po1:is, surmounted by copper receivw rs, the atmosphieric electricity at a c:nsiderable altitude can Ibe c;olected and carried by wires down to Che sail. Dist:ibuting wires of small sizes placed under the scil then scatter the electric fluid around i- small quantities. Plants growing near the wires obtain an abundance of the stimulating agent and ,they re spond to its influence. The amount of electricity in the at mosphere changes acccrding to the weather and some days the soil be comes saturated with it and the plant growth is remarkable at such times. CUILDING A RACE TRACK. Sirrple Rules Which Are Celieved to Be the Best. G. S. O., Pilchers Point, La., writes: "Kindly give your last plan for build-' ing a half-mile track.". For the information of all those who may desire to construct tracks we republish the following simple rules which we believe to be the best, all things considered: A Third-Mile Track.-The usual rule for half-mile tracks is to have the stretches and turns of equal length. If the same rule is observed in laying out a third of a mile track, each stretch and turn should meas ure 440 feet. Therefore, two stakes should be driven where one of the stretch is propcsed to be located, 480 feet apart. The opposite stretch then should be staked cut parallel to the first and 274 feet across at either end. A wire 237 feet in length should be made fast to a post placed equally dixtant from the end of either stretch and the turns staked as directed in laying out other tracks. The wire should be accurately measured, which may best be done with a long steel tape measure. Sufficient length should be allowed so that several turns may be made around a stick at the end, and also a loop to slip over a spike to be driven in the upper end cf the turning stake. One end of the wire should be taken and placed upon the stake at the end of the stretch,! while an assistant with the other end proceeds toward the end of the oppo site stretch. When the wire has been tightly drawn, the turning stake should be located in exact line with the stakes at the end of the stretches and firmly guyed in every direction. After the circuit has been made and the stakes driven for the turn, the novice will probably be surprised to find the wire is from six "to eighteen inches tco long from stretching. If this should be the case, it should be shortened so that it will exac:ly reach the stake at the 'end of the stretch, and the turn corrected. Af ter the track is laid out it should al ways be carefully measured three feet from the stakes before construc tion is commenced. If this is done with a chain it will be found neces sary to have as many as three as sistants to make sure that the chain follows the curve at the turns. A Half-Mile Track.-Draw the par allel lines 600 feet long and 452 feet 5 inches apart. Halfway between the extreme ends of the two parallel lines drive a stake, then loop a wire around the stake long enough to reach to either side. Then make a true curve with the wire, putting down a stake as often as a fence pcst is needed. When this operation is finished at both ends of the 600 foot parallel lines the track is laid out. The inside fence will rest exact ly on the lines drawn, but the track must measure a half a mile three feet from the fence. The turns should be thrown up an inch to the foot; the stretches may be anywhere from for ty-five to sixty feet wide. A Mile Track.-Draw a line through an oblong center 440 yards in length, setting a stake at each end. Then draw a line on either side of the first line, exactly parallel with I and 417 feet 2 inches from it, setting stakes at either end of them. You will then have an oblong square 440 yards long and 834 feet 2 inches wide. At each end of these three lines you will now set stakes. Now fasten ,a cord or wire 417 feet 2 inches long to the center stake of your parallelo gram, and then describe a half circle, driving stakes as often as you wish to set a fence-pest. When the circle is made at both ends of your parallelo gram you will have two straight sides and two circles, which, measured three feet from the fence, will be ex actly a mile. The turns should be thrown up an inch to the foot. Builder's Gazette. The movement is again on foot to make the killing of a cat a criminal offense, says the Massachusetts Ploughman. Even if the movement is successful there will be times in the stilly night when outraged humanity will be willing to risk the possibility of proving a justifiable caticide. VEPºS BYRON'S OWN OPINION. It would be rather interesting to .-'ow the date of a letter written by Byron's mother, whicn has lately been offered for sale. In it she says that her son has "no opinion of his tal ents." "I had a letter from Byron yesterday, and he abuses "himself worse than the Edinburgh Reviewer. Hie says if I have any regard for him I never will mention his poetry to him more, as he wishes to forget it; as a school boy it was well enough, but as a man he has done with it-forever.". OUR BOYS SHOULD LEARN. To laugh; to run; to swim; to be neat; to make a fire; to be punctual; to do an errand; to cut kindlings; to Ising, if they can; to help their moth ers; to hang up their 'hats; to respect their teachers; to hold their heads erect; to sew on their own buttons; to wipe their boots on tle mat; to speak pleasantly to older persons; to put every garment in its proper ,place; to remove their hats upon en tering a house; to attend strictly to their own business; to be as kind and helpful to their sisters as to other boys' sisters. WHEN GIRLS SHOULD WED. What is the ideal age for a girl to marry? Twenty-six years, Edwin Warfield, Governor of Maryland, told a class of sweet girl graduates the other day. "I do think," he said, "that many lives are made failures 6y persons marrying before their characters have been formed. You know 'whom first we love we rarely wed.' This is a very true saying. Young people are impressionable and romantc, and, if left to ther own free will. are apt to rush into matrimony without properly considering the grave responsibilities of married life. Many cases have come under my ob servation where youthful and hanty marriages Lave resulted in unhappi ness, discontent and lifes of drudg ery. The old saying, 'Marry in haste and repent at leisure.' proves too often true. Young men and' women should remember that the romantic dttachinents of youth are not gener ally lasting. "I would not wish to be regarded a. laying down iron-clad rules con cerning the exact age when a girl should marry; it might be at 22. 24, 23 or 26 years-it all depends upon the physical and mental dcvelopment of the girl. I meant rather to indi cate that a girl should not marry un til she was over 21 and of an age to ^ompreb.end the responsibility of tha marriage state and to make an Intelligent choice of the man whose companionship will be either a help or a hindrance to her life." AS TO THE DRESS WAIST. The prophecy has been made that dress waists will be more popular next fall than tailored shirtwaists. The former are prettiest made of some dainty material, lace, allover net, crepe de chine, or Liberty chif fon. In the allover lace the point de Paris and the new VAenciennes seem to be most favored. Point d'esprit and bobinette come in this class, and both bid fair to be frequently seen made ';p in the dressy waist. A pretty effect is given When these thin stuffs are made on foundations of contrasting color. According to an authority:- "With the printed nets, black grounds with trailing motifs in colors, pink,, green, blue or violet, the i:luminating silk would be of pale pink or coral, reseda green, wistaria or old blfe, with an autside suggestion of color at the throat, the girdle or tie waist." Taffeta waists will not be left out of the wardrobe for the autumn of 1904. Plain colors will stand before checks or stripes in popularity, al though the two latter will be used as trimming to a noticeable extent. Narrow, fancy silk braid is also counted upon as a trimming acces sory. Two materials which are pretty certain to be revived ire moire and brocades. They are most appropriate in these days of "Louis tendencies," and are centainly charming made with yokes of lace, girdles and sleeves with puffs on sleeves at the elbow. TICTNGS SHE SHOULD KNOW. To care for milk and make good butter. To sweep a room and never neglect the corners or the spaces behind the doors. To make the beds fit for a king to sleep in. To read and enjoy the papers of the week, especially those published for farmers. To get ready for company if mother is away from home or unable for any reason to do it herself. To read and speak in public it called upon. To be we.l enough posted in the everyday doings of the world to talk or write about them whenever neces sary. To read good books and to know! them when she sees them. !'ro milk a cow if help is short or work progressing. To harness a horse and drive it anywh ere. To write a letter and sign her name to it so that no matter who receives it 'he may have no doubt who his correspondent is. To keep her own room in order. To tell a man when she sees him and waste no time with those who are not worthy the name. To make a good home for some man. THE WAY SOME GIRLS EARN MONEY. 7dany girls who are educating themselves look to summer as the time whien they must earn most money. One finds at numerous re sorts waitresses and housemaids re cruited from this class of young women. For girls who cannot leave home both summer and winter (summer for work and wiuter for study), t' ese hints from Harper's Ilazar may be found useful: Often the mother of a family of children cannot afford to take a nurse into the country with her, paying both board and wages, who would be thankful to pay a nice, in telligent girl 4to relieve her of the care for a few hours each day. If the girl wanting work lives near (within walking or bicycling dis tance) a country eotel or boarding house, all she would have to do would" be 1to explain her willingness to do suc'h work to the manager and get permission to put up a written card in the office, giving her address and qualifications. Another employment would be to sit with and read to or amuse an old person or invalid, thus leaving the family and friends free. One clever girl earned several hun dreds of dollars last summer by an nouncing that she would do mending, pressing and delicate lace washing. Sce had all that she could do. The mending varied from the three-cor nered tear in the small child's frock to gloves and lace waists; the press ing from a boy's tumbled sailor suit to the most delicate chiffon gown, and the delicate washing, from cob web handkerchiefs to lace boas! All this wcrk was done at home, but this ye:ar the 4hctel management, real izing the convenience to their guests, have tented her an office in the build ing ard she has someone to help 'her beside, Girl, who are clever in putting up fruit ,an often secure many orders from summer vis;tors, and home made cakes find a ready sale to boarders tired of the monotony of even the best 'hotel fare. FASHION NOTES. Girdles of taffeta are platted or shirred to fit the curves of the figure. Taffeta sunshades are frilled their entire surface with tiniest ruffles. Quaint percales - for instance, a white ground sprigged with tiny rose clusters on a lattice of little gray dots-are French fancies copied from old designs. Piques make simple little frocks for very small girls, and the one piece Russian dress is in favor. The most popular fad which has struck.New York for many years is the wearing of colored spats. Something really quite new, which has come to us from Paris, is to line your little Eton jacket with chiffon instead of silk. A pongee petticoat will be found of greatest service for morning wear. These petticoats are light, but have suffcient body to be worn with com fort, shed the duct as well or better than brilliantine. lau.nder perfectly and wear extremely well. Vest effects, both for simp:e and elaborate styles of tailor gowns, are going to be very popular the cominag season. The Prussian army contains only one officer raised from the ranks. NOTES AND COM &ENTS. If the EzarEvitch had been twins Russia might have got a constitution, remarks the New Yoik Wor:d. The city of Cape Town. South Africa, is about to extend its water works at an expenditure of $10 000,000. A "new millionaire" is reported to ba paying $3,000,0C0 for a divorce. A New York "society man" with $6,000 a year says that it is "impossible" to live upon that sum. "Plain living" and "high thinking" get mar:y jolts these days, thinks the New York World. A post-mortem examination was held over the body of William Kress, whose death at Roanoke, Ind., aroused suspicion among the authorities. Ten 32-caliber cartridges, 4 carpet tacks, and a needle were found in the stom ach. Kress was ambitions to beat the hardware-eating record, comments the Path Finder, but succumbed in the process. When Admiral Cervera reads that iRear Admiral Prince Ouktomaky's or ders are imperative to go out of Port 1 Arthur harbor er destroy his ships be yond possibility of repair before the fortress falls, he must find some com fort in the thought that there is at least one man who understands how he felt at Santiago, says the Indian apolis News. People who think that all the world is dishonest will sniff at a case which has just occurred In Chicago, where Thomas Taylor, an L-road guard, found a satchel containing $14,000 in gold and checks, belonging to the Woodlawn bank, states the Path Find er. His honesty was rewarded by a gift of $100. The Southern Facific road pays two colored men $1.75 a day to strike mos quitoes where track layers are at work in a swamp. The men have struck for $2 a day. This will draw the com pany's attention to Ithe fact that for a week's wages they can buy enough oil to cover the swamp and do up the mosquitoes that are always on strike, the Brcoklyn Eagle states. Finland demands her old constitu tional rights, the rights which a line of Czars bad swcrn to preserve, but which were taken away from her the ot'er day. Nicholas II. allots her 3,000.000 roubles for the benefit of her landless classes out of gratitude for the birth of a son. The New York Evening Sun says this is like asking for bread and getting a stone. During a recent session of the Pan American Presbyterian Alliance in Liverpool, a paper on "Christianity and Current Literature" was read by the Rev. Dr. Henry Van Dyke, of Prinestc'n University. At the outset of his address. jhich is printed in full in The British Weekly (London. July 7) and is declared to have touched "the oratorical hi&g-water mark" of the convention, Dr. Van Dyke endea vors to define the scope both of liter ature and religion. Literature, he says, is "the art in which the inner life of man seeks expression and last ing influence through written words." Religion is "the life of the human spirit in contact with the divine." Therefore, he argues, religion needs literature to "express its meaning" and "perpetuate its power." In many sections of the country since the R. F. D. lines have knocked out so many of the rural postoffices, the custom of naming the country homes and farms has revived, says the Danburg Reporter. We hope it will obtain in our county of Stokes. Such names as "Oak View," "Chest nut Shade," "Maple Glen." "River Foam," "Meadow Brook Farm," and others suitable to the taste or fancy of the owners, are used. The custom is old and colonial-like, savoring of the good old ante-bellum days. We have always thought that the efface ment of the individuality of the neigh borhoods and postoffices was the only objectionable feature about the rural free delivery. It is easily neutralized by the naming of the farms-and coun try places. An Indiana man who paid $600 for an automobile and then spent $2,000 for repairs has filed a petition in bankruptcy and asks the courts to relieve him of one of the white man's burdens. Once upon a time, the ways of the automobile were less known than they are now and the human race was less sophisticated, says the New York World. Then it was that the makers of the devil-wagons used to bait their victims with this decep tive sign: '"Te automobile does not eat oats." Ah, but doesn't it? Where is the devil-wnagon that does not eat? Its appetite is voracious. The animal is as indiscri:inate in its tastes as a shark devouring everything that comes its way, preferring only that its food shall be predigested by con version into greenbacks and certified checks. And such an appetite!