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Pitman-Spencerian Chartier . JM. REASER, Prin. Com'I Department iii~ MONG the foremost novelists of the Vorld and time was Charles Dick es, a parliamentary shorthand reporter. He studied and used a system to which I am going to devote reverential atten tion. Like Robert Fulton's steamboat it was the first system-at least gih the English speaking race. The only difference is that Fulton's achievement is unquestionably gl progenitor of our mighty ocean greyhounds, our battleships our gJaias. Fulton's craft grew. The parent Pitman did not It ro p.rcd an approach to the subject entirely different from that for the visig of which Sir Isaac was knighted, to attain a result whose .impll ty. ease, legiLility and reading power destines it to rule the world-the IpSNCERIAN t'HARTIER System o Shorthand. Remember those words ."AN APPROACH TO THE SUBJECT ENTIRELY DIPFFERENT." David ('oplrfleld (which is, most of the time, simply a character uas by Dickens for his own autobiography) thus describes the trials and gibllations of the weary and heart-rending time he had in learning Pit as to prepare himself to report Parliament-AND THERE IS NOT A NAN WHO ATTAINS THIS PROFICIENCY IN PITMAN WHO WILL cr0T TELL YOU THAT HIS TRIAL8 HAVE BEEN JUST AS GREAT AND THE TIME HE HAS TAKEN AR LONG. * "I bought an improved scheme of the noble art and MYSTERY of idsography, which cost me ten and sixpence, and plunged into a sea of -plexity that brought me, in a few weeks, to the confines of distrao Wls. The changes that were rung upon dots, which, in such position, tssat such a thing, and in such another position something else entirely gerest; the wonderful vagaries that were played by circles; the unac gegatable consequences that resulted from marks like flies' legs; the tre sailous effects of a curve in a wrong place, not only troubled my waking bA, but reappeared before in my sleep. When I had groped my way MiaJly through these difficultles. and had mastered the alphabet, which sas Egyptian temple in itself, there appeared a procession of new IwLrom called arbitrary characters--the most despotio characters I have -esr known. When I had fixed thes wretches In my mind. I found that lsy had driven everything else out of it; then, beginning again, I forgot Im; while I was picking them up. I dropped the other fragments of the g i--ln short, it was almost heart-breaking." This is Charles Dickens' own aecount of his struggles with what may tI alled the parent system of all shorthand now in vogue. It is a vivid and true picture n the struggles of the best and bright ulads who undertake, with this medium, to report so exacting and asult a kind of work as debates and speeche--with this exceptien: -MN NEVER LEARN PITMAN, IN SPITE OF EFFORT. OTHERS IKUYR ACQUIRE A FAMILIARITY WITH WHAT THEY WRITE g0CH AS TO ENABLE THEM TO TRANSCRIBE IT ACCURATELY AND SLIENTLY. TO EXAMINE WHY THIS IS SO-TO LAY BEFPOR YOU WHY IT h MOT 80 WITH THE WONDERFUL SPENCERIAN CHARTIER IS- t3M IS THE AIM OF THESE COMPARATIVE ANALYSES. Sir Isaac Pitman was born in 1818. O He was a scholarly thinker. Is 1837 he published what he Called "Stenographo Soundhead." The system, the invention of a trained, logical and well-ordered be 4.it, reflects those intellectual qualities. " Teu can trace the mental process by which Sir Isaac devised the al ghabst which once ruled the stenographic world. Sir Isaac, a graduate of the British Normal College. fell back am the digrmally useful circle; the angle or slant of straight lines, sad Sally e isi in composing an alphabet, Itself easily remembered, but, used as abrthand system, presenting difficulties it requires months san years M muaster so thoroughly as to be able to tke tistimony, spesches, gt. Sit. In some instances, a heavy percentage, this mastery is never L'e look into this, first tracing the steps of Sir Iassah pies 'Urk,.and then analyse why this system, having no refereone to ~glsh dllas, to the ingrained habit of the mind by which people spell and It longhand, requires so much study and work of the student at It he esa master it. r leasue took a circle and cut It up into as many parts as would e ele to use the segments or ares as symbols for consonsant seund eonfusion. This is indicated by the points cheoked ef Is the Turn we to Figure 1 -- flure r. ,ywr re . I 1 / .-6= ) =3s: Z 4-c=/ Zch*/ I /3,e-a2" m - ` SCHARTER *T MIXXIR COMPANY." OIAT OF AMERICA, STATE ISIANA, IARISH OF 0O CITY OF NESW OBLEANS. that on this first day of the In the year one thousand and eleven, before me, Robert ry public, duly commlisloeed in and for the parish of Or et Loulslana, aforesaid, therein In the presence of the witnes named and undersigned, per Sand appeared the persons are hereunto subscribed, who t availing themselves of the the laws of this state relative tion of corportlona, t ted and agreed, and do by covenant aed agree, bhm, mastttute themselves, as well as -i a ag s may hereafter Join r ted with them late a corp body politic In law, for the e b Spoee, and under the agra SpL tions following, to wit: ARTICLE L 1111ud ý tyle of this eolYPeN_ that name It shall have sad - Itta advantagw and gM S taw to eoporations It a period of lsty-l ine ea~e SIt shall have power to Sem b seed ln ts rpewat Sake and use a eperate sS m to break or atte at pleas receive, parchase, convey. or mixed; to i se ether obligatteas; to have am tion may resulsoreeman; establish such -laws, rle 285 control and aielr of th as may be deemed ncessear ARTICLE IL of said corporatlos shall b at flew Orlans, state of La eltatlems and other legal proe served on the presidet, ad in m th th ledesre t of this a c ase t>- abseece or ln. of said deers, them sal be served e the serear. a TICL IIL i W Spea er Whil this| corporatha Is organized, and the mature of the business to be carried on by it are here by declared to be: to manufacture, sell, deal Ina, erect and operate the "Craig Mixer Mý a chine ;" to construct or e.ect, or to contract t for the construction or erection of the said CraIs Mixer Machine." and generaly,to t do and engage in any other business, under taking or enterprse conneted wth, grow lug out of. germane or Incidelntal to any of r the objects and purposes hereinabove set forth or contemplted by this charter. ARTICLE IV. The capital stock of this corporation is here Ad ed at the sum of tea thousand (810, .00) dollars, dlvded into one n- 1 ed (100) shares of te par value o one hundred ($100.00) dollars, each, which shall be paid for in cash, or may be Issued at not less than pr or services rendered to or proprty actually purchased by this corpo ll shares of stock shall be full paid ead nm-aseable No transfer of stock shall ( be blnding upon the corporation unless made upon Its bee. ,ITICL, V. I lMl the cor et powers of this comm.ry shall be vested in and the manaemes t ad ( eontrol oa its a roleo dsall b eaerciselaa bl a be o d of dmetrs, cemposed of dsteckeo esJ, a majority of whom shall constitute a orum fr the transaction of all usiness. directors shall e elected annually t e I balot of the stockholders on the senall huesdsy of June of each ear. ach staek holder oall be entitled, in pers or by written prer to sue vote for ery shre of the company sad all elections shall he hld under ss rules and rgualens a a may e dtomia ed by the ead of dreters but, after ten ase notice shall have hee n to each eteelder to maD admsd a ao hIt es at lmemm addr.e rh -a tL I ot ote daily -orlis newusapeers fte r tV dra drt u. c eletioen. The fe oee year or nti their eomers shall have thes duly eeteb sd an usol ea furue to elect shall b eII M a s a er_ feltur of this ebarte. aey ee-r. euni se d Ide I f the neap d t oerm meeting aftr ts wtlr, we t set a r a vlcrlre t i and a treae tra. . o t ma srtwo last m n -a 'tlend mess Into -W ad om elect a scretary who neel he ui directer mnngers and ether amus s to ssrpe 1ygure ý . .k . a.. ... . .. ,ae woo -00 V=I A_=oui ~I O" , LPWz, cirole of Figure 1. marked with numerals from 1 to 3. Segment are or curve., 1-7, he called "C"; curve, 2-8, "th"; curve, 4-6, "s"; curve. 5-7. "sh"; curve. 1-3. "1"; curve. 3-6, "r". Having thus obtained siz con sonant signs or symbols, he doubles the use of five of these by wrrting them heavy and thus giving symbols for the heavy sounds of these five consonant signs. Thus the sign for "I." written heavy. becomes "v"; "th" (as in "myth") becomes, written heavy, "th" (as in "with"); "s" becomes "s"; "1" is written upward or downward, the usefulnae of this segment of the circle is single; "r" written heavy becomes the vowel sound, "y"! "M" and "n" are the top and bottom of the circle. SIR ISAAC WAS STILL SHORT AT LEAST EIGHT CONSONANT SOUNDS, and he proceeded to use all possible unoonfusable radii of the circle for these missing consonants: Radius, 3-c, he called "p"; 3-c, "t"; 4-c, "ch"; 1-c, "k." Observe, please, that there is not a single other seg ment of the circle or ralius thereof whioh can be used without imminent and even hopeless danger or confusion, but he had now all necessary CONSONANT SOUNDS and the EMBRYO of a system. HOPELESSLY NONPLUENT, and DESTINED ABSOLUTELY to require, for the reason of its CUMBERSOMENESS. a vast distionary of word-siegs. HE HAD NOT YET A SINGLE VOWEL SIGN. Of these-in the writing of English, these vowel signs are absolutely imperative, at least: h, h, h., s. aw, oh. oo, and (short) a, e, I, (short) o, au oo. The device by which Sir Isaac attained their expression is hopelessly defective. as will be shown. He made position the expression of the vowel. calling above the line, on the line and below the line the three positions. "Ah." for instance, is indicated by a heavy dot above the line. That heavy dot on the line or in the middle of the stroke or letter becomes "oeh" and in the last place, "s." Written llght, it becomes the short sound of the same vowels. Taking a short dash and writing it heavy In these three positions, he furnished his system the second series of long or heavy vowel sounds, "aw," "oh,. "oo"; and, writing them light, the second series of short vowel signs. "o," "" "oo" (short). The dip theags are arbitrary characters, as are "," "u." That is the alphabet of the system for the invention of which Quee Victoria conferred upon Sir Isaac the great honor of knighthood! With thes elgns anything can be written, in some sort of a fashion, but be fore a man can take testimony or speeches running from 125 to 200 words a minute, or twice as fast as a clock ticks, he has to acquire a skill, to so make this system a part of him, to so WRITE SOUND (ab stractly) that the apparent smplicity vanishes and he finds that he is against practically the problem which kept the Immortal Dickens sleep less, hewing down forest after fores of difficulties even in his dreams. This article preposes to discuss this matter to a finality--to show the relative merits of the Speaserlan Chartier and Pitman. It is not doing so in a spirit of eavil. It beholieves in the sublime dignity of the 114-foot craft of Fulton. which made Its way laboriously up the Hudson at five miles an hour. But it is certain it the restless progressiveness and energy of man had been eaontet with it and deolared It the finest possible boat that human genius could build, he would not today be crossing the ocean in a little over four days on mighty leviathans which are practically safe against all storm and which breast the feraest of them without a perceptible decrease in spoudi This is the age of progress. Progress is impossible If we aling with blinded eyes to oplnions whtich we have accspted for their ageo sad by reason of no thought which we our selves have spent. Progress is possible only as a result of investigation-ead investiga tien is the child of freedom from bias, freedom from accepted convention aities. Fogyism has no place in America. With all honor to the great intelloect of the student who has. in spite of all the criticism to which his system is opes, made it possible for men to transcribe thought with the swiftness with whlah It glides from the tongue, THIS ARTICLE ASKS THAT YOU INVESTIGATE WHAT IT IS SEEKING TO PUT BEFORN YOU WITH ALL DEFERENCE AND HU MILITY., BUT WITH A CONVICTION THAT EVERY CLAIM AND AR GUMENT ADVANCED IS SANE, SOUND. TRUE-WORTHY OF YOUR ATTENTION, INASMUCH AS THU DAY IS PAST ARRIVING WHEN EVERY CHILD IN THE THIRD READER WILL BE LEARNING SHORTHAND (SPENCERIAN OHARTIER SHORTHAND) WITH AN EASE AND READINESS IPOSSILE IN ANY OrTHI sYSlEM. THE GREAT PITMAN'S DIFFICULTIES Before we go any further in this analysis, sad while ou have the al phabet of the Pitman system fresh before you, let me give you another plato in order that we may make plainer our talk. I piek this plate at random. It is a Pitman transript of as utter sneo of the great showman, P. T. Barnum, and here is what he said, writ ten in loeghand: "As ftr as busidnes is concerned, I have a particular hobby. My erase is that every young person, of both sexes, should learn at least shorthand and typewriting. Here you have mental discipline and knowl edge together, knowledge, too, that is almost certain at some time to be convenient and practically available. I cannot conceive that one who knows these two breanches thoroughly will ever need to go hungry in the present generation, for they have a constantly widenlnlg use." Know Pitman thoroughly! Truly P. T. is a humorist. P. T. was either iknorat of his subject or Joking. How many there be of these craftsmen in this eity of almost 400.000 souels? Count them over-those who really answer P. T.'s description. You or anyone with the slightest sort of memory esn learn that alphabet which has fjust been given and which, with endless use and practice, can enable one to do that speedily, but try, knowinga this alphabet, to take a ARTICLE VI. No stockholder shall ever be held liable or responsible for the contraets, faults or debts of said corporation, nor shall any mere iatoruillty In Its organisatlon have the efect of rendering this charter null, or of exposing a stockholder to any liability be yoad the unpaid balance due cn the shares orwned by bhi. ARTICLE VII. This act of incorporation may be changed. I modlfied or altered, or this corporation may be dissolved with the assent of the stock holders owninl a majority of all the corpo ration, at a general meeting convened or I that purpose and after at least ten days' notice shall have been given to each stock- I holder in the manner and form as provided c In Article V of this charter. In case of the a dissolution of this corporation, either by t the expiration of its charter, or otherwise, I the stockholders shall elect three liquldators from eamoe their number, to liquidate and settle the business and aalr of the cor- a pany. Isn ca of the death or disabHlity of any one of said commissioners or Inluda torn, the survivors, or the remaining liqI dators shall appoint a successor to ha. ArTICIg VII. Until the election to be held in June, 1912, the follo Itockhelders shail o stitnte the first boar ot directr, vin: Jules N. Woa, president: James A. Crig, vlcapresident "Join A. Wopn, secretary. and Gilbert Hattler, treasurer. Thuse done and passed at my eee in the ity of New Orleas, the day, moeth Syear here rtbove written, in the prnce of Theodore A. beek and Anthen both of this n ty, cl e tet asess, who have hereunto signed their amse with the aid apperes and me, noary ater doe readin o the whl. (original J sied): Jules . Woan, 15 sha ; JUme A. s rh a hass; Ja. A. shares. (Witesses) : T. A. Seek, Alt. lento! Listen, M*t. Pub. hrthe Wd . sa t offoth Lea ann, do hereby certlfy that the sbove and f .i g eherter of the "Craig Yinr Crn peny" was thin day duly reerded in my me in booe lUi b Is l (; " sd) "I" , .aP . .,, O. . . CHARTER THE J. J. GARVEY COMPANY. STATE O LOUISIANA, PARISH OF OR LEANS, CITY OF NEW ORLEANS. Be It Known, That on this twenty fourth day of July, In the year one thou sand nine hundred and eleven, before me, Willam Waller Young, a notary public In and for the Parish of Orleans, State of Louisiana, duly commissioned and qualified, and in the presence of the witnesses here inafter named and undersigned, personally came and appeared the ersons whose names are hereunto subscribed, all above the full age of majority and residents of this eity, who declared that availing them selves of the provisions of the constitution and laws of this State relative to the for mation of corporations, they do by these presents form themselves, as well as their assoclates and successors, into and con stitute a corporation, body and politi In law, for the purpoees and obects and un der the stipulatlon as hlter set forth, whkch they hereby adopt as their charter, to wit: ARTICIl I. The name, style and title of this eor poratiem shall be "The 1. J. OGrvey Com ey," its de e hall he in the city of New Orl s State of Loulisine, and it shall have and enjoy seeeesmom by Its eor porate namem for a perod of ainety-aine yase from this date. The president, or In the vt t of hi aeene the ssreta treasur, is he eby dl the il . whoa me .r tati. or 'ladl pm , This te hll hve and Qoth ral adper-eal se aid be -- ahpot euc oflar s tse Iter wht mat Tpew , advantt and i mmuntes grani. sed y i ceq tr or Oaime a SihAed a te i.atue a -. · ah speaker at 150 word per minute. and see how thoroughly you really know it. See if you don't find your penci with the same sort of fits that af flicted that of the great Dickens. JOKER BARUM'S WORDS IN SHORTHAND The above is the plate showing the transcript in shorthand of Bar num's point of view of shorthand. It is probably written by a man who answers Barnum's description, full of word-signs, correctly used-a per fect specimen. First, let us call your attention to the fact that the vowel-signs are entirely eliminated-and believe me when you are taking a speech, you have no time for vowel-signs with Pitman shorthand. THE REASON WHY IT TAKES YOU SO MI'CII PRACTICE TO MAKE THIS SYSTiE' VALUABLE TO YOU IS THAT YOUR EYE. YOUR INSTINCT MUST it1' TRAINED SO THAT YOUR EYES ALMOST SUPPLY THE INVISIBIE AND NON-EXISTING VOWELS. In fast writing you are forced to drop the vowels. We set forth here one proposition of shorthand which defies refutation. It is elemental:-The reading power of any system is based on the percentage of vowel sounds you can indicate. Here is a another truism: ITS SPEED IS BASED ON THE SPEED WITH WHICH YOU CAN DO THIS. From these two axioms it is impossible to get away. Now, in this light-so clear and self-evident-let us get at the tran script of what Joker Barnum says, as transcribed in the Pitman system. Notice, please, that the very first three words are written as a word sign-the very first three words. These first three words are "as far as." and the Pitman system writes them 'sfrs"! There is not a hint of a vowel sound anywhere. In the position! Why should "as" be written in the first position and in the last position, and each time spell "as"? The accuracy of geometry is sadly deserted in this: "Fr," "far." Is there any possible reason, conceding for the sake of argument that the "fr" is in the first position. why this should not be "far." "afar," and since there is mere position visible, why it should not be "offer?" It is. however, "far" to the trained eye in Pitman. for the reason that that house there is a house to your familiar vision. In "business." position pretty well indicates the word. You have "bs" and "ns." and require no flight of imagination to make it out. "Pn" Is conventionally in the second position, making it literally and meaninglessly "open" with the "o" long, as in "mode" or "pone" (same long o) or "pain" (long a), or "pen" (short e), etc. In short, the "pn" in the second position spells "upon", because it is con ventionally so accepted. "Concerned" has a little bit of dot before the in Itial cirle-s for "con," an "r" cut half its length, thus adding "d and a little "n"-hook--still the "d," created by the shortening of the "r" is read after the "n"-hook. Here, then, are the consonant signs guiding the experienced eye in reading "concerned"-"consrnd." "I" is the "tick" on top of the "v," and "v" is a word-sign for "have." "Iv," In other words, is "I have." "A" is the dot in the first position. "Particular" is "p" shortened to half length to show that there is a "t" or "d" sound somewhere concealed about its person, and the "p" is begun with an "r"-- hook, although the "r" is read a(ter the "p." Literally, we have "rpt (or d)" spelling "particular." Another word-sign: "lib" (vowel sounds to be guessed) "hobby." In a sentence of eleven words. thus, we have seven word-signs. What now is rtally a word-sign? It is something that has to oe learned and stored away in the memory. When the first eleven words of the man who says that his hobby is that every young person should learn shorthand "thoroughly." are found to contain seven words that have absolutely to be remembered, it is to be seen at a glance that he is either ignorant of what he is talking about, or has a large and expansive sense of humor. This system cannot be taken on and carried as a side line. One who learns it has to dedicate himself to it as did Dickens. An other thing, this system cannot be mastered and allowed to rust. Speed, accuracy, a working order of the possession is maintained by constant practlie and that alone. There are sixty-eight words in the rest of what P. T. Barnum here said. There are over forty word-signs in this number. Capacious mem ory at this gait, don't you think, to know this language of lines and arcs and circles thoroughly-a big word-sign store-house necessary; and you cannot pause, you know, when you are writing I r0 words a minute to re call how "I have been." "as far as" "that" "particular," etc., are writ ten. Pitman is almost impossible with night students. It is strange, almost remarkable, that an analytical genius such as must have been the mind that invented and evolved Pitman system did not reflect that the two greatest impediments in his system were Inflict ed unabated on all the men and women who studied and the compara tively few who mastered his system: A lack of vowel power. A diminution of speed proportioned to the number of vowel signs used. Net result-an absolute necessity of an enormous dictionary of word signs. A difficulty of mastery increased by every word-sign. A MULTIPLICATION, IN THE CASE OP EXPERTS, OP WORD SIGNS SO GREAT AS TO MAKE THE WRITING OP EACH EXPERT A SYSTEM OF HIS OWN. BASED ON PITMAN. BUT PECULIAR TO THE WRITER AND ABSOLUTELY UNDECIPHERABLE BY ANY ONE • As a matter of my own knowledge I know that Spencerlan Chartier shorthand can be learned with one-fifth the study required for Pitman; !t can be written faster than Pitman-it makes fewer strokes In writing say given matter---and it can be read with an ease never claimed for Pit man. In fact, people knowing the system, correspond in it and read eaEit other's writing as though it were longhand or Roman print. er mercantlle or commercial business sald corporation desires to embark. a ARTICIJl III. The capital stock of this corporation is s hereby fixed at the sum of ten thousand t ($10,000.00) dollars, divided tnto and rep- I resented by one hundred (100) shares of o the par value of one hundred ($100.001 e dollars eack, which shall be paid for in cash at the time of subscription. This corporation shall commence busi ness so soon as three thousand ($3,000.00) dollars of its capital stock shall have been f subscribed for. ARTICLZ IV. The corporate powers of this company, and the full management of its afalrs. d shall be vested in and exercised by a board of directors, composed of three stockhold ers, two of whom shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of all business. Elections for directors by the stockhold ers shall be held annually, on the first Tuesday of June, of each year, at the of ce of the company, under the supervision of two commlstloners, to be appointed by the president, said elections to bheld us der such other rules as may be provided by the board. t All elections shall be by ballot, and a t majority of votes cast shall elect, and eac share of stock shall be entitled to one vote, either In person or byproxy. Each board shall at its first meeting aft er its eleties, elect ont of Its own suam ber a president, vlee president and a sere tary-treasurer, who shall held office un tlH their successors are elected. Any va cancy occurring In said beard shall he filled hy the remaining directors for the unas pred term. The frst board of directors shall o sist of John James (Garvey gen 3. H man and esr 3. Hyau, with the B Joha Jvice dt and id . Hyma as secreta treasurer, who shall hold offle until the first Teday l Jane, 1912, or antil their successor are elected and qualie. ARTIClAE V. This act of incorporation may be chansed or amended, or this eorporation dissolved with the assent of the stockhold ers owning three-lfrths of the stock of the crporationtO tss ed at a general metin gamwa ssr that purpose after aedulnt he th is cOpesatlen, thet stock holders shall elect two liquidators from I among their number at a meeting convenedl for that purpose after ten days' written notice, sent to each stockholder by mail to his last known address; said commis sioners shall have authority to wind up the business and affairs of this company. in case of death of either of said liquidat or', the survivor shall appoint a stockhold er as successor to him. This act shall also serve as the original subscription list. Thus done and passed In my notarfal of 1 flee at the city of New Orleans aforesaid. I In the presence of T. Joseph Iobhtna and Walter R. Hlamlln, competent witnesses, of lawful age, and reslding in this city, who hereunto subscribe their names, together 4 with said parties and me, notary, on the day and date set forth In the caption hereof. (Original NMES OF SUBBCRIBIIRS. T. J. DOBBINB. W. B. HAMLIN. W. W. YOUNG, Notary Public. I, the undersigned recorder of mort gages in and for the Parish of Orleans. State of Louaslana, do hereby certify that the above and foregolnag act of Incorpora tio. of "The J. J. Garvey Company" was this day duly recorded In my office, Ia book 1051, folio 4d. New Orleans, Jul 25. 1911. (Signgd) EE LEONLRD, D. R. A true copy of the original. W. w. YOUNG, Notary Public. July 27, Aug. 3, 10, IT, 24, 31, 1911. CHARTER OF THE NEW IO)NDON ICE CREAM MANUFACTURING COMPANY. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, STATE OF LOUISBANA, PARISIH OF OR LEANS, CITY OF NEW ORLEANS. Be It Knowa, That on this nineteenth day of July, nineteen hundred and eleven, before Robert O'Connort, a notary poblic, dui commissioned and qualified, in and for t Parish of Orleans, State of LmIasasa, sad domleliated therein, and in Very Low Rates ATTRACT THOLSANDS TO CaliforniA, Every Summer Tickets on Sale Daihy. Jute 1 to Sept. 30. 1911. Limit, October 31, 7911. Especially Low Rates June 5 and 6, June 11 to 2? and June 27 to July 5, 1911. Return Limit Sept. 15. 1911 TWO TRAINS DAILY VIA Southern Pacific Also Very Low Summer rates to COLORADO and YELLOW STONE NATIONAL PARK. EIxcellent Service Afforded by the Southern Pacific and C'on nections. For full particulars, ('all on or write CITY TICKET AGENT, 225-227 St. Charles Street. New Orleans. Phone Main 4027. Beautifully Illustrated Litera ture Furnished on Request. the plre-enl'lc'' of lthe witner-.s.. hereinafter iaedlll.l, and indellrlilgned, personally came andti aliwared the indeirslgnede persons, who severally deelaired that avalinglo themselves of the laws of this State relative to the formation of corporations, they have formed and otrga'ised, aInd by the.w-e presents they do he-rebt-y form and organlze, themselves and all persons hereafter to be assocltaed with them, into a corporation for the ob jects ant purposes helnafter set forth and under the following terms and stipulations, which they hereby adopt as their charter, to wit; AltTI('LE I. The name of this corporation shall be the N-w londeon Ice ('ream Manufacturing c oltl:pany, and It shall enjoy a corporate ex istence for ninety nine year fromm date hereof. Said corlporatlon shall have all the power and aulthority of corporations, particularly to contract, soe. and ie sued. make and use a corporate seal, hold, re ceive, lase, Ipurchase-. .conve-y, mortgage and hypothecate propIarty. real. personal sad mixed, erect, build., r lease such build Ings as mally he n.ce-.ssary, make all by laws. and to make anti lppoint such offi cers and agents and eltnplloyee.s as its Inter est 1and convenience may requllire. ARTICL.E If. The domicile of sal corporatlon shall he In the C'ity of New (rleans,. and all cita tions and other legal process shall be served uIjmn the presildent, or In the event of his alsence, upon the vice. president. ARTI('L.E Ill. This corporation Is organized for the pur pose of conducting a general business In the manufacture and sale of Ice cream, candy, confectionery, soda-water and mla eral waters, and all articles of a kindred nature. and to acquire and c'ontinue the business of John and Peter Vanmvoras, con ducted under namne of New london Ice Cream Manufacturlng Company. ARTICLE IV. The capital stock of this corporatlon ahall Ic three tholusand dollars ($3,000.00), dIvldedl Into three hundred shares at ten dollars ($10.00) each. Stock payable at time of subscrlptlon. Thls charter to serve as the original subecrlptlos lIst. ARTICLE V. All the corporate powers of thls corpor atIon shall be rested In, and the affairs of this corporation shall be conducted by, a board of directors composed of three stoclkholders, elected by hallot on the third Wednesday of July In each year. commene lg In 1912,. at an election of which ten days' previous notice shall be given to each stiockholder, In Iwrson. or by mail to his last known addresa. The first elctIlon uinder this charter shall he held In 1912, until which time thi' first Ieoard of dllrec'tors shall serve. H·ald hoard tweing composed of P'eter Vanvora.s, Jiohn Vanvuras and Frtts K. l)rowana, with the sail I'eter Vamvoras as president and trcancre-r, and the sail John Vamvoras as vice preshhdent and secretary. ARITIt'CL VI. The cpresilent of thlis corporation shall have- full poewer to hire and dllselharge any atcl all officers, agents and employees that may he n-ceI.csary, and to fixh their compeo sation, anel make all ipurchases and fix the terms anld prihee; also of all sales; draw all checks, and Inc.lr any and all obligations that may Ie necessa:ry for the, conduct of this blsiiness. incltiding the plrchase and sale of real estatc, mncrhlinery, live stock, and mioevable property of any kind whatso ARTT:I, E VII. This act of Ilcorlccratlon ran only be amende.d, altered or tabregated Iy a two thirds vote of the ecntire stlek then sub scrlh,I. aSid at a special tie.'tlng called for the purIrtcec, of which tcn days' pIrevious notive shall ie glven in writing andi sent by mall to lhi. last known address of each at wkhhlder, or delilverid In person, and by publlcation three timnes during salel ten dcays, In on. ref tile daIly newspapers of New Ori.atins. In the event of the dissolution of this charter. the affairs of the corporation shall be liquilalted by tile pre.shlLint as commis sioner, and as eIuclh he shall have full power to dlsleos of the piroperty of the corpora tion. and te, hi all things necessary to lilquidate Its affalrs. Theus done and passd In my offlice in the city of N,.w Orleans aforesald. in the presence of lawrence MI. Janln and E. Montegut, competent wltnrelaes, of lawful age, who slgn hereto, together with the parties and me. notary, the day and date •irst above written. (Original slgnedl I'ETI.It VA.MVIltAS. 190 shares. JOHN VAMVCIRAS, 13:i shares. F. K. DItWANZ. I share. I.AWREN('CE M. JANIN. E. MONTE~;I'T. RItEltT E. of O NNoIt. Notary l'ublle. I, the undersigned, recorder of mort gages In and for the parish of O)rleans. State of Louislana, do hereby certify that the above and foregoing art of incorpora tlon of the New London lee C'ream Man. ufacturlng Company was this day duly re corded in my office In Book 1051. folio 36, New Orleans. July 19. 1911. iMlgned) EM I.E LEIINARI,. D. R. I certify thit the above and feregotng Is a true' and ailthentlic co,,y of the origlllal act of incorporation of the New laondon Ie ('ream Manufacturling C'ompany. and of the certificate of the recordler of mortgagesl for the 'artsh ,of Orleans, on file and of recrd In my notarial archives. New Orlteans, a ... July 24. 1911. SR()It;Ri T B. O'4"ONNOR. Notary Publlic. July 27, Aug. 3, 10. 17, 24, 31, 1911.