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PitmanSpencerian Chartier B J. M. REASER, Prin. Com'I Department
untl' th. foremast m.nt°h.. . -a
MONO the foremost novelsts of the orld and time was Charles
Dick-I:s. a parliamentary shorthand reporter. He studed rand
used a system to which I am going to devote reverential atten
Like Robert Fulton's steamboat it was the first system--at least
ith the English speaking race.
The only difference is that Fulton's achievement is unquestionably
the progenitor of our mighty ocean greyhounds, our battleships, our
dltaulas. Fulton's craft grew. The parent Pitman did not. It re
anlrd an approach to the subject entirely different from that for the
rtising of which Sir Isaac was knighted, to attain a result whose simpl
dq,, ease, legibility and reading power destines it to rule the world-the
PENICERIAN CHARTIER System o Shorthand. Remember those words
-"AN APPROACH TO THE SUBJECT ENTIRELY DIFFERENT."
David Copperfield (which is, most of the time, simply a character
mae by Dickens for his own autobiography) thus describes the trials and
tribhlations of the weary and heart-rending time he had in learning Pit
"a to prepare himself to report Parliament-AND THERE IS NOT A
gAN WHO ATTAINS THIS PROFICIENCY IN PITMAN WHO WILL
NOT TELL YOU THAT HIS TRIALS HAVE BEEN JUST AS GREAT
AN" THE TIME HE HAS TAKEN AR LONG.
S"I bought an improved scheme of the noble art and MYSTERY of
gesography, which cost me ten and sixpence, and plunged into a sea of
prplexity that brought me, in a few weeks, to the confines of distrao
se-. The changes that were rung upon dots, which, in such position,
sIet such a thing, and in such another position something else entirely
Sereat; the wonderful vagaries that were played by circles; the unao
essatable consequences that resulted from marks like flies' legs; the tra
_-deas effects of a curve in a wrong place, not only troubled my waking
en~, but repppeared before in my sleep. When I had groped my way
WIly through these difficulties, and had mastered the alphabet, which
as as Egyptian temple In itself, there appeared a procession of new
errers called arbitrary characters-4the most despotic characters I have
vr kaewn. When I had fixed these wretches In my mind, I found that
ty had drives everything else out of it; then, beginning again. I forgot
W.-; while I was picking them up. I dropped the other fragments of the
gatem-m short, it was almost heart-breaking."
This is Charles Dickens' own aecount of his struggles with what may
» mi31 the parent system of all shorthand now in vogue.
It is a vivid and true picture n the struggles of the best and bright
st minds who undertake, with this medium, to report so eating and
egalt a kind of work as debates and speeches--with this excepton:
0SMB NEVER LEARN PITMAN, IN SPITE OF EFFORT. OTHERS
3V3r3 ACQUIRE A FAMILIARITY WITH WHAT THEY WRITE
SmCH AS TO ENABLE THEM TO TRANSCRIBE IT ACCURATELY AND
TO EXAMINE WHY THIS IS 8O-TO LAY BEFORE YOU WHY IT
SAOTr SO WITH THE WONDERFUL SPENCERIAN CHARTIER T.
gUM IS THE AIM OF THESE COMPARATIVE ANALYSS.
Sir Isaac Pitman was born in 1812.
SBe was a scholarly thinker.
In 1837 he published what he ealled "Stenographic Soundbad."
The system, the invention of a trained, logical and well-ordered in
el"e, reflects those Intellectual qualities.
Yee can trace the mental proses by which Sir Isaac devised the il
bbt which once ruled the stenographic world.
Sir Isaac, a graduate of the British Normal College, foil back on the
gIwMally useful circle; the angle or slant of straight lines, and finally sue.
s-nded ta composing an alphabet, itself asily remembered, but, ed as
Sart eand system, presenting difficulties it requires months and years
Is meter so thoroughly as to be able to take testimony, speehes, t.
ith t. In some instance, a heavy percentage, this mastery is norr
's leek inte this, first tracing the steps of ir Iusas plaw
mrk, and the analyse why this satom, having no referen to gs'ish
gliag to the ingrained habit of the mind by whicah people epIl and
rit ia lesghand, requires as much study and work of the stodent of it
sem he eas master it.
r Isase took a circle and out It up into as manyr parts as would
e me to mse the segments or are as symbols for consonant wmade
ist esafuins. This is ndicated by the points checked Oet i the
Tara we to Fire 1
Y Pfure .r. ji72Pt
S. Z 4-C= c/
-lr, 0r nLLO Y r
5UU%~t , 8 '1
SVeDlRN STAMPIMG & DY
OF AMIERICA 8TaTE
PAt I8B OF
That on this slnth dy of
be, In the year of out
m.be hundred and eleven,
Hl3 . Bne Jr., Notary
L.issbaeed and ¶uallSed In
a of Orleans, therein re
the presence of the witnesses
and undereined, person
pipeared the persons whbose
to subscribed, all above the
who severally declare that,
of the laws of the State
telatve to the formation of
they have formed and organ
ese presents do form and or
Into and constitute a cor
, bjects and purposes an d
eons hereinafter set forth
which they hereby adopt as
, RTICLE I.
. this corporation shall be
B TAMPING AND DID
Its domicile In the ty of
aad shall exist for ninety-nine
Sthe right to receive, bod,
,ed , alienate and mortgage
d personal: borrow
t e Proper eviaenc thereo:
e ai ud generally to ea0t
ranted to corporations by
ether ealprocesses shall
S eia or la the event
Snal te act, theb pe
SMTI £RuLc Il.
S. tpooes for whisk thdn
srp iamd asa tdh aate at
.,-,, ,, ,. ,,,
conflict with the objects and purposes set
The capital stock of this corporation Is
hereby declared to be Ten Thouand .o1
lars ($10,000.00. divided into one hundred
shares of One Hundre Dollars ($100.00)
each, which said stock shall be paid for In
cash or its equivalent at the time of ts sub
scripUon, or sid stck may be issued full
paJd ud no-asseae tur the purchae of
preperty, real or personal, or for service
endered to said corporation. Said stock
shall be transferable on the books of the
comp ny, and no stockbober shall be al
lowed to eel stock without Eret ofering same
to this corporation through its Board of Di
rectors, giving them sixty (u0) days' option
in which to purchase sauld stock at it book
value, to be ascertained by account of stock
The capital stock of this corporation may
be nlareased by a vote of the majority of
the Itock Issued. after ten days' prior no
tice In writing thereof being sent to each
stockholder at his last known domicile.
All the corporate powers of this corpora
tion shall be vested hn a Board of Directors,
omoosed of stockholders.
The irst Board of Directors of this cor
poration shall be eomposed of three stock
holders. to be elected at the first meeting
of stockholders ealied for that purpose aft
er the srgning of this charter; which said
Board of Directors shall hold their reepe.
tve offlees until the third Tuesday in Jan
u- 191r ea which said date aad annual
rlyice er there shall be an election of
direetors by the stockholders.
Bach share of stock shall be entitled to
ne veto east by the owner, i preslent, or
w rozv, and the majorityof the votes ast
shaall elect and decide all matters voted
No stockholder shall be held Ihable or re
-.dble got the contracts, Vault or debts
=dd crUoatle, nor shall any mere in
fermality is 1t organatfsa have the ef
halanes that may be due
set eof l psess may be changed,
set aa _- _ massag
y=Ir A=o" 4)-s n L1 WL
- circle of Figure 1, marked with numerals from I to 8. Segment arc of
curve, 1-7, he called "'f"; curve, 2-8. "th"; curve, 4-6, "'s"; curve, 6-7,
,"sh": curve, 1-2. "1"; ourve 3-5, "r". Having thus obtained six con
l sonant signs or symbols, he doubles the use of five of these by writing
them heavy and thus giving symbols for the heavy sounds of these ive
consonant signs. Thus the sign for "f," written heavy, becomes "v";
"th'" (as ti "myth") becomes, written heavy. "th" (as in "with"); "a'
- becomes "s"; "I" Is written upward or downward, the usefulness of
this segment of the circle is single; "r" written heavy becomes the vowel
sound, "y"'! "M" and "n" are the top and bottom of the circle.
SIR ISAAC WAS STILL SHORT AT LEABT EIGHT CONSONAN'
.SOUNDS, and he proceeded to use all possible unoonfusable radii of th
iarcle for these miming consonants: Radius, -co, he called "p"; 8-c, "t";
S4-, "oh"; 1-c, "k." Observe, please, that there is not a single other seg
meat of the circle or rallus thereof which can be used without imminent
and even hopeless danger or confusion, but he had now all necessary
,CONSONANT SOUNDS and the EMBRYO of a system, HOPELESSLY
NONFLUENT, and DESTINED ABSOLUTELY to require, for the reason
of its CUMBERSOMENESS. a vast dictionary of word-signs.
SH HAD NOT YET A SINGLE VOWEL SIGN. Of these--n the
writing of English, these vowel signs are absolutely Imperative, at least:
ah, oh. ee, aw, oh, oo, and (short) a, e, i, (short) o, u, oo.
The device by which Sir Isaac attained their expression is hopelessly
defective, as will be shown. He made position the expression of the vowel.
I calling above the line, on 'he line and below the line the three positions.
"Ah," for instance, is indicated by a heavy dot above the line. That
I heavy dot on the line or in the middle of the stroke or letter becomes
I "eh" and in the last place, "ee." Written light, it becomes the short
i sound of the same vowels. Taking a short dash and writing it heavy
in these three positions, he furnished his system the second series of long
or heavy vowel sounds, "aw," "oh," "oo": and, writing them light, the
seond series of short vowel signs. "o," "u," "oo" (short). The dip
thengs are arbitrary characters, as are "i." "u."
That is the alphabet of the system for the Invention of which Queen
Victoria conferred upon Sir Isaac the great honor of knighthood! With
thes signs anything can be written, in some sort of a fashion, but be
fore a man can take testimony or speeches running from 125 to 200
words a minute. or twice as fast as a clock ticks, he has to acquire a
skill, to so make this system a part of him, to so WRITE SOUND (ab
stractly) that the apparent simplicity vanishes and he finds that he is
against practically the problem whleh kept the immortal Dickens sleep
less, hewing down forest after fres of difficultles eve in his dreams.
This article proposes to discuss this matter to a finality-to show
the relative merits of the Spenerlan Chartter and Pitman.
It is not dolng so In a spirit of cavil.
It believes i the sublime dignlty of the 114-foot craft of Fulton,
which made its way laboriously up the Hudson at Sve miles an hour.
But itt s eartain it the restless progressiveness and energy of man had
bees eatent with it and deolared it the finest possible boat that human
genius suald build, he would not to-day be crossing the ocean in a little
oveur days on mighty leviathans which are practically safe against
all strm and which breast the fiercest of them without a perceptible
dseerea I speed
This s the age of progress.
Progress is mpoessible if we cling with blinded eyes to opinions which
we have accepted for their age and by reason of no thought which we our
seav have spent.
Progress is possible only as a result of investigation-end nlvestia
tien is the child of freedom from bias, freedom from accepted convention
alities. Fogyism has no place in America.
With all honor to the great intelloect of the studat who has. in spits
of all the erittlsm to which his system is opos, madelo it possible for men
to trnasribe thought with the swiftness with whioh t glides from the
tamue, THIS ARTIOL SKS THAT YOU INEWTIGAT WHAT IT 18
uBIING TOID PUT BEFORE YOU WITH ALL DEPFRENCE AND HU
MILITT, BUT WITH A CONVICTION THAT EVERY CLAIM AND AR
GUMINT ADVANCED IS SANS, BOUND, TRU--WORTHY OP YOUR
ATTENITION, INASMUCH Al THE DAY IB FAST ARRIVING WHEN
EVERY CHILD IN THE THIRD READER WILL BE LEARNING
SHORTHAND (SPBNCERIAN QHRTIER SHORTHAND) WITH AN
UM AND READINEIS I W IN ANY OTIRw BY TtSM.
THE GREAT PITMAN'S DIFFICULTIES
Before we go asa further lathis analysis, and while you have the sl
phabet of the Pitman system fresh before yr, let me Ihve you another
plate in order that we may make plainer our talk.
I pick this plato at random. ft is a Pitman transcript of as utte
a.e of the great showman, P. T. Barnum, and here is what he said, writ
tea in leaghand:
"As far as buslae is eoneerned, I have a particular hobby. My
erase is that every young person, of both sexes, should lear at least
shorthand and typewriting. Here you have mental discipline and knowl
edge together, knowledge, too, that is almost certain at some time to be
convenient and practically available. I cannot conceive that one who
knows thee two branches thoroughly will ever need to go hungry in the
present generation, for they have a constantly widening use."
Know Pitman thoroughly! Truly P. T. is a humorist. P. T. was
either Ignorant of his subject or joking.
How many there be of these craftsmen in this city of almost 400.000
alSt? Count them over---thosae who really answer P. T.'s description.
Yoa or anyone with the slightest sort of memory can learn that alphabet
wahih has just boe given and which, with endless use and pPactice, can
enable one to do that speedily, but try, knowing this alphabet, to take a
than thirty days' prior written notice sent
to each stockholder at his last known doml
In case of dissolution of this corporation,
either by limitation or otherwise, its saairs
shall be wound up and liquidated by the
then existing Board of Directors.
Thea dose and paesed, in my office in the
city of New Orleans, on the day, month and
year herein above written, in the presence
of Helen McGrath and George Sehmitt, com
petent wtlnesses, who hereunto sign their
names with the said appearers and me, no
tarr, after due reading of the whole.
(Slged) Oliver H. Van Horn, 15 shares;
Wm. Magee 14 shares; W. C. Marvant, 1
share; per Pm. Magee.
Witnesses: (Signed) Helen McGrath,
WM. H. BYRNES, JR.,
I, the undersigned, Recorder of Mortgages
in and for the parish of Orleans, State of
Louisianas, do hereby certify that the above
and foregoing act of incorporation of the
ROUTHERN STAMPING AND DIB WORKS
was this day duly recorded in my office, in
Book 1051. folio 383.
New Orleans, November 9, 1911.
(8igned) EMILIH LEONARD, D. 3.
I hereby certify the above and foregoing
to be a true and correct copy of the original
act on file and of record in my office and
of the certlficate of the Recorder of Mort
gages appended thereto.
In faith whereof I hereunto set my hand
and seal this thirteenth day of November,
',M. H. BYRNI S, JR.,
(Seal) Notary Public.
Nov. 10, 23, 30; dDee. 7, 14, 21, '11.
OF INTERIOR SETTING COMPANY.
STATE OF LOUISIANA, CITY OF NEW
Be It knoes That on this eighteenth day
sf October efore me, PreIerlk Del
bel. a aetary publie personally came nd
__ared the srmsoe whse naes are
Lente s rerbid whoeesersl declared
hat avalitng themselves eder t laws of
his 8tate relatve to the organhatles et
mperatis the have eev mesit ad
-g , rad de b tiee Ans m .sat
iso 6 - tameelvm e s
such persons as may hereafter become asso
elated with them, into a corporation for the
objects and purposes and under the agree
ment and stipulations following, to wit:
The name of this corporation shall be the
"INTERIOR BETTING COMPANY," and
under such name it shall have and enjoy
corporate existence and successions for a
period of ninety-nine years from the date of
this set, with full power and for the pur
poses of this business as hereinafter defned
to contract, sue and to be sued, to a quire,
lease, use, hold, alienate, mortgage, pledge,
or otherwise encumber say pro t, mo
able or Immovable, in or out of the tate of
Louislana: to Issue its bonds, or other evi
dence of indebtedness, and to secure same
by pledge, mortgage. at otherwise, and
to purchase or otherwise acquire the
stocks and bonds of other corpora
tions; to appoint or elect such direc
tors, officers, managers, agents or oth
er employes as the interest or convenience
of its business may require; to make,
amend, or repeal, at pleasure, such by-laws,
rules and regulations, touching the manage
ment of the affairs or business or the exer
cise of the powers of this corporation, as
may be necessary or convenient, to increase
or diminish the eapital stock ; to adopt a
corporate seal, and the same to make, or
alter at will, and generally for the purposes
and objects of its business to exercise aal
rights and powers permitted by law to cor
Te domicile of this corporation shall be
in the city o, New Orleans, in this State,
and all citation or other legal processes
shall be served upon the president, and in
his absence the secretary-treasurer of said
The objects and purposes for which this
corporation Is etabllshed and the nature
of the business to be carried on by It are
hereby declared to be:
The operation and condueting of general
marble and stone cntting and settig bust
ness. the buying and selling of all kinds
of marble. stone, sand other building ma
terial, the coastruction of buloangs land
other works, in whole or in part, in Lou
isiana and other States, wue storage of
stoaes of all inds, and generally the doing
and performing o all acts incidental or
seessy to ay and *1I of the objects
The eapital suet at this corporatiea r
hrey at the 1 t Three Thssa
Is Ishe rinssrte b thirty shares
speaker at 150 words per minute, and see how thoroughly you realy
See if you don't find your penci with the same sort of fits that af
flicted that of the great Dickens.
JOKER BARUM'S WORDS IN SHORTHAND
SAI.SJ LA.\( (Ž6Ž1. ·1.
The above is the plate showing the transcript in shorthand of Iar
num's point of view of shorthand. It is probably written by a man who
answers Barnum's description, full of word-signs, correctly used-a per
First, let us call your attention to the fact that the vowel-signs are
entirely eliminated-and believe me when you are taking a speech, you
have no time for vowel-signs with I'ltman shorthand. TlHE REASON
WHY IT TAKES YOU SO MI 'CH PRACTICE TO MAKE THIS SYSTE\I
VALUABLE TO YOU IS THAT YOUR EYE, YOI'R INSTINCT MI'ST lHE:
TRAINED SO THAT YOUR EYES ALMOST SUPPLY THE INVISII31.I
AND NON-EXISTING VOWELS. In cast writing you are forced to drop
the vowels. We set forth here one proposition of shorthand which defies
It is elemental:-- The reading power of any system is based on the
peroentage of vowel sounds you can indicate.
Here is a another truism: ITS SPEED IS BASED ON TIHE Si'PEE:I:
WITH WHICH YOU CAN DO THIlS.
From these two axioms it is Impossible to get away.
Now, in this light-so clear and self-evident-let us get at the tran
script of what Joker Barnum says, as transcrihb in the Pitman syst.-r:i.
Notice, please, that the very first three wods are written as a uurd
sign-the very first three words. These first three words are "as far as."
and the Pitman system writes them 'sfrs"! There is not a hint of a vowel
sound anywhere. In the position! Why should "as" be wr;.ten in the first
position and in the last position, and each time spell "as"? The accuracy
of geometry is sadly deserted in this: "Fr," "far." Is there any possible
reason, conceding for the sake of argument that the "fr" is in the first
position. why this should not be "far." "afar," and since there is mere
position visible, why it should not be "offor?" It is, however, "far" to
the trained eye in Pitman, for the reason that that house there is a house
to your familiar vision. In "business." position pretty well indicates the
word. You have "bs" and "ns," and require no flight of imagination to
make It out. "Pn" is conventionally in the second position, making it
literally and meaninglessly "open" with the "o" long, as in "mode" or
"pone" (same long o) or "pain" (long a), or "pen" (short e), etc.
In short, the "pa" in the second position spells "upon", because it is con
ventionally so accepted. "Concerned" has a little bit of dot before the in
Itial dcrcle-s for "con," an "r" cut half its length, thus adding "d and a
little "n"-hook--still the "d." created by the shortening of the "r" is
read after the "n"-hook. Here, then, are the consonant signs guiding
the experienced eye in reading "concerned"-"consrnd." "I" is the
"tick" on top of the "v," and "v" is a word-sign for "have." "Iv," in other
words, is "I have." "A" is the dot in the first position. "Particular" is
"p" shortened to half length to show that there is a "t" or "d" 'sounli
somewhere concealed about its person, and the "p" is begun with an "r"-
hook, although the "r" is read after the "p." Literally, we have "rpt (or
1)" spelling "particular." Another word-signt: "Fib" (vowel sounds to
be guessed) "hobby." In a sentence of eleven words, thus, we have
What now is really a word-sign? It Is something that has to ne
learned and stored away in the memory. When the first eleven woads
)f the man who says that his hobby is that every young person should
Lear shorthand "thoroughly," are found to contain seven words that
•ave absolutely to be remembered. It is to be seen at a glance that he is
lither ignorant of what he is talking about, or has a large and expansive
sense of humor. This system cannot be taken on and carried as a side
ine. One who learns it has to dedicate himself to it as did Dickens. An
ther thing, this system cannot be mastered and allowed to rust. Speed,
,cauracy, a working order of the possession is maintained by constant
practlee and that alone.
There are sixty-eight words in the rest of what P. T. Barnum here
aid. There are over forty word-signs in this number. Capacious mem
ory at this gait, don't you think, to know this language of lines and arcs
mad drcles thoroughly-a big word-sign store-house necessary; and you
annet pause, you know, when you are writing 160 words a minute to re
rll how "I have been," "as far as" "that" "particular," etc., are writ
ea. Pitman is almost impossible with night students.
It is strange, almost remarkable, that an analytical genius such as
must have been the mind that invented and evolved Pitman system did
tot reflect that the two greatest impediments in his system were inflict
Id unabated on all the men and women who studied and the eompara
ively few who mastered his system:
A lack of vowel power.
A diminution of speed proportioned to the number of vewel signs
Net result-an absolme necessity of an enormous dictionary of word
A difficulty of mastery Increased by every word-sign.
A MULTIPLICATION. IN THE CASE OF EXPERTS. OF WORD
IIGNS 80 GREAT AS TO MAKE THE WRITING OF EACH EXPERT A
IYSTEM OF HIS OWN, BASED ON PITMAN, BUT PECULIAR TO THE
WRITER AND ABSOLUTELY UNDECIPHERABLE BY ANY ONE
As a matter of my own knowledge I know that Spemosrlsa Chartler
horthand can be learned with one-fifth the study requlred for Pitman;
San be written faster than Pitman--it makes fewer strokes ain writing
ay given matter---and It can be read with an ease never clalmed for Pit
man. In fact, people knowing the system, correspond in It and read eah
thor's writing as though it were longhand or Roman print.
of the par value of One Hundred Dollar.
each, which capital stock may be ncreased
by a vote of the majority of the stockhbld
era at any meeting called for that purpose,
payments or said stock shall be made In
cash or equivalent, as may be prescribed by
the Board of Directors, who may have pow
er to isasue. full-aid stock in payment for
property, real or personal, transferred to
said corporation or for labor or service ren
No stockholder may sell, assign, or trans
fer his stock In this cororation unless
Thirty (30) days' previous notice, in writ
ing, of such Intention to se.., assign or
transfer any stock to be given to the com
panv to such sale assignment or transfer,
and upon such notice the board of directors
shall cave right to purchase the stock at its
value by reference to the balance sheet of
the last fiscal year. Upon failure of the
board to pass a resolution before the ex
piration of .,irty (30) days to purchase
the stocs at Its book value, said stock may
be sold in open market.
No stock of the company can be bought
by any pledge, except upon the above
conditions, and provided the Board of Direc
tors do not reolve to purchase the same
at its book value within the period named.
No stock can be transferred under any con
ditions unless the transfer be made upon
the books of the company at its office, in
the city of New Orleans, Louisiana.
This corporation shall be authorized to
commence business as soon as One Thou
sand Dollars ($1,000.00) of the capital
stock shall have been subscribed for.
The corporate powers of this corporation
shall be vested in and exercised by Board
of Directors of three or more directors, com
posed of stockholders, a majority of whom
shall constitute a quorum in the transac
tion of business, which mid directors shall
be elected at a general meeting of the stock
holders of this corporation, to be held on
the Third Saturday of January In each year,
bheinning with the year 1912, and notice
of said election shall be given by mailing to
the stockholders, at their last known place
of buslness, a call for said meeting Five (5)
days previous thereto.
Said board, at its first meeting after each
election, shall elect from Its own members
a president and secretaryy-treasurer.
Falling from any canue to elect directors
on the day submitted shall not dissolve the
corporatio, hbut the officers and directors
then In office shall hold over until their
successors shall have been duly elected and
At all elections ay meetings of stock
holders, each stockholder shall be entitled
to one vote for each share of stock stand
lg to hin same, and may vote in person or
In case of the resignation or death of a
director his place shall be filled as soon as
practicable by calling a meeting of the dl
rectors to elect his successor, who must be
The Board of Directors shall appoint such
agents, employes, servants and clerks as
may be necessary for conducting the busl
ness of this corporation and shall ix their
compensation and have the right to dismiss
This act of incorporation may be changed,
modified or amended, and this corporation
may be dissolved, with the assent of two
thirds of the capital stock represented at a
general meeting of stockholders called for
that purpose after a Five (5) days' notice
in daily newspaper in the English Ianguage
In the City o New Orleans, oislana.
Any changes proposed or made with refer.
ence 'o the increase or reduction of the cap
ital stock shall be made in accordance with
the laws of the State of Louisiana, with
reference to the alteration of the capital
stock of corporations.
Notice of all stockholders' meetings, not
herein or by law otherwise provided for.
shall be given to each stockholder by letter
addressed to his last known place of resl
dence or business, and deposited In the
mails at least five (5) days prior to the date
of said meeting.
In case of dissolution or terminating of
this corporation, either by limitation of this
charter or for any other cause, its affairs
shall he liquidated by three (3) commission.
ers selected by its stockholders at a general
meeting held as above %et forth: and said
commissioners shall remain in office until
the affairs of this corporation have been
fullly liquidated. ' In case of death or nloca
pacity of one or more of said commissioners.
the survivor or surviors shall continue to
act until such vacancy or vacancies shall
have been filled by a general meeting of
the stockholders, as above set forth.
No stockholder shall be liable or respon
sible for the contracts of this corporation,
or its faults, In any further sum than the
unpaid balance due the company on the
shares of stock subscrlb-d for or owned by
him, nor shall any informality in organiza-I
tion have the effect of rendering this char
ter nnull or exposing any stockholder to any
liability beyond the unpaid balance, if any,
due on his stock.
Thus dose and peaed, at my office, In
this city. the day, month and year first
above written, in the presence of Messrs.
Joseph L. Dahmer and F. R. Watts, compe
tent witnesses, residing nla this city, who
have hereunto signed their names with said
appearers and me, notary, after reading of
Nnw Orlfeanis 1_4)" g
les, San I'ranaisco,
Twice W'eekly, Com
mencing I)ec. 4, 1Q11
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A \t1. .1" ar:11. A. Oak , J1 ph ..
l1 "hu1r, I t. R h.'tt.,
I I,' t' i lh I 'EL, \t. Pub.
I. lthe Indrsign lI. teord Ir oif 1ort, ag.q
in andi for Ithe Ptarish of I rieani. Stat, of
Louisiana. do herebl certify hat the a bove
and forgoIng art of incorporationt. oif the
I/ ."I.'ll ll ,,'E'"'INVi 0i1o /1'.4 V , %%. this
day dly re coirdled In my office. in Book
1(.1. fiitlo :144.
New Oirleana. October 2,, Ifil1.
I $i.net- EMI- LIEONAIlD, D. it.
.1 tirue sopy
FRET IDEEII., Not. IPult.
nor It. 2:1, 30; dI.c. 7. 14, 21.
Astronomers estimate that about
150,000.000,000 of shooting stars reach
this earth in the form of meteorites or
dust every year. Of course shooting
stars in reality are not stars at all;
they are little cosmic particles, often
weighing much less than one ounce
and composed mostly of Iron and car
bon. Most of them travel around the
sun in the same fashion that comets
do. following very flattened elliptical
trajectories. Sometimes it happens
that the trajectory of some of these
bodies cross the trajectory of our own
earth. If the little meteorite and thi
earth get to that point at the same
time they naturally collide. These
planetoids are not luminous in them
selves. So long as they fly through
ether (which is utter nothingnaes) there
is no frlction; therefore no heat and no
light. But as soon as they ester the
atmosphere with which our globe is
surrounded their speed Is so great that
the friction against the ar immedliate
ly lights and volatilises them.-New
Train YVeur Erathing.
"If one learns to breathe properly
when young he finds the benefit of it
in middle and old age." said a physi
"You will notice that when a middle
aged man gets into a train he holds his
breath and then grunts loudly as he
sits down. This is a stupid practice.
It throws a terrific strain on the heart
and may even burst a blood vessel In
the lungs or the brain. Many of those
sudden deaths we hear of are due to
holding the breath while making a vio
lent effort. Only the trained athlete Is
usually free from this fault. Athlete
or not. every one should practice easy
and regular breathing. If it cannot be
managed with closed mouth then the
mouth should be opened when per
forming such operations as lifting a
weight, running upstairs, stepping into
a railway carriage, and the like. You
may add years to your life by this lit
tle precautloo.-London Globe
A Heartless Father.
'1 need some help with my house
hold duties." announced a Malden wo
man when her husband came home
the other night.
"What's the matter with our daugh
ter?' the husband wanted to know.
"Our daughter? The idea! Why.
Jim. you know she's awfully delicate.
and she would die if she had to do any
household work. She has her school,
"And what? Her teacher's report
shows that she Isn't doing a bit of
"But she is the star member of her
basketball team. and you know she is
eager to take the prize at the gym
nasium contest. Itut that's just like a
man-wanting a delicate girl to en
gage in rough. hard labor. Be asham
ed of yourself. Jim Jenkions: You
have no feeling."-Boston Trveler.
Least attractive among the ins.ct'
which give liiht are the so called
"electric centipedes.' black crawlers
with many legs which Lave been likeza
ed to serpents' skeletons in miniatur(.
They move in a snakelike fashion, for
ward or bacnekward. leaving behind
them a bright track of phosphoric light. '
However. they are most accustomed to
appear in the daytime. when the il
luminatlon they afford is not visib - in