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PitmanSpencerian Chartier B J. M. REASER, Prin. Com'I Department untl' th. foremast m.nt°h.. . -a MONO the foremost novelsts of the orld and time was Charles Dick-I:s. a parliamentary shorthand reporter. He studed rand used a system to which I am going to devote reverential atten tion. Like Robert Fulton's steamboat it was the first system--at least ith the English speaking race. The only difference is that Fulton's achievement is unquestionably the progenitor of our mighty ocean greyhounds, our battleships, our dltaulas. Fulton's craft grew. The parent Pitman did not. It re anlrd an approach to the subject entirely different from that for the rtising of which Sir Isaac was knighted, to attain a result whose simpl dq,, ease, legibility and reading power destines it to rule the world-the PENICERIAN CHARTIER System o Shorthand. Remember those words -"AN APPROACH TO THE SUBJECT ENTIRELY DIFFERENT." David Copperfield (which is, most of the time, simply a character mae by Dickens for his own autobiography) thus describes the trials and tribhlations of the weary and heart-rending time he had in learning Pit "a to prepare himself to report Parliament-AND THERE IS NOT A gAN WHO ATTAINS THIS PROFICIENCY IN PITMAN WHO WILL NOT TELL YOU THAT HIS TRIALS HAVE BEEN JUST AS GREAT AN" THE TIME HE HAS TAKEN AR LONG. S"I bought an improved scheme of the noble art and MYSTERY of gesography, which cost me ten and sixpence, and plunged into a sea of prplexity that brought me, in a few weeks, to the confines of distrao se-. The changes that were rung upon dots, which, in such position, sIet such a thing, and in such another position something else entirely Sereat; the wonderful vagaries that were played by circles; the unao essatable consequences that resulted from marks like flies' legs; the tra _-deas effects of a curve in a wrong place, not only troubled my waking en~, but repppeared before in my sleep. When I had groped my way WIly through these difficulties, and had mastered the alphabet, which as as Egyptian temple In itself, there appeared a procession of new errers called arbitrary characters-4the most despotic characters I have vr kaewn. When I had fixed these wretches In my mind, I found that ty had drives everything else out of it; then, beginning again. I forgot W.-; while I was picking them up. I dropped the other fragments of the gatem-m short, it was almost heart-breaking." This is Charles Dickens' own aecount of his struggles with what may » mi31 the parent system of all shorthand now in vogue. It is a vivid and true picture n the struggles of the best and bright st minds who undertake, with this medium, to report so eating and egalt a kind of work as debates and speeches--with this excepton: 0SMB NEVER LEARN PITMAN, IN SPITE OF EFFORT. OTHERS 3V3r3 ACQUIRE A FAMILIARITY WITH WHAT THEY WRITE SmCH AS TO ENABLE THEM TO TRANSCRIBE IT ACCURATELY AND PLUINTLY. TO EXAMINE WHY THIS IS 8O-TO LAY BEFORE YOU WHY IT SAOTr SO WITH THE WONDERFUL SPENCERIAN CHARTIER T. gUM IS THE AIM OF THESE COMPARATIVE ANALYSS. Sir Isaac Pitman was born in 1812. SBe was a scholarly thinker. In 1837 he published what he ealled "Stenographic Soundbad." The system, the invention of a trained, logical and well-ordered in el"e, reflects those Intellectual qualities. Yee can trace the mental proses by which Sir Isaac devised the il bbt which once ruled the stenographic world. Sir Isaac, a graduate of the British Normal College, foil back on the gIwMally useful circle; the angle or slant of straight lines, and finally sue. s-nded ta composing an alphabet, itself asily remembered, but, ed as Sart eand system, presenting difficulties it requires months and years Is meter so thoroughly as to be able to take testimony, speehes, t. ith t. In some instance, a heavy percentage, this mastery is norr ttiued. 's leek inte this, first tracing the steps of ir Iusas plaw mrk, and the analyse why this satom, having no referen to gs'ish gliag to the ingrained habit of the mind by whicah people epIl and rit ia lesghand, requires as much study and work of the stodent of it sem he eas master it. r Isase took a circle and out It up into as manyr parts as would e me to mse the segments or are as symbols for consonant wmade ist esafuins. This is ndicated by the points checked Oet i the Tara we to Fire 1 Y Pfure .r. ji72Pt 3 , -0' I S. Z 4-C= c/ -lr, 0r nLLO Y r 5UU%~t , 8 '1 Ite CHARTER SVeDlRN STAMPIMG & DY woaKa. OF AMIERICA 8TaTE PAt I8B OF That on this slnth dy of be, In the year of out m.be hundred and eleven, Hl3 . Bne Jr., Notary L.issbaeed and ¶uallSed In a of Orleans, therein re the presence of the witnesses and undereined, person pipeared the persons whbose to subscribed, all above the who severally declare that, of the laws of the State telatve to the formation of they have formed and organ ese presents do form and or Into and constitute a cor , bjects and purposes an d eons hereinafter set forth which they hereby adopt as , RTICLE I. . this corporation shall be B TAMPING AND DID Its domicile In the ty of aad shall exist for ninety-nine Sthe right to receive, bod, ,ed , alienate and mortgage d personal: borrow t e Proper eviaenc thereo: e ai ud generally to ea0t ranted to corporations by ARTICLE II. ether ealprocesses shall S eia or la the event Snal te act, theb pe sad treaeI. SMTI £RuLc Il. S. tpooes for whisk thdn srp iamd asa tdh aate at .,-,, ,, ,. ,,, conflict with the objects and purposes set forth. ARTICLB IV. The capital stock of this corporation Is hereby declared to be Ten Thouand .o1 lars ($10,000.00. divided into one hundred shares of One Hundre Dollars ($100.00) each, which said stock shall be paid for In cash or its equivalent at the time of ts sub scripUon, or sid stck may be issued full paJd ud no-asseae tur the purchae of preperty, real or personal, or for service endered to said corporation. Said stock shall be transferable on the books of the comp ny, and no stockbober shall be al lowed to eel stock without Eret ofering same to this corporation through its Board of Di rectors, giving them sixty (u0) days' option in which to purchase sauld stock at it book value, to be ascertained by account of stock lasut taken. The capital stock of this corporation may be nlareased by a vote of the majority of the Itock Issued. after ten days' prior no tice In writing thereof being sent to each stockholder at his last known domicile. ARTICLB V. All the corporate powers of this corpora tion shall be vested hn a Board of Directors, omoosed of stockholders. The irst Board of Directors of this cor poration shall be eomposed of three stock holders. to be elected at the first meeting of stockholders ealied for that purpose aft er the srgning of this charter; which said Board of Directors shall hold their reepe. tve offlees until the third Tuesday in Jan u- 191r ea which said date aad annual rlyice er there shall be an election of direetors by the stockholders. Bach share of stock shall be entitled to ne veto east by the owner, i preslent, or w rozv, and the majorityof the votes ast shaall elect and decide all matters voted upon. ATICLB VI. No stockholder shall be held Ihable or re -.dble got the contracts, Vault or debts =dd crUoatle, nor shall any mere in fermality is 1t organatfsa have the ef halanes that may be due set eof l psess may be changed, set aa _- _ massag r19'ure ý3 t y=Ir A=o" 4)-s n L1 WL I - circle of Figure 1, marked with numerals from I to 8. Segment arc of curve, 1-7, he called "'f"; curve, 2-8. "th"; curve, 4-6, "'s"; curve, 6-7, ,"sh": curve, 1-2. "1"; ourve 3-5, "r". Having thus obtained six con l sonant signs or symbols, he doubles the use of five of these by writing them heavy and thus giving symbols for the heavy sounds of these ive consonant signs. Thus the sign for "f," written heavy, becomes "v"; "th'" (as ti "myth") becomes, written heavy. "th" (as in "with"); "a' - becomes "s"; "I" Is written upward or downward, the usefulness of this segment of the circle is single; "r" written heavy becomes the vowel sound, "y"'! "M" and "n" are the top and bottom of the circle. SIR ISAAC WAS STILL SHORT AT LEABT EIGHT CONSONAN' .SOUNDS, and he proceeded to use all possible unoonfusable radii of th iarcle for these miming consonants: Radius, -co, he called "p"; 8-c, "t"; S4-, "oh"; 1-c, "k." Observe, please, that there is not a single other seg meat of the circle or rallus thereof which can be used without imminent and even hopeless danger or confusion, but he had now all necessary ,CONSONANT SOUNDS and the EMBRYO of a system, HOPELESSLY NONFLUENT, and DESTINED ABSOLUTELY to require, for the reason of its CUMBERSOMENESS. a vast dictionary of word-signs. SH HAD NOT YET A SINGLE VOWEL SIGN. Of these--n the writing of English, these vowel signs are absolutely Imperative, at least: ah, oh. ee, aw, oh, oo, and (short) a, e, i, (short) o, u, oo. The device by which Sir Isaac attained their expression is hopelessly defective, as will be shown. He made position the expression of the vowel. I calling above the line, on 'he line and below the line the three positions. "Ah," for instance, is indicated by a heavy dot above the line. That I heavy dot on the line or in the middle of the stroke or letter becomes I "eh" and in the last place, "ee." Written light, it becomes the short i sound of the same vowels. Taking a short dash and writing it heavy in these three positions, he furnished his system the second series of long or heavy vowel sounds, "aw," "oh," "oo": and, writing them light, the seond series of short vowel signs. "o," "u," "oo" (short). The dip thengs are arbitrary characters, as are "i." "u." That is the alphabet of the system for the Invention of which Queen Victoria conferred upon Sir Isaac the great honor of knighthood! With thes signs anything can be written, in some sort of a fashion, but be fore a man can take testimony or speeches running from 125 to 200 words a minute. or twice as fast as a clock ticks, he has to acquire a skill, to so make this system a part of him, to so WRITE SOUND (ab stractly) that the apparent simplicity vanishes and he finds that he is against practically the problem whleh kept the immortal Dickens sleep less, hewing down forest after fres of difficultles eve in his dreams. This article proposes to discuss this matter to a finality-to show the relative merits of the Spenerlan Chartter and Pitman. It is not dolng so In a spirit of cavil. It believes i the sublime dignlty of the 114-foot craft of Fulton, which made its way laboriously up the Hudson at Sve miles an hour. But itt s eartain it the restless progressiveness and energy of man had bees eatent with it and deolared it the finest possible boat that human genius suald build, he would not to-day be crossing the ocean in a little oveur days on mighty leviathans which are practically safe against all strm and which breast the fiercest of them without a perceptible dseerea I speed This s the age of progress. Progress is mpoessible if we cling with blinded eyes to opinions which we have accepted for their age and by reason of no thought which we our seav have spent. Progress is possible only as a result of investigation-end nlvestia tien is the child of freedom from bias, freedom from accepted convention alities. Fogyism has no place in America. With all honor to the great intelloect of the studat who has. in spits of all the erittlsm to which his system is opos, madelo it possible for men to trnasribe thought with the swiftness with whioh t glides from the tamue, THIS ARTIOL SKS THAT YOU INEWTIGAT WHAT IT 18 uBIING TOID PUT BEFORE YOU WITH ALL DEPFRENCE AND HU MILITT, BUT WITH A CONVICTION THAT EVERY CLAIM AND AR GUMINT ADVANCED IS SANS, BOUND, TRU--WORTHY OP YOUR ATTENITION, INASMUCH Al THE DAY IB FAST ARRIVING WHEN EVERY CHILD IN THE THIRD READER WILL BE LEARNING SHORTHAND (SPBNCERIAN QHRTIER SHORTHAND) WITH AN UM AND READINEIS I W IN ANY OTIRw BY TtSM. THE GREAT PITMAN'S DIFFICULTIES Before we go asa further lathis analysis, and while you have the sl phabet of the Pitman system fresh before yr, let me Ihve you another plate in order that we may make plainer our talk. I pick this plato at random. ft is a Pitman transcript of as utte a.e of the great showman, P. T. Barnum, and here is what he said, writ tea in leaghand: "As far as buslae is eoneerned, I have a particular hobby. My erase is that every young person, of both sexes, should lear at least shorthand and typewriting. Here you have mental discipline and knowl edge together, knowledge, too, that is almost certain at some time to be convenient and practically available. I cannot conceive that one who knows thee two branches thoroughly will ever need to go hungry in the present generation, for they have a constantly widening use." Know Pitman thoroughly! Truly P. T. is a humorist. P. T. was either Ignorant of his subject or joking. How many there be of these craftsmen in this city of almost 400.000 alSt? Count them over---thosae who really answer P. T.'s description. Yoa or anyone with the slightest sort of memory can learn that alphabet wahih has just boe given and which, with endless use and pPactice, can enable one to do that speedily, but try, knowing this alphabet, to take a than thirty days' prior written notice sent to each stockholder at his last known doml clie. In case of dissolution of this corporation, either by limitation or otherwise, its saairs shall be wound up and liquidated by the then existing Board of Directors. Thea dose and paesed, in my office in the city of New Orleans, on the day, month and year herein above written, in the presence of Helen McGrath and George Sehmitt, com petent wtlnesses, who hereunto sign their names with the said appearers and me, no tarr, after due reading of the whole. (Slged) Oliver H. Van Horn, 15 shares; Wm. Magee 14 shares; W. C. Marvant, 1 share; per Pm. Magee. Witnesses: (Signed) Helen McGrath, GeorgBe Shmitt. WM. H. BYRNES, JR., Notary Publie. I, the undersigned, Recorder of Mortgages in and for the parish of Orleans, State of Louisianas, do hereby certify that the above and foregoing act of incorporation of the ROUTHERN STAMPING AND DIB WORKS was this day duly recorded in my office, in Book 1051. folio 383. New Orleans, November 9, 1911. (8igned) EMILIH LEONARD, D. 3. I hereby certify the above and foregoing to be a true and correct copy of the original act on file and of record in my office and of the certlficate of the Recorder of Mort gages appended thereto. In faith whereof I hereunto set my hand and seal this thirteenth day of November, 1911. ',M. H. BYRNI S, JR., (Seal) Notary Public. Nov. 10, 23, 30; dDee. 7, 14, 21, '11. CHARTER OF INTERIOR SETTING COMPANY. STATE OF LOUISIANA, CITY OF NEW ORLEANS. Be It knoes That on this eighteenth day sf October efore me, PreIerlk Del bel. a aetary publie personally came nd __ared the srmsoe whse naes are Lente s rerbid whoeesersl declared hat avalitng themselves eder t laws of his 8tate relatve to the organhatles et mperatis the have eev mesit ad -g , rad de b tiee Ans m .sat iso 6 - tameelvm e s such persons as may hereafter become asso elated with them, into a corporation for the objects and purposes and under the agree ment and stipulations following, to wit: ARTICLE I. The name of this corporation shall be the "INTERIOR BETTING COMPANY," and under such name it shall have and enjoy corporate existence and successions for a period of ninety-nine years from the date of this set, with full power and for the pur poses of this business as hereinafter defned to contract, sue and to be sued, to a quire, lease, use, hold, alienate, mortgage, pledge, or otherwise encumber say pro t, mo able or Immovable, in or out of the tate of Louislana: to Issue its bonds, or other evi dence of indebtedness, and to secure same by pledge, mortgage. at otherwise, and to purchase or otherwise acquire the stocks and bonds of other corpora tions; to appoint or elect such direc tors, officers, managers, agents or oth er employes as the interest or convenience of its business may require; to make, amend, or repeal, at pleasure, such by-laws, rules and regulations, touching the manage ment of the affairs or business or the exer cise of the powers of this corporation, as may be necessary or convenient, to increase or diminish the eapital stock ; to adopt a corporate seal, and the same to make, or alter at will, and generally for the purposes and objects of its business to exercise aal rights and powers permitted by law to cor porationa. ARTICLE II. Te domicile of this corporation shall be in the city o, New Orleans, in this State, and all citation or other legal processes shall be served upon the president, and in his absence the secretary-treasurer of said corporation. ARTICLE III. The objects and purposes for which this corporation Is etabllshed and the nature of the business to be carried on by It are hereby declared to be: The operation and condueting of general marble and stone cntting and settig bust ness. the buying and selling of all kinds of marble. stone, sand other building ma terial, the coastruction of buloangs land other works, in whole or in part, in Lou isiana and other States, wue storage of stoaes of all inds, and generally the doing and performing o all acts incidental or seessy to ay and *1I of the objects herens rem& ARTICLE IV. The eapital suet at this corporatiea r hrey at the 1 t Three Thssa Is Ishe rinssrte b thirty shares speaker at 150 words per minute, and see how thoroughly you realy know it. See if you don't find your penci with the same sort of fits that af flicted that of the great Dickens. JOKER BARUM'S WORDS IN SHORTHAND SAI.SJ LA.\( (Ž6Ž1. ·1. The above is the plate showing the transcript in shorthand of Iar num's point of view of shorthand. It is probably written by a man who answers Barnum's description, full of word-signs, correctly used-a per fect specimen. First, let us call your attention to the fact that the vowel-signs are entirely eliminated-and believe me when you are taking a speech, you have no time for vowel-signs with I'ltman shorthand. TlHE REASON WHY IT TAKES YOU SO MI 'CH PRACTICE TO MAKE THIS SYSTE\I VALUABLE TO YOU IS THAT YOUR EYE, YOI'R INSTINCT MI'ST lHE: TRAINED SO THAT YOUR EYES ALMOST SUPPLY THE INVISII31.I AND NON-EXISTING VOWELS. In cast writing you are forced to drop the vowels. We set forth here one proposition of shorthand which defies refutation. It is elemental:-- The reading power of any system is based on the peroentage of vowel sounds you can indicate. Here is a another truism: ITS SPEED IS BASED ON TIHE Si'PEE:I: WITH WHICH YOU CAN DO THIlS. From these two axioms it is Impossible to get away. Now, in this light-so clear and self-evident-let us get at the tran script of what Joker Barnum says, as transcrihb in the Pitman syst.-r:i. Notice, please, that the very first three wods are written as a uurd sign-the very first three words. These first three words are "as far as." and the Pitman system writes them 'sfrs"! There is not a hint of a vowel sound anywhere. In the position! Why should "as" be wr;.ten in the first position and in the last position, and each time spell "as"? The accuracy of geometry is sadly deserted in this: "Fr," "far." Is there any possible reason, conceding for the sake of argument that the "fr" is in the first position. why this should not be "far." "afar," and since there is mere position visible, why it should not be "offor?" It is, however, "far" to the trained eye in Pitman, for the reason that that house there is a house to your familiar vision. In "business." position pretty well indicates the word. You have "bs" and "ns," and require no flight of imagination to make It out. "Pn" is conventionally in the second position, making it literally and meaninglessly "open" with the "o" long, as in "mode" or "pone" (same long o) or "pain" (long a), or "pen" (short e), etc. In short, the "pa" in the second position spells "upon", because it is con ventionally so accepted. "Concerned" has a little bit of dot before the in Itial dcrcle-s for "con," an "r" cut half its length, thus adding "d and a little "n"-hook--still the "d." created by the shortening of the "r" is read after the "n"-hook. Here, then, are the consonant signs guiding the experienced eye in reading "concerned"-"consrnd." "I" is the "tick" on top of the "v," and "v" is a word-sign for "have." "Iv," in other words, is "I have." "A" is the dot in the first position. "Particular" is "p" shortened to half length to show that there is a "t" or "d" 'sounli somewhere concealed about its person, and the "p" is begun with an "r"- hook, although the "r" is read after the "p." Literally, we have "rpt (or 1)" spelling "particular." Another word-signt: "Fib" (vowel sounds to be guessed) "hobby." In a sentence of eleven words, thus, we have leven word-signs. What now is really a word-sign? It Is something that has to ne learned and stored away in the memory. When the first eleven woads )f the man who says that his hobby is that every young person should Lear shorthand "thoroughly," are found to contain seven words that •ave absolutely to be remembered. It is to be seen at a glance that he is lither ignorant of what he is talking about, or has a large and expansive sense of humor. This system cannot be taken on and carried as a side ine. One who learns it has to dedicate himself to it as did Dickens. An ther thing, this system cannot be mastered and allowed to rust. Speed, ,cauracy, a working order of the possession is maintained by constant practlee and that alone. There are sixty-eight words in the rest of what P. T. Barnum here aid. There are over forty word-signs in this number. Capacious mem ory at this gait, don't you think, to know this language of lines and arcs mad drcles thoroughly-a big word-sign store-house necessary; and you annet pause, you know, when you are writing 160 words a minute to re rll how "I have been," "as far as" "that" "particular," etc., are writ ea. Pitman is almost impossible with night students. It is strange, almost remarkable, that an analytical genius such as must have been the mind that invented and evolved Pitman system did tot reflect that the two greatest impediments in his system were inflict Id unabated on all the men and women who studied and the eompara ively few who mastered his system: A lack of vowel power. A diminution of speed proportioned to the number of vewel signs Iled. Net result-an absolme necessity of an enormous dictionary of word A difficulty of mastery Increased by every word-sign. A MULTIPLICATION. IN THE CASE OF EXPERTS. OF WORD IIGNS 80 GREAT AS TO MAKE THE WRITING OF EACH EXPERT A IYSTEM OF HIS OWN, BASED ON PITMAN, BUT PECULIAR TO THE WRITER AND ABSOLUTELY UNDECIPHERABLE BY ANY ONE LBSE. As a matter of my own knowledge I know that Spemosrlsa Chartler horthand can be learned with one-fifth the study requlred for Pitman; San be written faster than Pitman--it makes fewer strokes ain writing ay given matter---and It can be read with an ease never clalmed for Pit man. In fact, people knowing the system, correspond in It and read eah thor's writing as though it were longhand or Roman print. of the par value of One Hundred Dollar. each, which capital stock may be ncreased by a vote of the majority of the stockhbld era at any meeting called for that purpose, payments or said stock shall be made In cash or equivalent, as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors, who may have pow er to isasue. full-aid stock in payment for property, real or personal, transferred to said corporation or for labor or service ren dered. No stockholder may sell, assign, or trans fer his stock In this cororation unless Thirty (30) days' previous notice, in writ ing, of such Intention to se.., assign or transfer any stock to be given to the com panv to such sale assignment or transfer, and upon such notice the board of directors shall cave right to purchase the stock at its value by reference to the balance sheet of the last fiscal year. Upon failure of the board to pass a resolution before the ex piration of .,irty (30) days to purchase the stocs at Its book value, said stock may be sold in open market. No stock of the company can be bought by any pledge, except upon the above conditions, and provided the Board of Direc tors do not reolve to purchase the same at its book value within the period named. No stock can be transferred under any con ditions unless the transfer be made upon the books of the company at its office, in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. This corporation shall be authorized to commence business as soon as One Thou sand Dollars ($1,000.00) of the capital stock shall have been subscribed for. ARTICLE V. The corporate powers of this corporation shall be vested in and exercised by Board of Directors of three or more directors, com posed of stockholders, a majority of whom shall constitute a quorum in the transac tion of business, which mid directors shall be elected at a general meeting of the stock holders of this corporation, to be held on the Third Saturday of January In each year, bheinning with the year 1912, and notice of said election shall be given by mailing to the stockholders, at their last known place of buslness, a call for said meeting Five (5) days previous thereto. Said board, at its first meeting after each election, shall elect from Its own members a president and secretaryy-treasurer. Falling from any canue to elect directors on the day submitted shall not dissolve the corporatio, hbut the officers and directors then In office shall hold over until their successors shall have been duly elected and qaslied. At all elections ay meetings of stock holders, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of stock stand lg to hin same, and may vote in person or 1ron?. In case of the resignation or death of a director his place shall be filled as soon as practicable by calling a meeting of the dl rectors to elect his successor, who must be a stockholder. The Board of Directors shall appoint such agents, employes, servants and clerks as may be necessary for conducting the busl ness of this corporation and shall ix their compensation and have the right to dismiss at pleasure. ARTICLE VI. This act of incorporation may be changed, modified or amended, and this corporation may be dissolved, with the assent of two thirds of the capital stock represented at a general meeting of stockholders called for that purpose after a Five (5) days' notice in daily newspaper in the English Ianguage In the City o New Orleans, oislana. Any changes proposed or made with refer. ence 'o the increase or reduction of the cap ital stock shall be made in accordance with the laws of the State of Louisiana, with reference to the alteration of the capital stock of corporations. Notice of all stockholders' meetings, not herein or by law otherwise provided for. shall be given to each stockholder by letter addressed to his last known place of resl dence or business, and deposited In the mails at least five (5) days prior to the date of said meeting. In case of dissolution or terminating of this corporation, either by limitation of this charter or for any other cause, its affairs shall he liquidated by three (3) commission. ers selected by its stockholders at a general meeting held as above %et forth: and said commissioners shall remain in office until the affairs of this corporation have been fullly liquidated. ' In case of death or nloca pacity of one or more of said commissioners. the survivor or surviors shall continue to act until such vacancy or vacancies shall have been filled by a general meeting of the stockholders, as above set forth. ARTICLE VII. No stockholder shall be liable or respon sible for the contracts of this corporation, or its faults, In any further sum than the unpaid balance due the company on the shares of stock subscrlb-d for or owned by him, nor shall any informality in organiza-I tion have the effect of rendering this char ter nnull or exposing any stockholder to any liability beyond the unpaid balance, if any, due on his stock. Thus dose and peaed, at my office, In this city. the day, month and year first above written, in the presence of Messrs. Joseph L. Dahmer and F. R. Watts, compe tent witnesses, residing nla this city, who have hereunto signed their names with said appearers and me, notary, after reading of te whole. Sunset Limited Nnw Orlfeanis 1_4)" g les, San I'ranaisco, via SSUNSET O 4 ROUTE Twice W'eekly, Com mencing I)ec. 4, 1Q11 . .I. ". " . , " ," a:"l to, i ttli lrn 1:. I1 l f I . :t i r ,. . . . . , , , . ... t, ,, t ,.,. r l ,r.th : ":r ;tc ti' ki i f." it . 22 7 t S;.,li \- . W . r " .han .. ,;i.t Ma,.in ity : n : and T'c..t ," ."t. 40 I 't( tiful' Ill, t,' . i f [t't. "l . l fur ni-hed on re nuest. t riiinal ;il gne. : ' t . ie rc. Lra A \t1. .1" ar:11. A. Oak , J1 ph .. l1 "hu1r, I t. R h.'tt., I I,' t' i lh I 'EL, \t. Pub. I. lthe Indrsign lI. teord Ir oif 1ort, ag.q in andi for Ithe Ptarish of I rieani. Stat, of Louisiana. do herebl certify hat the a bove and forgoIng art of incorporationt. oif the I/ ."I.'ll ll ,,'E'"'INVi 0i1o /1'.4 V , %%. this day dly re coirdled In my office. in Book 1(.1. fiitlo :144. New Oirleana. October 2,, Ifil1. I $i.net- EMI- LIEONAIlD, D. it. .1 tirue sopy FRET IDEEII., Not. IPult. nor It. 2:1, 30; dI.c. 7. 14, 21. Shooting Stars. Astronomers estimate that about 150,000.000,000 of shooting stars reach this earth in the form of meteorites or dust every year. Of course shooting stars in reality are not stars at all; they are little cosmic particles, often weighing much less than one ounce and composed mostly of Iron and car bon. Most of them travel around the sun in the same fashion that comets do. following very flattened elliptical trajectories. Sometimes it happens that the trajectory of some of these bodies cross the trajectory of our own earth. If the little meteorite and thi earth get to that point at the same time they naturally collide. These planetoids are not luminous in them selves. So long as they fly through ether (which is utter nothingnaes) there is no frlction; therefore no heat and no light. But as soon as they ester the atmosphere with which our globe is surrounded their speed Is so great that the friction against the ar immedliate ly lights and volatilises them.-New York World. Train YVeur Erathing. "If one learns to breathe properly when young he finds the benefit of it in middle and old age." said a physi clan. "You will notice that when a middle aged man gets into a train he holds his breath and then grunts loudly as he sits down. This is a stupid practice. It throws a terrific strain on the heart and may even burst a blood vessel In the lungs or the brain. Many of those sudden deaths we hear of are due to holding the breath while making a vio lent effort. Only the trained athlete Is usually free from this fault. Athlete or not. every one should practice easy and regular breathing. If it cannot be managed with closed mouth then the mouth should be opened when per forming such operations as lifting a weight, running upstairs, stepping into a railway carriage, and the like. You may add years to your life by this lit tle precautloo.-London Globe A Heartless Father. '1 need some help with my house hold duties." announced a Malden wo man when her husband came home the other night. "What's the matter with our daugh ter?' the husband wanted to know. "Our daughter? The idea! Why. Jim. you know she's awfully delicate. and she would die if she had to do any household work. She has her school, and" "And what? Her teacher's report shows that she Isn't doing a bit of school work." "But she is the star member of her basketball team. and you know she is eager to take the prize at the gym nasium contest. Itut that's just like a man-wanting a delicate girl to en gage in rough. hard labor. Be asham ed of yourself. Jim Jenkions: You have no feeling."-Boston Trveler. Elect-tic Centipedes. Least attractive among the ins.ct' which give liiht are the so called "electric centipedes.' black crawlers with many legs which Lave been likeza ed to serpents' skeletons in miniatur(. They move in a snakelike fashion, for ward or bacnekward. leaving behind them a bright track of phosphoric light. ' However. they are most accustomed to appear in the daytime. when the il luminatlon they afford is not visib - in London Times.