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[ ndependencc 2 % " me " jog, • . :.t0.' ,° ,-..'ýý :,,: ý..', "-C ., :-;. ..,:-... . ". . . ~" .ý ý , I . - ,. ;. - . Y o # . ^ . Ž .,d "p ý - w *.! rý' .ý."ýý ý 'ý,ýý .ý ýw 2. 'ýoS:zýf;£1`7' ý71. ,ý.. ý1. y., f 1jt .ý, y w ý ý " -' aý ":k"ýe~" ji" .ý'" f ';1.1k` . ,ýx yý`; 7._'.'fS__ý ý By JOHN DICKINSON SHERMAN IS1iJtVAN4'I of the Fourth of July / ill i'li rat ioii of ti he itinig of Atneri.ai u in in.l.i*t .lence tnlt urally u;t' . t wo 1»o thotlihts: That the " tio~n. of Centraitil tnll Soutth A -elr .. % 'in:l 1i . a ll'..o free amii inileien ladt and that America set the ex \'lihI the Amellrican con, re<s 4 adnttLed the c'"'hlaratilll f hIrd, peil Qence it la i' lt otily alauull en'iti to the world of til. hill Iteliietetce Ii l the .iriaillal thiirteeni collniet.. bait al-o, it prolihey it the forthsolli g ladeJpet1'.ltI.ii of nll t of the W\estrui' lii'tis phllere. . there ire all y liiletin.lent,.I Days on this side of the A\tlanitic. Alexi,'o c''hl·l'rilt.r t Seltelll be, r 11. It Wa.ls on that tiny in lr1li, that 31i uel Iilali,. lIstr of (',lire,, rrang I , church helll ail j.r-oclhaitiel iix depenliiiln t i hii tlik. For ten Iarst his haIi.l wits to be -tol .,t: al sp-i , on a 'rner of the Alionlia de (;rai:i:itas i (;Iltauailto, and in delipeldenvt-e wasi hit stecurel ulntl ILS21. The 'li' entra:l Aiierieiil countries celebrate Sep. timber 1. (;itateniila: deiluredl indeplenlderne on that dtlte in 1I1,. the other coiuntries following its exampllllel siini atifter. In S,outlh Amnelri.:i VenLezuela deposed its royal goverjlor April 2, Is10. July 5. 1811. Bolivar brought about a frm'llal declaratlion of indlelpnll enre and a Itepublichn coniistitutional form of .goveniment. So Venezuela observes a holiday on .each of these days. " Chile celebrates September 18. In 1810 It or ganized a government when Napoleon tumbled Ferdinand VII off from the throne of Spain. Other South American countries celebrate In dependence day on the following dates: Argentina, May 25; Bolivia, August 6; Colombia. July 30; Ecoador, August 10; Paraguay, May 14-15; Peru, July 28-30; I'raguay, February 28. . .Brazil dates its Independence from September 7, ice the date of the separation of Brazil from Portugal, though the nation did not become a republlc till the revolution of 1889. That is why Brazil will celebrate a century of Independence by an international exposition to be opened this ' iomlng September. This centennial exposition will be held In Rio de Janeiro. It will open September 7, and con tlnue until March 31, 1923. Rio de Janeiro is a city with more than a million people. It Is most picturesquely situated on the Bay of Guanabara which is dotted with islands and surrounded by imountains. Its odd name-River of January comes from the fact that January 1, 1531, Martim AIonso sailed through the gateway dominated by Sugar Loaf Peak into the almost land-locked hay and thought it was the mouth of a mighty Stream. Several years ago when the authorities decided to improve and modernize Rio de Janerio, this plan included the conilsnanation and removal of nearly tN)0 small buildings in order to construct a wide avenue, known as Avenida Rio Branco. It extends north ond south a distance of about a ialle and a half, and is 110 feet wide. Rows of Pau Brazil. the species of tree from which the republic derives its name, occupy the center, the sides being used for traffic. This avenue also serves as a connecting link between sections of the bay. Along Avenida Rio Branco stand many of the capital's business structures, hotels, cafes, newspaper plants, and office buildings. At ap proxlmately the halfway point of the Avenida the electric street car system of Rio de Janelro cen trs. Avenlda Rio Branno will unite the two sections of the exposition grounds. The several areas designated for exposition purposes lie along or Pesr the water front. The site where native or Brazilian products will be exhibited is a plot of ground having water on two sides; and from this plasm a street extending along the water front to the Monroe Palace, one of the city's most beautl ful and commanding structures, has been desig mated as the "Avenida do Nacaes" (Avenue of Na tions), along which will stand the officlal pavilions at foreign governments. By far the largest area available for exposition purposes is that lying at the opposite end of the Avenlda Rio Branco, in the vicinity of the new docks and warehouses, where large exhibits, such as machinery and lcomotive, find abundant space. In a general way, Brazil will endeavor to show 1 world snme of the vital Influences that have ealde the countpr grow and prosper. The exposl te will reflect agricultural development, progt ess t stoek-raising, fishlng, and mlning; the growth of mechanical Indstries; transportation progress a lnd, rivers, and along the coast; postal and tleraph services; the work of BralliUan artists smd saclentists; the development of commerce; and the production and conservation of foods. The United States is to be represented. Plans fir its partlicipatlon have been completed by a SOedal commisllon apponlated by President Ha' DIFFERENT STYLES. IN CORSETS Roman Maiden Saield to HNave Been in proportion to the weight, size and First.to Wear Thrm, and They general comfort of the corset. A study Were Crude Affairs. of styles as furnished in a brochure on the matter by a corset company Now that no one between the age now celebratlng its sixtieth annlver of sixteen and forty-six wears them, sa7 should bring joy to the hearts of and with summer weather, perhaps many paragraphers, not to speak of tbhis I as good time as any to dlscus thiee who wear them, says the Ohio them-corsets, that Is. Stat Jourmal. A historian might point to the bpet Thi Remas, Inveaters of many toe' tbat woman he. a med oetldalt meU sre held reeae lbleor the eMe. 1<1 ý' r 1cZ"24 Z:&;4 r wt.T)V ý 0 1L6 'Yv ýxz ý'OcTC''': W 44 7C Id cC IAr.44A4Y - V ding to arrange for official exhibits exempllfying American pirogress In seitnce. Industry lanld co(m)ll nlerce. Sevten governmtnt ldepalrtments, interior, commlllerce, agriculture, iostttice, Illor. war and n:avy and the United States shipping board, have prepared exhlhbits. Twenty-five nations will participate in the celebration, which is regardl of peculiar interest to the United States because of the fact that Brazil has already participated in eight exposi tions in this country. Congress appropriated $1, 0(0.0pt) to defray expenses of participation by the United States In the exposition. The State department will have charge of the expenditure of this fund. Out of It a permanent building, costing $350,000, has been erected on the Avenue of Nations to house the exhibit to be sent by this government. After the close of the exposition this building is be converted Into a permanent embassy for this government. The exposition building will be two stories in height and of granite construction. The upper floor will be devoted to reception rooms and the lower floor to departmental exhibits. Preliminary to Brazil's achievement of inde pendence is the reign of Dom John. He arrived in Brazil as prince regent In 1808. In 1815 the colony was raised by royal charter to the rank of a Ayal kingdom along with Portugal and Al garves. DosI John then bectme King John VI. When Doer John came over he brought royal treasures in the form of art and books-to save them from Napoleon. He founded an academy of art, a museum of natural history, libraries and educational Institutions. He fostered industries and opened ports to trade. But he was not wise in political affairs, outlived his popularity, and returned to Portugal In 1521. King John left as regent Dom Pedro, his son, who became the champion of the Brazilian cause. against the Portuguese reactionaries who desired to reduce the kingdom to its old colonial status. The home government demanded his return. The people asked him to remain. He remained. A few months later in Sao Paulo a letter was de livered to him from the Portuguese court. In a burst of anger he tore off the Portuguese Insignia, drew his sword and shouted the historic words, "Independence or Death!" The scene has been immortalized in a painting called "The Cry of Ypiranga." Actual Independence was quickly achieved by overcoming hostilities on the part of the Portu guese garrison and fleet The most prominent of the political events of the first reign under independence Include these, ac cording to Langworthy Marchant in the bulletin of the Pan American Union: "First In order Is the fusion of all parties into one In support of the newly installed head of the nation, Dom Pedro I, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil; then follows the convocation of the Constituent Assembly for the purpose of establishing a constitution; later, the violent dissolution of the same assembly by the Emperor, because It proposed to curtail his privileges and establish a virtual republic; then in swift succession the arrest and banishment of the parliamentary leaders, among them the illus trious Jose'Bonifaclo de Andrada e Silva, who goes down In history with the title of "Patriarch of the Independence"; the promulgation of the constitution of the Empire by Dom Pedro Primeiro -a most liberal document, notwithstanding the extraordinary circumstances in which it was promulgated; the Republican Revolution of 1824 in Pernambuco, which was repressed by Dom Pedro in a way which raised up against him the set, or at least its original model. But It took the Dark or otherwise Middle ages to render the torture exquisite. The next corset on record is that of the Fifteenth century. It was con structed of iron and adjusted by sev eral teethlike slits in front. It is strongly suspected that this corset was a east-off coat of mail perforated to a peek-a-boo effect and burnished up. The "Busto," another Iron afair, put in its appearanmee in the Sixteenth can tury. It had more ventilatlon than its rdeessemor, at tamt In the fare. deep reserntment of tL;. lr:irili:inl anl Iel! to his allin atitnl April 7, 1%31.. "A curious incliiet in ctnliet 'titl itlh the nh dienl tihnl of' I, l nt I',.,ro l'rinsir-, w:as hi a-point. Iatizt of Jose lonifat'lo. the exiled i'autriarh of tihe Intdepeidettce, as tithe gutardlian aol tutor of his son. lDon Pedlro Seguitl.,, whom he intru-tel at the age of five, uith his haby sisters tl' t rhe loving tare of the subjects with whom he had quarreled. "Djoin Pedro Segundo was proclaimed Emperor of Brazil by a joint commiittee of Senators and Deputies amid the joyous shouts of the whole population. A regency of three members was con stituted, and Jose Bonifaclo was invited to assume the personal guardianship of the Emperor." Dom Pedro was declared to be of age at four teen and assumed personal direction of public affairs. It was not until 1845 that all the provinces of Brazil were united in peace. An outstanding event In the political evolution of Brazil's century of independence is the aboli tion of slavery, by two successive steps, under the auspices of Dona Isabel, daughter of Dom Pedro Segundo, when serving as regent of the Empire. The first decree was signed on September 28, 1871. By this decree slave mothers bore only free chil dren. The final abolition of slavery was effected by Dona Isabel on May 13. 1888. After the abolition of slavery, the old Conserva tive Party began to disintegrate very rapidly, its members going over to the Republlicans. (en. Benjamin Constlant Botelho de lMagalhaes. the chief exponent of the Positivistic dlc.trine, was president of the military college. Unditer his patronage a plan was worked out amonng thei higher officers of the army. with the assistance of the chiefs iof the RIepublican Party. for the deposition of the dynasty and tile prochlmation of the Itepublilc. The revolution declared itself on the 15th of November, 1889. and a provisional governlent was organized under the presidency of I (en. Deodoro du Fonseca. The last imperial cabinet, headed by the illus trious Viscount of Ouro Preto, finding itself power less to act, simply ceased to exist with the arrest of Its members. The imperial family were banished. Says Hello Lobo, Consul General of Brazil in New York: "You Americans are proud of having given the world a lesson in democracy which still endures. and it was indeed admirable, for it shaped the destiny of the whole continent and became the source of widespread inspiration. Jamestown, with its first elective assembly, the stirring events which took place in Independence Hall, the vote. B freedom of speech, trial by Jury-all the guaran tees of civil and political life-for these the world Is deeply Indebted to you. "Brazil did not forget this after she threw off the colonial yoke; although we were governed by a liberal King who, above the crown, placed the nation's will, your example gave us strength. As p during the Incumbency of Pedro I, the regency, and Pedro II this practice of government remained unchanged, so, when the Republic came into existl ence and, thereby, the federation, our liberal tra dition was already established and universally respected. Although borrowing Its Constitution In 1889 from the United States, Brazil did not tatter your political wisdom by copying it entirely. With s a Charter which for more than half a century m had found Its inspiration in the most liberal principles of the English Constitution-similauiy a source of inspiration to the Constitution of the United States-Brazil, in its Republican and defini tive force of government, found at last its natural pattern." p Ike though built Just as solidly '*ehnd. It was not until the Seventeeath cen tury that Iron corsets were abandoned and canvas affairs substituted. The French corset of the Eighteenth cen tury smacks of the latter days of the Nineteenth in its general appearance, The abolition of the bust or upper part of the corset and the subsequent lengthening of it over the hips is a modern development. Cua has 1.000,000 toes of mrpls sear this tr OUR MAGAZ C SECTION Interesting Features for the Entire Family 0 !..-.IIIIIIIIIIHullllliuinii - Something to Think About IESs By F. A. IDALKER r D Wil At I('0I i. (; I.N( WORDI)S Tf a I ,lf.t ,el\ ; , , n!at it re.,l, ."11 ' ,l r. .- i ." i '' .. t y, i " a t r1 . EI' n " r:- I giii, T il, ial l'll ri ,ls w r are grlli ii Il7ing tired tra elh. .r too hiI de's irainla 'of life' . . ' r'7 itti itite f lf ! tt'i!.. t!:it 7inIaI Tinr 1"a ea" or 1 a 1r I ennal\y or b ve, wt',n a],' In I'entlingg tanD I, ' l tInT tl. lli." : it7, r .t rl rl N 7 ;i::il 'r 11'injin '. in itriiil:ns 7in l .ik h r "h i l."!I r - aeM el t, irk t h l ).y 'The Friendly - WPath arI. Robino RIEADJUSTMENT WM IONY grows or money goes." SlBut it will neither grow nor leIave one of its own accord. Many perseons have had these facts brought home to them with a jolt. Unfortunately, however, they did not recognize the value of what they ob tained when it came in fast. Harsh lessons are usually well learned. The man wno foolishly trusti a rotten plank to carry him across a whirling stream and then pays for his folly by a stiff tight for life, al. ways is more cautious when he must walk another plank to follow his pathway on the other side of a stream. i The same logic may justly be ap plied h every walk of life. If one spendi all he earns, the money na turally goes; but, if he is wise and saves something, what he saves is certain to grow if prctperly invested. And it is surprising how fast it will grow and what an rasistance it will lt beclme when the source of supply be- a comes weak or slow in producing. hlatever the difficulties one has el fared during the plk.rild of depressione ilncident to readjustment of economnic conditinns. he stil h.as muich for which tl to offer thanks. Long faces and grunlmbling are inclin-'d to Increase the t world's pessimnisng ant hamper the progress hack toward normalcy. it ji is far better to he a good sport-if .5' we be permitted to iuse gaming motk er's Coo Boo Today may be all that is mournful! Our paths cannot always be bright. But tomorrow well somehow take cour age. And trustingly enter the fight. EVERY DAY DISHES W iE WELCOME foods that give variety without adding to the ex pense of living, which Is high enough with the best of management. Date Surprise Cookies. Stone dates and stuff with whole al monds blanched. Roll out the cookie mixture very thin, cut in rounds and place a stuffed date in the center; sprinkle with sugar and lemon rind mixed; fold over the cookie and pinch the edges together. Bake in a hot oven. Pear Bread Pudding. Slice canned pears in very small pieces; add lemon rind and Juice and place half of them in a pudding dish. Mix one tablespoonful of butter with one-half cupful of sugar, one cupful of water and a pint of bread crumbs; spread all but a tableasoonful over the pears. Put more pears in the dish; add grated nutmeg and sprinkle with the tablespoonful of crumbs. Bake with a cover for an hour and a half, the1 remove the cover and brown. Serve with a hot sauce. Rice and Asparagus Soup. Wash the asparagus and cut off the te er portions. Put the tips anto a quart of well-seasoned broth and one capful of water and cook until tender. I!r ,, !, ':: i ', ; f I azzte!. th f te " "I'.1 the str , , . , *., • , . . ' tile of * ': . * -," B- t* - . , the w ay . h.w J its atbe I .. t ,, . t' , . i . - t *ltli,, Cll: Ith s,,+-? b 1 ch r , t',i: . ,, , A.t ,·'. r .: " it.: of , the r. f ],,,, :'l0t. y, ",. ': 'tl ... the thw l U i nt i s , ' i , ,t y *Il . , h ,- r e,! y '. : ' - , t . \ , . l ii , h lt t h c h i t o f t "r't" cr ht 1 (Copyrllht) AI sCHooL DAUS I R U A- ^' Now+ its t. . . -r PC , S 5 P, E.. N.ý fý . ( . f cZ =- T b T , s NS iiC ov'e4 Srst .·- ~:rk. :;LbT ·C~~r .~rrr,~ 5 ~ ~ O language-then one is more likely to f see the brighter side. Out of the struggles and discourage ments the country and world at large have been experiencing, common sense will eventually rise to a higher plane than It has occupied for several years. And, though many may have foolishly spent all they earned when prosperity was with them and since have been finding it difficult to make bhth ends meet. when the tide turns hack to normal, greater value wUIl be placed on Incomes, more caution lll he ex- Ic ercised! In spendilng. more money will he saved. silple and tloalthfu! pleasures will bo appretc'teid and el there will he wider appllreciltlon of d the privilhege of earning fair wagE's or making fair profits on business lthine. b Painful though the lesson of readl- C justllent is. It wa' necessary to as sure honesty and nappiness in the a years to come. * 1 (Convriarht 1 Add one-half cupful of rice as soon as the broth and asparagus are boiling hot. Cook until very tender. This soup may be put through a sieve and is then ready to serve. Pass grated cheese with the .:oup. Sandwich Piquant. Take one cupful of new cahbba;e or ccumher chopped, one-half cupful of onion chopped, four tablespoonfuls of green pepper chopped, drain, add cayenne and seasonings and use on buttered bread. Copyright, 1922. Western Newspaper Union. ~-0-- ThEI CERUIL CHERVB I le to hkar bsa hymns in dwrck I Fel pliFted an my hetrt, Especially 'henr tenors 5irt er extraslittle, sqveezed-in ya part RIl'C** to I se e Unconmus "N ERVES," A to F YOU have an ibelil ,d which some one lb h of for you, you can JJId II "nerves." ! You c'an afford to be sald j easily Irritated, to be f disturbed at smnall suamlsM r VT"u will not enjoy tl )tl be some comfort to b r0 If can afford it. But if you have yor IN 0. e and are anxious to git I* possille with your prtlsyl equipment, you willad id are too big a load to cU.I As you no doubt keW this time, the world lb IM our being Is not altOl$ one. In it there are lao i noises, offensive igm le nlug people. There is also a t~L I which viewed freM hI the busy man ls IBtid burden. i But this happaM 'M. 0 I world you are in, "gr lI least. And if you permit d features to get ea Ii are going to be N bnt, happiness and Yr will have very lttle your natural gifts If you are nerWm sensitive, and always fense, you might M - to the poor house iad . Ycu will get theref I - will only he a wade ' your arrival. A good many cUlW e cured by the great WI Young gentlemen w ,' could not eat, save , hogany table, sP . food. and who fanded ad sleep if a trolley car d'.ccoveredl that they After they had sleptI. within the sound d they saw that tb to worry ahout back Ir Get rid of your ev to get along. Take 0. find it. and put UP t.A' he able to improve it later on. but you wh very able. and very can do so. . The Juniper bef! to ri (a.