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K r o e i I r . i (Prepared by the National Geographic So cltty. Wauhington. D. C.) The so-called ikurdish ,Republic. one of the latest governmental units reported to have been set up In the protean Middle East. Is supposed to have been created by a Kurd bandit from the Persian part of the region that has been Indefinitely termed "Kurdistan" for generations. Kurdistan has sprawled across in. ternationai lines with a fine disregard for those hypothetical, man-made limits; anti its people, too. have disre garded natioral Ioundaries. Semi nomadic. many of them spend their winters in the warm plains of Irak, and their summers in the cool uplands of Persia or Eastern Turkey. The Kurds are. par excellence, the mountaineers of the Middle East. The highlands have ever bred not only a love of liberty and independmene. hut often an aggressive ant marauding spirit as well, and all these traits the Kurds have in abundance. Big and muscular, with piercing dark eyes and long mustaches that contribute a look of fierceness, every one armed to the teeth, the men might be described as the world's nightmare conception of brigands. Three thousands years ago the proud kings of Assyria led their trained armies northwestward Into the mountainous region of the upper Eu phrates and Tigris rivers. The tur bulent mountaineers against whom they advanced fled before the civilized soldiers of the Mesopotamlan plain and took refuge in Inaccessible heights, leaving their rude villages of mud and stones to be destroyed. Not Easy to Conquer. Invariably the kings claimed to have defeated the wild upland tribes, as boastful inscriptions carved In the living rock still prove; but the defeat was never permanent. As soon as the soldiers retired the mountaineers re occupied their villages, and soon be gan to plunder the lowlands as law lessly as ever. Centuries later, when Xenophon led his ten thousand Greeks from the lower Euphrates northward across the Armenian plateau to Trebizond, the mountaineers were still untamed. All might they rolled stones down the mountain-side upon Xenophon's army, and were vanquished only by a stratagem. Today the great empires of Meso potamia have fallen; the power of Greece has passed away; but, still, as of old, the mountains breed lawless ness, and the mountaineers are the unsubdued scourge of the people of the plains. The lineal descendants of the Car duchl who opposed the march of Xenophon are the Kurds--a sturdy, strong-featured race of Mohammedan Aryans, allied to the Persians on the one hand and to the Armenians on the other. Their home is in the southern part of the Armenian plateau, among the headwaters of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, and in the Zagros moun talas, which run southeastward from lake Van to the Persian gulf and form the boundary between Turkey and Persia. There they tend their l Socks; for the majority are primarily shepherds, although t ,ey cultivate the soil as far as posalblk. Although most of the Kurds poe seas villages, composed of clusters of 1 low, flat-roofed houses of stone or I mud, all the tribes are more or less y momadlc. The majority live in dark brown, many-peaked tents of goats' hair during the summer, not wander- I ing far from home, but merely going ! up into the high mountains, where it is too cold and snowy to live in winter. a A considerable number, however I live a purely nomadic life, wandering hundreds of miles along regular routes. Among the pure nomads so dety is organized upon a half-tribal, half-patriarchlal system, while the half-patriarchal Kurds are either dl vidMed into tribes or clans, like those of medieval Scotland, or are ruled by I feudal lords, whose power is often I absolute. Poverty is the rule among the I Kurda; their mountain fastuesses are t dIdleult of access, and they them- 4 asves are strong and hardy by reason a t their life of exertion. The people v t the neighboring fertile lowlands, on a the other hand, are relatively well-teo- e Found Tea Plant in Assam In 1828 an Englishman by the name d of Bruce was traveling in Assam, the ci -ertheast province of India. At that w time Assam had no commerce. It was C simply a bqautiitl country where the _leot, good-natured natives lied onm the tropical fruits which grow in pro Ifulon and raised Just enough rice and It mi-e for their own s. hileo BDimeln wa In AsIes he disoered a tea bg . Bt He amlns hi a i the I o- do, and are also comparatlvely unpro iteeted and averse to war. All these factors combine to make the Kurds a the race of plunderers. "No race," says the famous geographer Iteclus. "neith er Baluch, Iedouln. nor Apache. has developed the marauding instinct to a higher degree than have the warlike Kurd tribes." Hate Their Neighbors. nd In the northern po;tlon of Kurd istan, Kurds. Armenians and Turks are jumbled together in the same re r- glon. These three peoples have little Mr love for one anilther. The Kurd hates the Turks because they have o,ften worsted him in bat tie. tibecause they tax him heavily whenever they are able, and tecause he they curtail his opportunities for le tighting and plunderling. lie despises the Armenians because they are Chris ut tlans, and because they can he robbed hg and Ill-treated almost with impunity when the Turks give permission. Yet d In spite of this he has a sort of sym pathy for them, because they, too, are oppressed. e The Armenian hates and fears both the Kurds. who plunder him, and the Turks, who oppress and persecute him. He also despises both races be cause they are not so clever as he. It Is only by exerting his superior wits in business or in flattery of his u rulers that he can manage to maintain ir his position. It Is not strange that his character reflects the conditions un der which he lives. The Turk, in turn, despises the le Kurds because many of them are only half-hearted or heretical Mohamme dans. and because they are simple, un sophisticated folk. He fears them, al to so, because they are wild, lawless peo " pie, who make the lift. of the tax eC gatherer a burden ana who rob a It Turkish official with great glee if they ie fnd the opportunity. The Turk de e spises the Armenians, because as he e would somewhat unfairly put it, "they are cowardly Christiah dogs." He hates them because he knows that d they are far quicker and keener than te he, far better business men, and far te better educated. te In the edge of Persia, ;gain, the 11 Kurds are racially distinct from their tC neighbors, and have rarely been sub y, missive to the central government. a The chief caravan route from Irak through central Persia lies through 0- their region, and often they have com if pletely dominated this highway, tak 's ing toll as they chose from the cara - vans. e Picturesque Costumes. if They are in reality semi-barbaric, nomadcl tribes that live on their r- flocks and by hunting In these wild ,f mountain valleys. They have their T, own national costume, which Is per ,n haps the most picturesque In all te Persia. 1e Almost always armed to the teeth, a these tribesmen look particularly ro 9 mantic when dashing down a boulder- 1 d strewn hillside on their sure-footed - ponies; the gleam of a rifle slung m over a shoulder; flowing purple tur d ban loosely bound around a huge a y black felt hat; broad, colorful scarf n Ir about the waist, half hiding two or a y even three bandoliers and above e e which projects hilts of a knife and a locally-made revolver or perhaps a - German automatic Mauser; baggy 0 f trousers, gaily tasseled and em ir broldered rsddle-cloths, and a certain s air of bravado withal that vividly re C- calls an Oriental, a more brilliant Velasquez, or those gallantly.attired b r- heroes so naively shown in old Per g sian miniatures. b it The Kurdish women are generally r. somber in dress, but do not hide the r, beauty of their faces under veils as g strictly as the Persian women. r Credulous, fierce, and Intractable as b - the Kurds are, they are nevertheless a 1, people of true strength of character. I e They have been a menace to the de- Ic I- velopment of constitutional goverr f meat in the countries In which they y live. They themselves are ruled part- tl a ly by the patriarchal system, partly by h the clan system, and partly by the a e feudal system, and all have had the e bitter experience of the hated rule o t - despotic monarchies. For three thou- pi m sand years they have lived the same he s wild, simple life, remote from all men uj a and at strife with all men. Now mod- be ern ideas are coming to them. Ia British government, who immediately imported tea plsats In geat numbers w frotm blChinas and fostered the tea in- fr dustry, until now Assaem is one of the i chlef tee-growing countrles of the c world. - Temple Mannlng Is the ax Cleveland Palan Dealer. b Only One Virte* Laekl ur aUsk, We oughLt not to loeek bek ulem it i to derive uetnl lesom rem pn t .erws, ad or the pmrpes of preid i yr i*arg bought eersmes-wash tn WILLS SELF TO DIE, AND DOES Astonishing Incident in London Is Attributed to Auto-Sug gestion. AGED MAN IS VICTIM Means Planned for Hanging Are In adequate, but He Perishes None the Less-Head Hangs Limply In Handkerchief. Lond'-n.-Can a man "sugiest" sui cide to himself and die of the sugges tion? It is said that the natives of Samoa in the old days could "hate" one an other to death. But read on: Something has been written of the extraordinary effect of IDoctor ('oue's mental suggestion treatment upon a group of British shell-shocked soldiers. lie delivered his lecture to them and treated some of them as he had treat ed thousands of more or less normal people at his now world-famous Nancy clinic, and the result was an outburst of hysterical excitement which was deemed to be exceedingly injurious to the sufferers. It was, Indeed a mad o riot of the shell-shocked. so The episode created much criticism a of the whole Idea of therapeutical use vs of mental suggestion. h- But it by no means decreased the ever increasing flock of patients rush a Ing to Coue clinic at Nancy, which this to summer has been greater than ever. having been swelled to more than twice its normal proportions by tour ists, many If not most of them Amerl. cans. e - leHad Immense Sale. The Coue book had an immense sale me here in England and the discussion it- of the subject in drawing rooms, at ly clubs and in the newspapers since It +e was first brought forward has rivaled r in enthusiasm the perennial political is debates. All sorts of extraordinary phenom ena In this general direction have been Y reported from all parts of England tt and by all sorts of people. Astonishing cures and complete failures have been reported with h - r . I1 a r Sgreat eagerness by pros and antis and c Sthere even has been some rather acrl Smonlous discussion among those who II believe and those who afRfirm and those g I who deny. But the most astonishing Incident which has been brought to public at- b tention during the whole course of the long-drawn-out argument Is furnished by the tragice ending of one Alfred Manning, aged sixty-six. He had been unable to get work for a considerable time and had been Smuch discouraged, although he had not actually suffered in a dangerous way from lack of food. But he was old, tired and unsucess ful-of a sort and In a case which often furnishes suicides. Thrust Head Through Noose. And he was found dead in his room f with his death declared to be suicide w by the coroner, although it could be il held to be that only by a person ac- et ceptlng very fully the theories of those s believing that great power lies In auto. suggestlon. When found he had been dead for some time, kneeling at the foot of his a bed. He had tied two corners of a very hi large handkerchief together making a p loop which he had caught over one of - the bed-posts. o Through the pendant cloth circlet thus formed Manning had thrust his head and, when he was found, his o neck rested limply in it. t But the loop was large and loose; c the handkerchief would not have dl pressed tightly on his throat if his u head had not borne Its weight down a upon it and that scarcely could have been achieved to the point of strangu lation by his own will-power. Man Who Fired First Shot Re-Enlist. Indianapolls.--Sergt. Alex E. Are, who fired the first shell on Its way 1 from an American gun during the th World war, has re-enlisted for serv lee In the army. He enrolled here, y and will go to Camp DI)x, N. J., to hs & buddies In the Sixth Field artillery. 4 Mayer Plnme His Own Son $2 bSharon. Pa.-Mayor Frank Gilbert 3usd bas see $2 and costs for park Sils ear Ina tot of a theater e trase. After the e was paid, fatber and - et W diner toesther. The KITCHEN S CABINET Is 1, 2 =.. \*~2,ter N\-wspaper i tlour. Oh, road that be knrls round the band. 1We crro nt w'}at's at Journey' end, ou that our halippy f,<.t h'ave stiayed Through f(ray bantks and htlwmock shadse GOOD SALADS AND DRESSINGS r M I With all the deliciois fruits and veg- a etnhlhs that each scu ,on brings, there ( lark of gei sal- ' ads iat any t ile. r Frozen Fruit 1 Salad.--Take one I ' cuplful each of or u- nngnas, bananas, II p lineapple, green i grapes, whipped Ion cream and fruit salad dressing; add t an' sugar, itf necessary. Die the fruit, ti ildd the remaining Ingredients and mix he lightly. Fill mold, pack in ice and salt I's. lll let mf rid four hours. Fruit Salad Dressing.-Take one VS. fourth of a cupful each of pineapple nd and orange juice, the juice of a lemon, at- one-fourth of a cupful of lemon juice, nal one teaspoonful of flour and three of Cy water, one egg, and one-half cupful of cream, whipped. Scald the fruit juice. 'as Mix the sugar and flour and add the to cold water, mix to a smooth paste. ad Add the beaten egg, stir in the hot liquid slowly. Cook in a double am bller, stirring constantly until thick Ise ened. Cool, and when ready to use fold in the whipped cream. This makes he and French dressing. qh- Baked Apple Salad.-Wash and core tie the desired number of red apples. Fill er, the center of each with a section of an banana and sprinkle sugar over the arI top. Cover the bottom of a shallow ýri dripping pan with water and set the apples In It. Bake until tender. but not too long to lose the shape of the e apple. Serve on lettuce with boiled dressing or with mayonnaise. at Almond Salad Dressing.-Put two ounces of blanched almonds through the fine knife of the meat chopper, al then pound to a fine paste. Add one cupful of mayonnaise, one-half cupful of currant jelly, the Juice of halt a lemon and a cupful of whipped cream. en Serve with fruit salad. Tomato Salad.-Take firm, round. ripe tomatoes, peel and cut into seec ttions. In the center place a small yellow tomato, set the tomato on a heart leaf of lettuce and serve with a rich mayonnaise. Apple Salad.-Pare rnd cat into small pieces six large apples, add the juice of a lemon, and three cut-up ba- of nanas. Just before serving whip one cupful of cream, add two-thirds of a cupful of sugar, mix with the fruit and serve very cold. Peach Surprise.-Mix well one cup- hW ful of nuts, one cupful of cottage cheese, well seasoned. Fill the cen ters of six peaches with the cheese mixture, arrange on lettuce and cover with dressing. But best of all I love the road When It slips past a white abode, Past old gray barns and maple trees, ar Into the forest's mysteries. v Walter P. Etoa. an A SYMPOSIUM OF SALADS fo be With apples very plentiful this sea- pr son it will be worth while to try a few apple combina tlons. Here is a H glorified Waldorf: Take two table St spoonfuls of gel atin, soak in one half cupful of cold water, then dissolve in one by cupful of boiling water, add four table- us spoonfuls of sugar and stir until dis- m solved, then four tablespoonfuls ofi lemon juice. Cool. When almost set, add two cupfuls of chopped apple, one tra d cupful of shredded celery, one-half cup ha 1- ful of nuts. six stuffed olives, and turn bit 0 into individual molds garnilshed with e silced olives. Serve on lettuce with ma salad dressing at the side. vei t Orange Jelly Salad-Take one ta- hal blespoonful of gelatin, soften In one e fourth of a cupful of cold water, add onehalf cupful of boiling water and d stir until the gelatin is dissolved, then add one-half cupful of sugar, one cup - r ful of orange juice, the juice of a n lemon and one grape fruit. Add the Fa d fringt juice to the gelatin, cool, and when beginning to set, pour into In dividual molds. Arrange sections of the grapetrult in each mold. Serve on I lettuce with any desired dressing. te Head Lettuce Salad.-3Mix onehalt ci cupful of chopped olives, one-half cupl wh a ful of nut meats and three pimentoes wa Swith salad dressing. Cut the head S lettuce Into wedge-shaped pieces and cover with the dressing just before cr * serving. t Prune, Raisin and Cheese SalacL- to Clean and steam two cupfuls of ! prunes. Fill with a mixture of one- co Sfourth cupful of chopped raisins, one- p half cupful of grated cheese and one Shalf cupful of natmeats. Pill the I prunes after removing the stones. Ar . range the prunes on lettuce with stalks of shredded celery cad boiled dressing. Pineapple Delight--Rub a salad bowl with a clove of garlic, then add one cuptful of white cabbage finely shredded, one-half cupful of finely chopped celery, one-half cupful of diced pineapple. Arrange on lettuce, 9 serve with French dressin and gar Dlsh with slices of red pepper. The Southern Sahara. The Kalahari desert covers fully 120,000 square miles, and is part of o the immense inner tableland of 8outh Africa, with an average elevation of 8,000 feet. It has been called "the We Southern Sahara," and like the great desert of north Africa Is scarred by w the beds ot dried-p rivers. Pity Would Replee Heotility. If we could read the secret hlstery at our ememles, we abould lnd in each ram's Ie n aerue and edmeriag emeo to duina a ll hU r ..-Leagg DEAD GIRL'S FACE SEEN IN MIRROR Photographic Likeness Appears on Glass Nine Months After Death. Slirive.prt, La.-At C(':tl,t. l.a., a ph,,te, rapjllhic lik."ne;s of a girl, dead n le iI.i ntli hs, .has azi .i lar""d li lt llinir I rr of tlh roll In which shit'e w' pl Ie ftilter l r ]'"i :til. : 'ecoriati g to g- a rep,,rt of the pie.nlmen.ln Iy C. . M. 't curningllarll, frita'r stat- tmonatti r. a Th'te girl was :a mein,'lr if tlhe I- Trichel f:t ly. who lived :ibot live mile. frouu I 'aIpl ti. The I dly was' t lall in front of the i mirr,,r with a |e large I olllll t (cl;Is(i"l in the tlandls. r- I t Ne (:11 si, wa- Ilurit d Iai] tll ' rtie in s, has teen ou'lplietl since that time by nli her ihler sister. ,d Atiit a iiontIh ago, it was rrelnted. d the sistelr was tha,n n into, viohlent algi t, tition " 'en ishe saw what apipered to x e SLikeness of Her Dead SIter. be a likeness of her dead sister etcheh on the silver surface of the mirror. Gradually the likeness grew until from top to bottom of the mirror, a distance of 18 Inches. the photograph Is now complete. The girl appears with the bouquet clasped In the hands. The boards on wnlch the body rested, also are clearly visible. It is the accepted theory of local scientists that the photograph is the action of sunlIght on the window panes and the silvered surface of the Iriror, although so far as known the mirror, is no similar ease on record. Some are nclined to bet claspeve t to be a di vine manifestation. The picture most closely resembles an old-fashioned daguerreot.vnlghpe and efow forts to wash or rub it off the mirror, both from the front and back, have proved unsuccessful. d HAIR-EATING CHILD IS CURED d Stomach Trouble Goes as Mass 1S c Inches Long sl Extracted From Girl. Northampton, Mass.-What is said by surgeons to be one of the most an- * usual series of operations i their memory, was sueessfully concluded a when a mass of human hair was re.f moved from the stomach and lntestinal tract of an eight-year-old girl, who had suffered from acute stomach troo ble several years. An X-ray photograph showed a dark mass In the stomach. Questioning re vealed that the girl had been in the habit of pulling out her hair and swal lowing It. One poPtion removed by the surgeons was more then a foot and a half long. The child is recovering. BOY COOKED ALIVE IN VAT Falls Into Boiling Water and Dies From Burns Five Hours Af tor Ho li Resoud. Milford, Del.-Norman Pettyjohn,. ten-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs. John Pettyjohn, was cooked alive when, while playing about a rat of boiling I1 water at the plant of the Ellendale Basket company, he fell in. He went under twice before his screams brought rescuers. His condi tion was such that little could be done to relieve his sufferings and he died ha fve hours later. Nurses and surgeons could not even remote his clothing to at apply olntments, to Mother Rabbit Kils Large Blaoksnake S Colonial Beach, Va.-A rabbit killed a four-foot blacksnake Il Snear the home of W. R. Ward of SLyells. Vs. The reptile had Just swallowed one of the rabbit's.off Sspring. After kicking the snake Sinto unconsciousness the rabbit to * finally killed it by gnawing two Slarge pieces out dT its head. Fearing Separation, Wife Take Poison. Macon. Ga.-Crying that ase could not stand separation from her hbus, to band, who contemplated accepting a he position in a nearby town. Mrs. Gladys Worsham drank part of a bottle el th poison. She was taken to a hospital, it where physicians say she will re cover. Ba Crushed to Death by Clothes Pole. Brooklyna. - Harold McKee, feor th yearsm p d. was erusled to death wbea a egethe pole fell us him wblle It wms blag rmoved frm a beck ymrd. Curre t ' Wit Hum r A RACIAL WEAKNL,. "HonHo', Jul .I \wrTn't :.n' no e crap'." I "W hat l .,r. ,,,i L, nY' - "I wuz Just l,, i' orm" "flow h1ng I.a l . ,,' t,-,',, i.,"king on?" "'Itout an la'ur. Ju,! .." "I , " i',you ary*' ;r.. -. ti ,"Ir. There Ineve'r wI. as .'tnnI... Not who could wIitlh it dli',' ' :., fr en hour without trl n; 1l. lui.k.' Formalities. "Why do you ariwarls b.'!n a speech 'Friends and fe!ll,." eltbzaq?' You know a lot of them uir.i'l your friends." "'For the reason." repli. l Seonator Sorghum. "that In writ n- ia letter I address a man as ',.har lr' wlhen I have no affection for 1im what. ever." * 1 A BLOW OUT He: Let's go for a little blow out? She: That's what always happens when we go out in your car. Adaptation. All fickle Is the public's pratse, Which, like the village hand. contrives To fit the same old flattering lays To each new hero that arrives. Understood Her Plight. Widow Woodby-Young-No, Mr. Hardfax. I have no money. My en tire Inheritance was left in trust un til I should attain the age of forty years. Mr. Hardfax-And then you collect ed it and spent It and have been broke ever since. Poor lady 1 Old Woman's Delusion. Farmer-Ay, she be eighty-nine an' a wunnerful old woman; but she do suffer from delusions terrible. Pardon-Oh, what are they? Farmer-She thinks she's got a diary wot's goin' to be published Ia the Sunday noospapers. - London Punch. Proud of It "Are you aware that Mr. Grabcoln Is a self-made man?" "Not being stone-deaf, I am." "Eh 1" "You can't converse with Mr. Grab. coin more than five minutes without being informed of the fact." One Thing Needed. "My dear Mrs. Smith. I think your daughter recites remarkably well, don't your' "Yes. All she needs Is a short course in electrocution, sort of to in ish her off, as you might say." A Shooting Affray. The Movie Producer-This scenarlke says the spy's to be shot at sunrle. The Dlrecto-Imposslble! Not light enough at sunrise for the cameraman to shoot anything. ABSOLUTELY UNNECESSARY She: Pop says you have no brains. He: I figured I wouldn't need aMy with your money. Acommedating. *'MNan wants but little here belowm" Quoth the Rev. Jabes 8quinches Straight home Miss Phoebe Potta d1i g And rlied her skirt three lnches. The Difficulty. "He's kinder to his second wife than he was to his first." "Yes, but his second wife keeps in sisting that he's not nearly so kind to her uas her first husband was." No Help Yet. "Did you telephone the plumber that the hot water pipes are leaking?" "Yes, my dear." "What did he say? t "He samid he'd put aus on his waiting . Ust." The Help Problem. e Crahbson-So you can't get along with the cook. eh? Why don't you treat her as an equal? His Wife-I tried to, but she warned me that I was getting too famillar. A Roundabout Way. Misus--Why do you always ask me to sing when Mr. Smathers comes here? Mister-Well, you see, I don't like that fellow; yet I don't feel like tell ing him outright to go. Struck the Right Combination. Edith--So you are going to marry foer love, are youT Don't you think that It foolabh? Maud-Oh, ao. Too see I had sense emeagh to ftall in love with a mlliM nLge 1Wwat Adv ýt for t. " " " " owasou 0 Mp. oar. " Ow. dbot k our MW* : aC , to 7".' ..J*3 bum OrC melr FrhA H-rrl 0l r( .uumb ILr~r Psbm uq- Ui *000 0u * wemJw * )w f