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The Colfax chronicle. (Colfax, Grant Parish, La.) 1877-1981, February 27, 1909, Image 8

Image and text provided by Louisiana State University; Baton Rouge, LA

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88064176/1909-02-27/ed-1/seq-8/

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I A I:
/~~~ l -/
most opinions
the methods
of farming in
this country
have been improved
and revolutionized
until agriculture is
little short of an ex
act science. Each
year sees new and
successful machines
Invented to take the LARGE BARN ON FARM.
place of the old RECENYTLY UIPPED
hand drudgery on 1t/'TH LECT C. S
the farm; each year
farming becomes more human with
less backache and hard work for the
men and women on the farm; each
year the conditions of the rural inhab
itants of the country are improved
with new and better farming machlin
ery, telephones, rural free delivery and
better prices for farm produce.
For years the most perplexing prob
lem of farm life has been the employ
ment of suitable labor. Farm hands
are very scarce and they must be paid
good wages or they will not stay. Mod
ern invention has produced a machine
for nearly every disagreeable chore on
the farm, but these diverse machines
require power-if there is no engine
handy then the wheels of these. ma
chines must be turned by hand.
And it is right here that science, re
membering this eternal worry of the
farmer, has stepped in and solved the
power question with electrical appa
ratus and motors just suited for farm
work. This new "hired man" never
kicks at getting up at 3.40 a. m.:
never objects to scrubbing the milk
cans and never gets mad and quits the
very morning that five acres of hay
are ready for the barn. And he will
even do the chores at the barn and
hielp about the houseat the same time.
An idea of the extent in which electricity is being used in c
agriculture may be gained from a description of a 300-acre U
electrically operated farm on Long island. This farm, a -portion n
of which is salt marsh land not cultivated, was for years al- r
lowed to grow wild. It was about three years ago that the
present owner, a New Yorker, purchased the property and pro- t
ceeded to farm it along modern lines. c
The first thing the new owner did was to wi-e the house t
and barns for electricity for light and power. One hundred and
sixty electric incandescent lamps were installed about the prem- c
ises. All the machines about the barns were old, but were a
easily cleaned up, and by supplying a few missing parts were
arranged for belt drive fromnt a countershaft. The feed cutter, a
root cutter, fodder cutter, fanning mill, grindstone, circular
saw, corn sheller, a small drill press and a horse clipper were t
grouped so as to be driven by one three-horse-power motor. The
fact that no two of the large machines wereneeded at the same
time made it possible to use such a small motor.
It cost $3,500 to install the private plant consisting of a ten
horse-power gas engine driving a five kw. generator. But the
yearly cost figured as low as $650--less than two-thirds of
what the owner must have laid to rent electrical power. That
$670 was made up of, first, interest on investment and deprecia
tion of plant at 12 per cent., $420: and, second, of running ex
penses for fuel, lubricating oil and minor -repairs, $250. There
was no cost for labor, because the plant required no expert at
tention alter the daily starting of engine and generator. One
could do a full day's work and give the electric hired man, be
tween times, all the attention requisite.
The power plant was installed in an unused one-story car
riage shed, located at the westerly end of the L formed by the
.linked group of farm buildings. That was about 250 feet from
the building containing the farm machinery and the creamery,
but it permitted of utilization of a structure otherwise Idle.
It was found to be most economical to install a storage bat
tYry to provide a continuous supply of current so the engine need
not rman all the time, or in case anything happened to the plant.
The new farmer turned loose this current on a churn, electri
trlly driven, and made it grind out, regularly every day, from
10 to 12 pounds of butter inside of 15 minutes.
A senrous mistake was made by erecting an 18,000-gallon
water tank, with a wind-mill; when for $200 a one-horse power
electric pump could have been installed which would have been
far more simple, reliable and suit
An automatic refrigerating
plant, worked by electricity, was
installed that is free from damp
ness, free from the waste of a
single pound of energy, immacu
lately clean and perfect in its reg
ulation of temperature. With
such a refrigerating plant not
only is the labor of harvesting
and daily hauling of ice eliminat
OR ed, but the farmer achieves the
ideal means of preserving many
)f the products through periods of low prices
ntil such a time as the advance in the RT/7
narket enables him to sell at the highest
ates, often double what he would have received without it.
A small-motor drives the bottle-washing machine and the pas
eurizing apparatus, and, twice a day, it works the milking ma
hine on two cows at a time and enables one man to attend to
wo or three machines at once. With a milking machine proper
y cared for as to the details of cleanliness, not a single germ
an possibly invade the milk supply, because, from the time it
starts from the udder until it is all in the hermetically sealed
pall, not a breath of air comes in contact with it. The incubator
and brooder are also heated by electricity.
Electricity sweeps the floors pneumatically and makes light of
that weekly back-breaking job with the broom; It turns the in
terior of the farmhouse from an oven at two o'clock of a summer
afternoon into a cool paradise by means of the electric fans, and
warms the house in winter by means of electric radiators. It
washes the clothes as well, but a good deal more mercifully, than
the wet wash laundry. It also does the cooking, ironing, sewing
and most of the disagreeable tasksof the kitchen.
To understand the fundamental principles involved in the
operation of dynamo-electric machines, consider first two mag
netic poles, N and S, of opposite polarity place, near to each
other. Petween the poles N and S is a Bfield of lagnetic force
composed of so-called lines of magnetic force which may be
pictorially indicated by parallel lines, as is done in the illus
tration. If a conductor, for example a round copper bar C, is
placed in the magnetic field, with its axis horizontal and per
pendicular to the lines of the force, and is raised and lowered
along the path C D so as to cut the lines of force up or in
duced in the Jonductor. The magnitude of the electro-motive
force produced in the conductor depends upon the rate at which
the lines are cut. Due to the electro-motive force, one end of the
conductor is raised in consequence of which there is a ten
dency for electricity to flow along the conductor, and if its two
ends are electrically connected exterior to the magnetic field so
as to make a closed circuit, a current will flow through the
circuit. If the gap between the poles N and 8 were infinite in
extent in the direction of C D, and if the conductor C in its
motion along this infinite path were supplied with some sort of
sliding contacts by which current could be taken to one end and
from the other end, the device would possess all the essential
features of a good generator or o a
The form of machines just described
is noteworthy chiefly because of its
simplicity and the fact that it was the
first form to be Invented. All com
mercial machines now in use operate
in such a manner that the conductor
moves alternately forward and back
ward through the field force. To II
lustrate, if the conductor C be at
tached to the circumference of a cyl
inder or other round body, which ro
tates around an axis A, perpendicular
to the paper, it will cut the lines of
force by alternate downward and up
ward motions. An electro-motive
force in one direction will be gener
ated in the generator C as it is go
Ing up and in the opposite direc
tion as it is coming down.. If the
ends of C are brought down to the
shaft A, and formed into rings
around it, brushes bearing on these
rings, if connected with an external
circuit, will 'receive an alternating
current, that is, one which flows
first in one direction, and then in
the opposite direction. Machines of
this description are called alternat
ors; the rotating part is called the
armature; the pole pieces N and 8
with the remaining magnetic circuit,
are called the field, and the rings
around the shaft are called collector
rings. If the current collected is to
flow always in the same direction in
the circuit which is external to the
machine, some device must be pro
"LE /IOTOR. vided to change automatically the
external circuit. Such a device is
called a commutator.
Thus far in the discussion, it has been assumed that a
magnet field was already provided without inquiring in what
manner it was provided. The manners in which such fields may
be provided will now be described. In the earliest machine
and in some used even now for medical puripoes, and in the
ringing magnet of telephones, the field is provided by a pr
manent magnet. In all machines of any considerable esie, how
ever, the older form of magnet tis replaced by an eletro
magnet If a current flows through the winding in the drec
tion indicated by the arrow, magnetic poles will be produced
at N and 8, and a magnetic field wrill exist between them. The
arts of the magnet may diffller much in form and arrange
ment, but a magnettic circuiet interlinked or wound with an
electric circuit is an essential field may be furnished from a
source exterior to the generator or motor , or, In the ase
of a direct current dynramo, by the machine itself. There are
two ways in bwhich the asif-excitation may be accomplished. If
current is taken from the positive brush and led directly
through the magnet-winding and back to the negative brush,
the magnet is In parallel or shunt with the external circuit,
and the machine is called shunt-wound. In a shunt-wound
machine only part of the caurrent generated passesa through
the magnet-winding. If, however, all ofi the current aoming
from the armature pase throughithe field-magnet, and thean
goes to the external circuit, the machine is called sarie
nound. if both shunt and series windings are employed, the
machine is defined as comerpound wound.
The several parts of dynamoelectric machines and funtd
tions which they exerdcise have been described, and the at
tempt has been made to elucidate brieBr and non-techniaclly
the principles of the basis of their oper~ron. An aount wirn
now be given of their development, and afterwards, the several
types of machines in commercial use will be described.
The principle of electro-manetic indaction upon whlch the
operation of the dynamo-lectrie machine Is based, was dls
covered by Michael Faraday, in 1531 In his first experiments
Faaday produced a current in a coil of wire by starting or
stopping a current in a neighboring coll. He then generated
currents in a ceI by r~ving it before the poles of a magnet.
COed by Deanm' Kidney Pills After
Years of Suffering.
A. . ippy, Depot Ave.. Gallatin,
Tenn., says: "Pfifteen years ago kid
nsy disease attacked
me. The pain in my
back was so agonis
ng I finally bad to
give up work. Then
came terrible attaeks
of gravel with acute
pain and passages of
blood. In all I
passed 25 stones,
some as large as a
bean. Nine years of this ran me down
to a state of continual weakneds, and
I thought I never would be better un
til I began using Doan's Kidney Plls.
The improvement was rapid, and
since using four boxes I am cured and
have never had any return of the
Sold by all dealers. 65 cents a box.
stersMilbrn Co, Bufalo, N. T.
"We had such a protracted fare
weUll," remarked Sond-o, "that I lost
my trafa."
"You should have left farewll
enough alone." he remarked.
For a moment they looked at him
with the Chopin "funeral march" ex
pression. But eventually they rto
solved to let him live.
STer Favorite. e fo
•Millons of suSering eyes have fmuna
In Dr. Mitchell's famous salve a real
blesslng Rejest the offer of any dealer
to soell a drug for your eye. Dr. Mitch
eli's Eye Salve is a simple, healthy
remedy to be applied to the lids. It
cures without entering the eye. Sold
evererywhere. Price 5 ents.
A Gret- Care.
Celia-Her hair turned perfectly
white in one night from trouble.
Delia-Really? What was the
nature of the trouble?
Do not neglect constiation, for this eon
dition poisons the bloo ad leads to chan
ic ill health. Garfield Tea, the mild herb
laxative, corrects constipatio, keeps the
blood pure, and the health good.
"My wife is always sticking me for
"That must be pia money."-Ex
ned, Wesk, W eary, Waeert
Relieved by Muria Eye Remedy. Com
pounded by xred Physcis. mu
rtne Doesn't Smart- Soothes Eye Pain.
Write Murntno e emedY Ce Chicago.
for Illustrated Eye Book. At bruggists.
The young man who sets out to be
the architect of his own fortune must
not scorn to be the bricklayer and
hod carrier as welL-Westley.
There Is no Safer Remedy for a Cough,
or throat trouble than "Brown's Bronchial
Troches." ten a box. Sample tree.
John L Brown & Bon, Boston, Maas.
Many a man has lost his ilfe In try
ing to collect the lving he thought the
world owed him.
All Who
Would Eujoy
pod health, with its blessing, must un
derstand, quite cearly, that it involves the
1 .n of right living with all the term
With proper knowledge of what
Is best, each hour of recreation, of enjoy
ment, of contemplation and of effort may
be made to contribute to living aright.
Then the ue of medicines may be dis
peased with to advantage, but under or
dinary conditions in many instances a
simple, wholesome remedy may be invelu
able if takrn at the proper time and the
Caifornia FIg Syrup Co. holds that it is
alike posdtant to present the srbct
truthfully and to supply the aone iperfect
laxative to those desiring it.
Consequently, the Company's Syrup ot
PIp and ixir of sennas gis neral
satisfasetion. To get its benefial effects
buy tbhe gsnuin, manufactured by the
Caulornia Fig Srup co. only, and for sale
by all leading druggists.
m! ead. th t rea waus te -
m ..snmvs asrMa Ieds w ea
OpnAcot Wi Us
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