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EAD IJUNTE I
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HE head hunters of the
Philippines are being
taught to go shopping.
It is an important
means of civilization in
the mountain province
of Luzon---region of
lofty peaks, deep gorges
and primeval forests, in
habited by a quarter of
a million people who
eat their meat raw,
drink warm blood. and indulge (or
have done so until recently) an appe
tite for wholesale homicide.
As a means of civilization (under
the direction of our war department),
trade is being developed among these
wild folk. In the past it has been nec
ssary- for them to make long journeys
to the coast towns, to buy salt. cloth.
and other necessaries. But within the
last few months government stores, called "ex
changes," have been started at various points, and are
kept supplied with everything likely to be required by
the natives-the prices for goods being those current
in Manila, plus 20 per cent. and cost of transportation.
The stores not only sell, but also buy. They purchase,
baskets, wood-carvings, native weapons, and articles
of savage dress such as can be sold in Manila as curios.
paying liberally for them in cash.
One of the seven sub-provinces composing the Moun
taln Province is Benguet, the capital of which, Bagulo
-a mile above sea level, and 175 miles due north of
Manila-is the terminus of one of the most wonderful
roads in the world, built by the natives with the help
of American enginering skill. Extending all the way
from Baguio to the sea, it is carved to a large( ex
tent out of solid rock, skirting the sides of steep
mountains and crossing deep canyons in many
places by suspension bridges. For most of its
length it is wide enough for narrow-tread carts.
and at intervals of eighteen miles comfortable
five-room rest houses have been erected for the
benefit of travelers. Running at an elevation of
5.000 to 7,000 fet, it passes through tropical' scen
ery of unsurpassed beauty, commands magnificent
views, and should in the near future become a
route much patronized by tourists.
The last of the Benguet Igorots to come under
the jurisdiction and control of the United States
government were the people of Atoc, who occupied
a remarkable natural stronghold-a bold peak
6,300 feet high, which juts out from the surround
ing mountains, its precipitous sides defying attack.
In this rocky fortress dwelt the tribe, small in
numbers, but warlike, working the rice paddies
in the valleys below by day and seeking refuge in
their eyrie at night. They preferred indepen
dence to submission. Nevertheless, being eventu
ally overcome by force of arms. they are now en
tirely docile. Generally speaking, the Igorots are
peaceably inclined. They are notably contented
and cheerful, and the women have a voice in their
councils, often exercising a controlling influence
Strongest in numbers of all the savage peoples
and among the most inveterate head hunters were
the Ifugaos. There are about 125,000 of them.
Bitterly hostile to begin with, they have become
warm friends and admirers of the Americans. and
their services, volulntarily given, have been uti
lized on an extensive scale in the building of roads
and trails. By their own suggestion, they sub
mit to a labor tax which demands ten days' work
per annum front each able-bodied man. Several
companies of Ifugao, constabulary have been or
ganized, and do admirable service, keeping order
among the tribesmenw
Equally fierce and as )t iuntamed to any great
extent are the Kalingas. Tlhe. we-re inveterate
head hunters until recently. but ha~ve almost giv
en up the practice. Some of them are beginning
to cut their hair and dress lik, Christians, and
quite a number of the children are learning to
read and write. One small group of their settle
me-nts adopted an attitude of defiance toward the
.Americans, and two years ago Walter F. Hale.
lieutenant-governor of that province, paid the
rebels a visit. When they threw spears at him
he picked them up and handed them back with an
intimation that such actions were discourteous
lie told them that he aanted to be friends with
them. But they replied that they did not desire
to be friends, and that they intended to take his
bead at the first convenient opportnnity.
Such was thb situation of affairs up to a snort
tnme ago. when four settlements "broke the peace"
and sent on the warpath. Lleut.-Gov. Hale. with
a atroig d4stichment of Ifugao constabulary and
assiste4 by a force of friendly Kalingas, thereupon
orgaajid a phaitive expedition, attacked the rebel
vllages and wiped them out, burning the houses
and ~Iling th pigs.
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The situation in Apayao is especially difficult
because head-hunting among the tribesmen of
that sub-province is intimately connected with their
religious faith. Nevertheless, the practice is be
ing gradually stamped out and, with the help of
the Igorot and Ifugao constabulary, a number of
murderers have been arrested and punished.
There is still a considerable area over which gov
e:nment control has not yet been establishe8, and
which has not even been opened up by trails to
any great extent, owing to the inaccessible char
acter of the region. One should realize, of course,
that head-hunting among these people is not re
garded as murder in the ordinary sense of the
word. It is a field sport and a manly occupation,
established by the custom of centuries as be
fitting of warrior.
Most troublesome and untrustworthy of'all the
tribes of northern Luzon are the liongots, of the
sub-province of Nueva Viscaya. There are not
mere than 5,000 or 6,000 of them, but they inhabit
a vast region, most of it very mountainous and
almost wholly covered by virgin forest. Often
their settlements are merely temporary, and
they are hard to get at. Enormous distances sepa
rate their villages, which in the more remote
regions continue to fight among themselves. These
were the people who not long ago murdered Dr.
William Jones while he was engaged in making
ethnological notes among then. Nevertheless.
trails ar,' being pushed into thu heart of their
country; two or three government "exchanges"
have been established; industrial schools are being
started for their benefit, and efforts are being
made to inuduce them to extend their agricultural
operations-partly for the sake of rendering their
communities more stationary.
One should realize that the continual warfare
that has been going on for centuries among the
tribes in the wild man's territory of Northern
L.uzon has been due mainly to lack of acquain
tance among the people. Every stranger being
regarded as an enemy, it was a matter of course
that each village should be at war with the neigh
boring villages, and head-hunting was an import
ant part of the regular business of every able
bodied male citizen. The tilling or the rice pad
dies and sweet potato fields could be carried on
with safety only under armed guard-heads of
women and children bQing not less desirable as
trophies than those of men. For doing away with
this situation of affairs, the most effective means
has been the building of roads and trails by wich
the tribes have been brought into communication
with each other, thus having an opportunity to
become friends. Ifugaos, Kalingas and Bontoc
lgorots now work side by side with pick and
shovel, instead of hunting each other with head
It is. in fact, a veritable social revolution that
is being accomplished. All of the Mountain Prov
ince is being literally grldlroned with t*Jls dad
roads, the most Inaccessible districts bed~i open
ed up. A through route for hor:.eback
travel has been nearly completed all
the way from Southern Benguet to the
extreme northern end of Luzon. Tele
graph and telephone lines are being
extended over hundreds of miles of ter
ritory, and the watch towers on lofty
peaks, hitherto occupied by native sen
tinels on the alert for raiding bands of
head-hunting foes, are deserted.
At Bontoc (capital of the sub-prov
ince of the same name), wonderful
improvements are being made. Here.
where half a dozen years ago no white
man could have ventured without an
armed escort, the men and boys are
being taught brick-making and lime
burning. A deposit of magnificent
clay for the purpose was found near
the river, with unlimited quantities of.
sharp gand suitable for building near
by; also limestone. Today the people
of the entire village of Minac, in that
neighborhood, are burning lime and
furnishing it to the government of
Bontoc Province. They are becoming
independently rich at the business.
These facilities, with unlimited la
bor obtainable for nothing under the
system of the ten-day tax, make build
ing work exceedingly cheap. A large
brick school house and a brick club
house, as well as a building for the
offices of the provincial government,
of stone and brick, have been put up
at Bontoc; also a prison for wild folk
who misbehave themselves, and a
small, but thoroughly up-to-date, hos
pital. A canal has been constructed
incidentally to furnish the town of
Bontoc with an abundant supply of
pure mountain water.
It is expected that the hospital will
be of inestimable usefulness. Most of
the wild people seem heartily willing
to give up their ancient custom of
curing physical ailments by human
and animal sacrifices, and come to the
doctor showing a touching, confidence
in the ability of the white man to give
them help. Packages of simple reme
dies, with small pamphlet of directions
in English and the more important na
tive dialects, are distributed among
the villages; likewise large quantities
of quinine and other safe and useful
A recently discovered drug has been
found to be a specifit for the very un
pleasant tropical disease called
"yaws." It happened that a Bontoc
Igorot, afflicted with it, was unwilling
to go to the hospital, but was compelled to do so,
receiving the one injection requisite. Then he
began to complain bitterly that no medicine was
being put on his sores. But the effect of the
drug soon manifested itself, and he went about
town excitedly demonstrating his improved con
dition to all who would look. Some days later he
disappeared, and the doctor Was much disap
pointed, because he wanted him for an object
lesson to convince othfrs of the eficiency of the
treatment. To the great surprise of'the hospital
staff, he turned up again soon afterward with thir
teen other sufferers from "yaws," whom he had
brought a distance of fifty miles from his native
village, in order that they also might be cred.
In Benguet the wild people are building school
houses and sending their children to them. The
boys are taught to construct looms, and tlgirls
to use them for making cloth. Each girl, on com
pleting her course of education, takes her loom
and returns to her own village, thus extending her
newly-acquired knowledge of weaving to her fam
ily and friends. At Bua is an Igorot girls' school
in which the pupils not only make cloth, but
manufacture articles of clothing for sale. Bagnio,
the capital of Benguet, is growing by rapid dtrides,
and new and substantial buildings are springing
up on every side.
Useful plants and particularly vegetables, includ
ing the Irish potato, are being placed in the hands
of the wild people. Their agricultural methods at
present entail great labor with limited results.
'They patiently clear a forest tract with bolos.
turn over the soil with primitive implements, and
sow seed. Then, after a short time, the growth
of weeds drives them to fresh areas, where the
performance has to be repeated. What the Ameri.
case propose to do is to provide them with mod
eri tools of husbandry, and with carabaos when
A point by no means to be lost sight of is the
fact that these wild people of Luzon are not sav
ages of an ordinary type. Not only is their physit
cal development superb, probably surpassing that
of any other race of human beings in the world,
but they are highly intelligent and even clever.
Given the advantage of two or three generations
of such educational oportunities as are now being
afforded them by the Americans, and they will
far exceed in intellectual qualifications the Filli
pinos of Manila and other coast towns, Indeed.
it does not seem at all unlikely that in the future
they, rather than the Filipinos, will become the
dominant race in Luzon, controlling the affairs
of the island and oven those of the whole archi
pelago, in case we should voluntarily surrender
sovereignty. In the meantime, while trying to
nplift them in the scale of dvillsation, the gov
ernment of the United States is making every ef
fort to protect them against civilization's evil in
fluences--especjally the drink and diseases which
have tqndermised the moral and physlqui of so
many primitive peoples on coming into Caolet
with the corrupttag Vaucaslaa.
ECONOMY--tht' one thing you an
... looking for in these days
of high living cost-Calumet insures a wonder
ful saving in your baking. But it does more.
It insurs wholesome food, tastyoo-aniformly raisd jood
Calnmet is made right-to sell right-to bake right. Abs
mone o the mils ao women who une it-.or ask your or.
RICEOIVrD HCH.ST AWARDS
Worles Pu Feed ::oamauan. C L ,I
Pad E£speise Fr.a.e, March. 331.
Ye dm'tm ms." Cney wu par bag chwap or wwm4m dne
t Dem't s aleand. Bay Galbet. A's scrse ecamaket.4-rno-
serr bat remedia. Conne b/ assadr I se& sov endedsr
uiWOMAN WORKS OUT PROBLEM
Mrs. Sarah Erickson Declaresthe Hon
e "Lays an Egg at the Same Hoeur
n She Was Born.
e\\ i;at time b' day
Shs a heI Jay?
r That question has puzzled poultry
,f. fanciers for unnumbered decades, but
r now, it seems, it has been satisfacto.
a rily solved by a woman. She is Mrs.
t Sarah Erickson of Falooner, : Y.
i Having kept chickens for 37 years,
f she believes she qualifies as an expert
t In this line of effort.
"I have worked out the problem,"
she declares. "By using marked, leg.
bands, trap nests and alarm clocks at
tached to the nests I have determined
Mtat a hen lays an egg at the same
hour, minute and second that she w
born, or, rather, hatched. For
stance, if the hen happened to be able
to peck its way through its shell. at
7:43 a. m., she will lay an egg at pre
cisely 7:43 a. m. And she will do this
without variation every time she is inh
clined to lay. I have kept close, sys.
tematic watch on my hens for five
years, and I have never known the
rule to fail."
English Honors Cost Moneys
The letter patent granted for the,
dignity of a baron cost £150, and for
that of a baronet £ 100, payable to the
board of inland revenue. Other ex
penses to be incurred by the newly
honored include crests or new coats
of-arms, while some wish to have their
"genealogical trees" properly made
out. Consequently the Heralds' col
lege is busy after the issue of a list
of honors, and the total expenses of
a baron are not far short of £400,
and those of a baronet exceed £200.
One Universal Symbol.
"Scientists at work on a universal
language have one symbol to start
with that already has the same mean
Ing the world over," a traveler said.
"That is the skull and crossbones. Its
speech is even more universal than
music or money. Musical values dif
fer in different countries, so does
money, but from one end of the earth
to the other a skull and crossbonesi
"Nora, is my husband home?"
"Yes, mum; he's in the librera, I
"Then wake him and tell him: I
want to see him."-Satire.
A Hint. a
Miss Vocolo-I'm never happy ud- t
less I'm breaking into song. a
Bright Young Man-Why don't you 0
get the key and you won't have to
"Do you believe in luck?"' '
"Yes, sir. How else could I m g
count for the success of my neigh.
10 DRUIvE O1 YILhT OI
161" 7Vto .T toa now what poe are lattg.
f,'wm. innS the mis · e1 alrr los.o lir aoYais
Unless you have met the mother
just after her first baby has cat ts I ts
tooth you have no idea of real et lse
Mrs. Winstow's eSthmg syrup for C('1bfs
teething, noft.es the rtims, redues inSamra.
ceM. a lays pla, cu'ss wind colic. 6e a but tle.
Some menework overtime to ears a
dishonest livinrg. a
-YYV ShrjmT W.I Del
or sea ="cS~
I 'aaa, z q
SDIDN'T KNOW WHAT ALTERCA.
The Justice-You say you witnessed
O'Rowke--NO, 91 didn't ale that. 01
was to busy lookin' at th' folght.
Crime to Kiss.
In' Russia it is a crime for lovers
to kiss in public, and not very long
ago two young men and two young
women were errested in Odessa for
having been guilty of this offense.
They had all been dining together in
a restaurant, and kissed on parting.
They were condemned to short terms
of imprisonment, and the sentences
were coafrmed on appeal. The gen
eral fine in Russia for a kiss in the
open street is 15 shillings, but in a
tramear it may cqt anything up to
Brftish Metropolis Leads in Mud.
According to L. Meerson Clancey of
St. Louis, who is now in London,
there is more mud in the British me
tropoilk than' In any other of the big
cities he has bfen in. and his rec
ord incrudes Paris, Berlin, Vienna,
New York, Washington, Baltimore, St.
Iouis and Milwaukee.
Reognlase Vsaue of Sports.
The seheme on which King Geoge's
ehlilden are educated includes care
ful instruction in all typical open air
sports and games. Crcket, riding.
lncuhg, boxing, shooting and the like
the young prince of. Wales has been
carefully and scientifically taught by
Improved Vacuum Cleaner.
A new vacnum cleaner, designed to
be operated by water power in a
sink or bathtub, consists of tio suo.
tion pumps driven by a water wheel,
and a chamber in which the dust is.
collected, to be washed away by they
"Yes, sir, the cause of woman,
suffrage is going to advance with 8g.i
gantle strides from now on."
"Going to discard the bobble sMrt,.
>vesm ee soed m.. lde .a . Prce, 2 st
ielbesi tI fleallag .lnhal
FOR aAOK*onU, MSNuAuvelu,
KIDoNEYS AND SLWfE
FIoEY KIDEY PI