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P HILADELPHIIA.-The saying that
the poor are always with us was
just as true in the revolutionary
days as it is now. Even then funds
were laid aside that few might suffer
from the wintry blasts. The founda
tion laid by the originators of the plan
has been added to by numerous lega
cies and donations until now the nu
merous coal funds amount to a half
million dollars. So far as is known,
the last of these funds was estab
lished a quarter of a century ago. The
principal will never be touched, and
the interest will insure the distribu
tion of hundreds of tons of coal annu
ally for all time to come.
By these funds people of all sec
tions, classes and creeds are benefited.
Some of the trust funds have restric
tions, but those limitations are over
,· lanced by the liberality of others.
can have coal to tide them over the
winter's severe spells. There is little
necessity for any to freeze, for be
sides the endowment funds there are
numerous coal and fuel funds, and
most of the ward and neighborhood
charitable associations have methods
and means of supplying coal to the
needy of their immediate vicinities.
One can only begin to guess the
tremendous amount of good that has
been accomplished in the countless
homes that have been heated; no one
can surmise how many lives have
been saved during the period, extend
ing from 25 to 145 years, for which
the funds have been in existence.
Coal was not even known when the
men and women of colonial times
started the modest charities which
have grown to half a million dollars
today. Those early foundations were
known as fuel funds.
Immense Trust Fund.
The fuel funds that have been in
trusted to the board of city trusts
alone from 1869 to 1883 have a total
value of $323,079.20. Of this sum, one
fund, left by Thomas D. Grover,
amounting to $180,000, diverts $600
annually to other purposes. Never
theless, the interest permits the an
nual distribution of about 850 tons of
coal. This coal is given to widows
only and, by the provisions of the fund
created in 1848, the deaths of their
husbands must have occurred in the
old district of Southwark. Further
more, no foreigners can benefit from
this particular fund, and the recipi
ents must be housekeepers or room
The total amount of fuel distributed
by the board of city trusts in 1912
amounted to 1,428% tons, at a cost of
$8,697.21. All of this coal was given
free to the needy, with the exception
of 100 tons provided by the Elias
Boudinot fund. for which the recipi
ents were, required to pay $2 per ton.
The first of the fuel funds was es
tablished in 1769 by James Clapoole,
and has a present total capital of
$1,050. The next-the George Emlen
fund, with a valuation of $7,811.18
was created in 1776. Neither of these
funds specifically state that they must
be used for fuel, but the income has
been devoted to that purpose. Togeth
er they afford the annual distribution
of forty-three tons. The City Fuel
fund was established from 1793 to
1809. This is a consolidation of five
funds in existence at that time. They
are known as the Free Masons' fund,
Mr. Rickett's donation, the mayor's
court fun, Elizabeth Kearpatrick's
legiscy and John Bleakley's legacy.
The City fund permits the distribution
of coal in the old city of Philadelphia
alone, and about thirty-one tons are
distributed every year.
The B. W. and'I W. Morris fund,
established in 1806, is more liberal in
its provisions; It looks out for the
poor in the old city and in the district
of 8outhwark and the townships of
Stephen Girard, in addition to his
many other philanthropies, did not
neglect the bins of the poor. He set
aside a fund of $10,000, with the pro
vision that the "Income was to pur
chase fuel between the months of
March and August in every year for
ever, and in the month of January in
every year forever distribute the same
amongst poor white housekeepers and
roomkeepers, of good character, re
siding in the (old) city of Philadel
phia" Some fifty-seven families liv
ing in these limits benefit from this
The residents of the Northern Lib
erties district receive 42% tons from
the James Dutton fund, created in
1833. The Esther Waters fund, created
in 1883, does not specify any special
restrictions, except that the bene
ficiaries must be found upon special
aid." The coal distributed from this
fund amounts to 73% tons.
4Another large fund, known as the
Paul Beck fund, which gives away
82% tons of a winter, is confined to
the old city limits, and specifies that
it shall be given to the "outdoor" poor.
This fund was established in 1844.
Three years later the Spring Gar
den Fuel fund was established, pro
viding for warm homes for the needy
residing in the Spring Garden district
east of Broad street. This has an in
vested capital of $3,200, and permits
the distribution of some 16% tons of
Frederick A. Sheaff was the first to
create an additional fund after the
war. This was in 1874. It permits
of an annual distribution of about 24
tons of coal.
A fund of $10,000 was left to the
poor of the city "without respect to
color or creed" in the will of Mary
Shields, probated in 1880. For the
last twenty-three years some 43%
tons have been distributed annually
from the Shields legacy. The Seybert
fund, of like value, created in 1883,
allowed the distribution of 61% tons
during 1912. The incomes from the
two legacies are not equal,
Many Distribution Methods.
The board of city trusts has many
methods for the distribution of coal
under its care. All of the families
benefited are, carefully investigated.
The funds are managed in such a way
that there is always a large cash bal
ance for a stormy day, or for any oth
er emergency that warrants its use.
The year 1912, for which the last of
ficial report is made, was not espe
cially severe, nor were the times bad,
so that the cash balance that was set
aside from the numerous incomes
amounted to about $15,000.
In addition to these free funds,
there are a great number of others
that permit the selling of coal at half
rate to deserving persons in humble
circumstances. The best known of
these is the Harte Grandom Coal
- found, commonly known as the
"Widows' Coal." This fund, which
amounts to more than $100,000, pro
Svrides for the distribution of coal to
widows at half price. The fund has
been incorporated since 1840, and a
specific clause among its provisions
states that the intemperate are not to
benefit. About 5,000 tons of coal are
supplied to poor women annually. The
fund is managed by a board of direc
tors. composed of prominent men.
I Each one has ,a district, and he has
charge of the distribution in that par
Edwin G. Dixon, who is the chair
man of the board, said that all of the
cases are thoroughly examined and
efforts are made to help the worthy,
and particularly those who. struggling
for a living, are trying to help them
selves. Frequently the directors re
ceive complaints from charitable as
sociations because they have furnlished
coal to certain women, with the report
that these women go out scrubbing
every day and by their careful thrift
are able to make ends meet. Mr.
Dixon says it is this very type of
woman the Grandom fund tries to
help. The fund is overrun with appli
cants every year, and has all it can
do to handle the cases under its care
Besides the free and half-rate coal
systems, many methods hae been de
vised to assist the poor .to get their
winter's supply. Savings fund and
other plans which permit them to pay
for it on installments have been in
existence for nearly a century. Prob
ably the oldest and most important
of these is the Fuel Savings Society of
the City and Liberties of Philadelphia,
established in 1S21. Its object is to
teach the industrious poor the benefit
they may derive from saving small
amounts from their earnings during
the spring, summer and autumn, and
so provide themselves with fuel for
the winter. Deposits not exceeding
one dollar at a time are received, and
coal is delivered to the depositors
during the winter for the amount of
their credit. The income of the so
ciety is applied to a reduction of the
price of coal, and in that way assists
Mothers Get Supply of Coal.
This method of encouraging the
poor to prepare for the stormy weath
er is practiced in many of the charit
able societies and neighborhood
houses, especially those managed by
friends. The Bedford Street mission,
where Comly B. Shoemaker is presi
dent of the managers, not only helps
the people of the neighborhood, most
ly foreigners, to save, but also dis
tributes the coal. It is not an un
usual sight to see a long line of wom
en leaving the Neighborhood house,
on Kater street above Sixth, with
buckets and bags of coal.
Many carry the coal, in their old
country style, on their heads. Twenty
three pounds are given to a bucket.
In cases of destitution the coal is
given free. During the course of a
season about 25,000 buckets are sold
at the mission and more than 1,000
buckets are given free, in addition to
the coal supplied in half-ton lots.
The mission sells coal in ton and
half-ton lots at cost to the depositors
in its savings fund. Miss Mary Boyd,
who for years has acted as missionary
for the society, visits the homes and
receives the money for the coal during
the warmer seasons. Not more than
a dollar is received at a time, or less
than a nickel. Miss Boyd investigates
Another worthy coal saving plan is
that of the Whittier Center, which has
for its object the assisting of poor
negro families. It was formerly man
aged by the Starr Center, 725 Lows
bard street, but last year was turnal
over to the Whittier Center. Man
er can be found in
from door to door in the side streets
of the negro section encouraging the
inhabitants to save for the next win
ter's coal and be prepared for the
blizzards and frosts. Coal clubs have
been formed, and the members meet
at the center, bring their savings and
have entertainments and sociables.
Besides supplying eoal at half rates,
the Union Benevolent association of
716 Spruce street loans stoves to
those in need of them. A few years
ago, when stoves were more general
ly used, about 500 stoves were dis
tributed every season, but now there
is a deman4 for only about seventy
Many other organizations, including
the Home Missionary society and the
Matzo and fuel association, a Jewish
society, have means of assisting those
in distress to get coal.
Where Ceilings Count.
The landlord was very seriously dis
turbed by the final clause which the
prospective tenant insisted upon writ
ing into his lease.
"Decorate the ceiling every six
months," he exclaimed. "Ridiculous,
I never had such a request from any
other tenant, and many of them have
been unreasonable enough, heaven
"May be none of them was a bar
ber," said the tenant. "I am. The
ceilings of ordinary trades people
don't count for much, because no.
body is going to spend much time
staring at them. With a barber it is
"The average man spends 'a good
deal of time every year looking up at
some barber's ceiling, and the least
the barber can dowo make it tolerable
for him is to give him something in.
teresting to look at.
"I have known men to changA bar
bers just because they got tired of
staring at the same old ceiling. May
be you have changed on that account
yourself before now."
The landlord consented to the un
Troemel Out of Service.
When, last March, Burgomaster
Troemel of Usedom went to Algiers
and enlisted in the Second F'oreign le
gion, Germany made an international
incident of it.
Like many similar cases, there was
a great deal of bluster, but nothing
more. The controversy ended when
the newly-enrolled private published a
declaration that he had nothing to
The enlistment was for five years.
But Troemel has Just been discharged
for disability--deafnes_--after having
been for some time in the Oran hos
That Germany's fear for his safety
was groundless is shown by a new
statement, that he regrets that he has
been discharged before his term was
NO iLACE FOR THE LOAFER
Banished From Every Branch of In
dustry to Make Way for the Man
Who Is Willing.
The Boston Globe has this heading
)ver a long editorial: "Farm No Place
.or the Loafer."
The editorial goes on to prove the
statement made in this heading.
But it needs no proof. It is axio
matic. The farm is a place where in
justry and intelligence and persistent
application yield big dividends, and
where laziness and ignorance fail.
But where is there a place for the
Not in school-because there, as
elsewhere, energy and application win
the victor's laurels.
Not in the office-for there the hus.
tier wins promotion and the loafer
gets kicked out because he is in the
Not in the shop-for there the
steady, faithful, thinking worker gets
the best wages and the foremanships
Not in the store-for there those
who study the goods and the business
and strive to please patrons win the
honors and the rewards.
Not in the law, or in medicine, or in
the ministry, or in the school faculty,
or on the newspaper-for there, as
elsewhere, the loafer soon finds his
level, which is the nearest exit.
Then there is there a place for the
The grave, perhaps; there isn't
much going on there but resting
maybe that's the loafer's place. No
other occurs to us at this moment.
From the Duluth Herald.
MOVING 186 MILES A SECOND
That is the Speed of the Greatest
Nebula, If Figures Lately Com
piled Are Correct.
A great deal of controversy has
been waged about the structure and
composition of the great spiral ne
bula in Andromeda, the most beauti
ful and striking apparition which ce'
lestial photography has revealed.
It was suggested some two years
ago that the nebula was not gaseous,
but was a universe of stars external
to our own galaxy. This inference,
made by V. M. Slipher, was based on
the appearance of certain lines in its
light spectrum which were inconsist
ent with the idea that it was a 'gase.
The same observer by examining
the shift of the lines in its spectrum
-from four good plates obtained
some months ago-has calculated the
speed at which the nebula is moving.
He obtains the startling result that
the nebula is approaching us at the
rate of 186 miles a second.
S. .. A U'-to erdit that
e least e fma e must 5T lfui ldeI
of millions of miles in diameter, could
be moving at so great a speed.
Moreover, no movement sideways
of the nebula has ever been detected,
Sand therefore, since it does not seem
probable that it can be coming toward
our telescopes directly "head on," it
must either be at a very great dis
tance or else there' is something
wrong in the observations.
Longevity Due to Onions.
"Onions are the cause of the good
health and long life of the French peo.
pie," remarked Oliver Holmes of New
York, an American who has lived in
Paris for many years, at the Shore
ham. "I have tried to study the French
people in the years I have lived among
them, and I have come to the conclu'
sion that the strong-smelling onion is
the cause of their good health. The
French live out of doors as much as
they can. They take their meals on
verandas and in the gardens when
ever the weather is favorable, and al'
ways seek the fresh air in the day
time. At night they retire to their
rooms, close their windows, and sleep
in apartments where there is no air.
It is contrary, of course, to the Eng
lish and American idea, but no one
can deny that the Frenchman ordinar
ily is a healthy person.
Many years ago every Christmas
eve, there came to the workhouse in
Tannbr street, Bermondsey, a rich
woman. She drove up in her car
riage to the workhouse, and the car
rlage was filled with Christmas gifts
for the paupers. The woman came
for five years; then a Christmas eve
arrived and the inmates waited for
her in vain.
The years passed, and then, when
Christmas eve came around, the ma
tron, who was distributing some small
presents to the old women in one of
the wards said: "Today some kind
friend has sent these. But we still
remember the good fairy who came
for so many years on Christmas eve
and was so generous to us. I won
der why she has given up coming. Per
haps she is dead."-The Referee.
Human Purchase in Africa.
Lecturing on his African experi'
ences, a traveler says he once saw a
native sold as a slave for seven goats,
which in open market fetched $1.44
apiece. As values go in some parts of
Africa, the price was high, for with
in a few hundred miles of the equa
tor wives are transferred for less.
Marriage, of course, is by barter, and
the indemnity demanded by a father
for the loss of a daughter used to be
$2.40 from the bridegroom. Today it
has risen to about $5, but the scale of
values is shown by the fact that a
native will gladly give his labor for a
week in return for an empty medicine
oottle with a metal screw stopper.
G " CO ---M
Some Inside Facts About the "Great White Way"
NEW YORK.-B-roadway is one of the longest and most remarkable -:
in the world. It starts at Bowling Green, amidst towering office bui!!itr: s
and meanders off into the wilderness somewhere near Yonkers. Bosi'.
ing noted for its night life, Io!ut.d1ray
. rJSO has more skyscrapers, cafes. restau
PLArATIOf rants, actors, get-rich-quick-men. pan
" - K handlers and automobiles to the mile
A WON IO than any other thoroughfare in Amer
- ica. It also is the headquarters of the
(OUtD Forty-Second Street Country club,
YOU MAKE which meets every mild and sunny
SA FEW afternoon at Forty-second street and
00 t !roadway.
SIR.-. lIroadway's principal industry is
-t raising coin. In this art it has become
quite proficient. Two classes of peo
ple frequent Broadway. They are New Yorkers without money and out
of-towners with money and anxious to separate from it.
At Bowling Green, Broadway is the very spirit of innocence. It runs past
Wall street as if it were afraid of becoming contaminated. To add to its
respectibility at this point Broadway nestles in its arms Trinity church, a re
ligious institution which owns tenement houses on the side. Past oflice build
ings that shoot high into the air, Broadway runs to St. Paul's, where there is
another church and graveyard. "How fortunate," sigh the night-lifers, fre
quenters of another part of Broadway, "that all of the churches and dead ones
are at the lower end."
Ignoringthe remarks of the gay Tenderloiners, Broadway dashes on uptown,
past more office buildings, now not quite so tall, until Astor place is reached,
just above which Grace church is met. From a thoroughfare of office build
ings, Broadway has now changed into a street of plain commercial atmosphere.
To tell the truth, however, Broadway has a commercial atmosphere for its
entire length, although in the vicinity of Forty-second street it is skilfully dis
guised as "gayety."
When you begin to see the names of theatrical booking agents, when the
cafes become more and more to the block, and the loiters on the corners great
er and greater in number, you know you are then getting into the famous
"White Light" district.
Being gay along Broadway is a business. Some New Yorkers know just
how to be gay, and thereby infect others with the brand of gayety that in
duces them to spend their money.
When the Singing Hushed, the Crowd Hurried On
I INDIANAPOLIS, IND.-Coming down Meridian street one morning, .shortly
after 8 o'clock, just after crossing Ohio street, one heard a rich, sweet tenor
voice. Pedestrians, hurrying to their work, listened to the sweet melody.
Persons in the street looked up at the
windows in the board of trade building CUT uT
and again over toward Christ church, ( U. VLL
as the melody seemed to come from YES PINCH
that direction. However, no window S S 4 YEZ
was open and no one was to be seen. E 0
The stra'ns grew louder and the
words, "1.ch che Ia Morte" from '"l
Who It, It! and where is it! was in
everyone's mind and on every tongue. &
The sou ads now. came from the space
between the board of trade building and Christ church, and the crowd
moved Ia that direction. From the popular melody from "II Trovatore"
the sini;er took up the aria "Quando rapita in estasi," from "Lucia." and a
florid aJd showy execution of that air followed.
By this time a policeman appeared and made inquiry as to the cause of the
blockade. Apparently he was deaf to the music which every one enjoyed. His
attentian being called to the singing he walked to where a little hunchbacked
street sweeper, stooping over his work, busily engaged in sweeping the alley,
and utterly oblivious to the crowd, was giving vent to his enthusiasm by song.
"fhut up or I'll run yez in for disturbing the peace!" The 3inging was
hushed, the spell was broken, and the crowd hurried on.
Cal Drives Off Burglars, and Puts Out a Fire
S IC- ANE, WASH.-Sergt. Fred Pearson of the Spokane police department
has a remarkable kazaaroo cat, and the cat has a unique record of accom
pl shments for a feline. A year ago this cat began its career of notoriety by
awakening Sergeant Pearson in time
_ , to drive three burglars away from his
home. A few weeks later the cat put
.- *out a fire behind the kitchen stove by
- _rolling in the flames, while Mrs. Pear
son was in another room. Still an
other exploit was added to the cat's
>list of adventures when it woke Pear
son up at midnight and led him to
where a cow was doing damage to the
*-garden. These are just a few of this
. "-- animal's strange experiences.
Sergeant Pearson says his cat dem
onstrated its abnormal powers along a different line the other day, when it
qualifed as a milk inspector. Arising early the other morning, Sergeant
Pearson discovered the cat sitting beside the milk crock left out all night for
the milkman. Sergeant Pearson called the cat to give it its breakfast of meat,
but the cat would not budge from its position beside the crock.
Soon the milkman arrived and poured out the supply for the Pearson
home, the cat all the time watching him closely. The milkman returned the
cover to the crock and left. For a number of minutes the cat watched the
crock and then gradually crawled up to its side, With a paw the cat struck
the cover from the top of the crock and made a dive with its head into the
depths of the milk. Pearson ran up to interfere, and, to his surprise, saw the
cat holding a small minnow in its mouth.
Goats Eat House 'Til Owner Robert Brady Balks
C HICAGO.-The prisoner was given the usual apportunlty, before hearing
his doom pronounced, to say anything that might seem to him pertinent.
He was Robert Brady, 7806 Langley avenue. The charge was "disorderly con
duct" in kidnaping three goats.
"A year ago I wanted my shirt,"
"Well?" said Judge Sullivan.
"Well, well," the court said sharply.
"It ate all my underwear-and my
"Passing the anecdotes," interrupted
the judge, "what have you to say in .
"And the children's gingham aprons j '
The judge drummed impatiently on his desk.
And then the back fence disappeared, and the back porch, and one morn
ing there was a goat nibbling at my front porch-and I live in a very small
"Did you kidnap those goats?"
"You had no e:cuse. You complain of what they eat. Don't you know
that goats must live? Five dollars and costs for you, young man-and retur,
the goats to their owner."
Mrs. John O'Neill owns the goats She lives across the street.