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Door TO KE EPWARI i ,lt/ig i, r / "--/ I II( , ~l~i~/ P HILADELPHIIA.-The saying that the poor are always with us was just as true in the revolutionary days as it is now. Even then funds were laid aside that few might suffer from the wintry blasts. The founda tion laid by the originators of the plan has been added to by numerous lega cies and donations until now the nu merous coal funds amount to a half million dollars. So far as is known, the last of these funds was estab lished a quarter of a century ago. The principal will never be touched, and the interest will insure the distribu tion of hundreds of tons of coal annu ally for all time to come. By these funds people of all sec tions, classes and creeds are benefited. Some of the trust funds have restric tions, but those limitations are over ,· lanced by the liberality of others. can have coal to tide them over the winter's severe spells. There is little necessity for any to freeze, for be sides the endowment funds there are numerous coal and fuel funds, and most of the ward and neighborhood charitable associations have methods and means of supplying coal to the needy of their immediate vicinities. One can only begin to guess the tremendous amount of good that has been accomplished in the countless homes that have been heated; no one can surmise how many lives have been saved during the period, extend ing from 25 to 145 years, for which the funds have been in existence. Coal was not even known when the men and women of colonial times started the modest charities which have grown to half a million dollars today. Those early foundations were known as fuel funds. Immense Trust Fund. The fuel funds that have been in trusted to the board of city trusts alone from 1869 to 1883 have a total value of $323,079.20. Of this sum, one fund, left by Thomas D. Grover, amounting to $180,000, diverts $600 annually to other purposes. Never theless, the interest permits the an nual distribution of about 850 tons of coal. This coal is given to widows only and, by the provisions of the fund created in 1848, the deaths of their husbands must have occurred in the old district of Southwark. Further more, no foreigners can benefit from this particular fund, and the recipi ents must be housekeepers or room keepers. The total amount of fuel distributed by the board of city trusts in 1912 amounted to 1,428% tons, at a cost of $8,697.21. All of this coal was given free to the needy, with the exception of 100 tons provided by the Elias Boudinot fund. for which the recipi ents were, required to pay $2 per ton. The first of the fuel funds was es tablished in 1769 by James Clapoole, and has a present total capital of $1,050. The next-the George Emlen fund, with a valuation of $7,811.18 was created in 1776. Neither of these funds specifically state that they must be used for fuel, but the income has been devoted to that purpose. Togeth er they afford the annual distribution of forty-three tons. The City Fuel fund was established from 1793 to 1809. This is a consolidation of five funds in existence at that time. They are known as the Free Masons' fund, Mr. Rickett's donation, the mayor's court fun, Elizabeth Kearpatrick's legiscy and John Bleakley's legacy. The City fund permits the distribution of coal in the old city of Philadelphia alone, and about thirty-one tons are distributed every year. The B. W. and'I W. Morris fund, established in 1806, is more liberal in its provisions; It looks out for the poor in the old city and in the district of 8outhwark and the townships of Mtthern Idbertles. Stephen Girard, in addition to his many other philanthropies, did not neglect the bins of the poor. He set aside a fund of $10,000, with the pro vision that the "Income was to pur chase fuel between the months of March and August in every year for ever, and in the month of January in every year forever distribute the same amongst poor white housekeepers and roomkeepers, of good character, re siding in the (old) city of Philadel phia" Some fifty-seven families liv ing in these limits benefit from this fund. The residents of the Northern Lib erties district receive 42% tons from the James Dutton fund, created in 1833. The Esther Waters fund, created in 1883, does not specify any special restrictions, except that the bene ficiaries must be found upon special aid." The coal distributed from this fund amounts to 73% tons. 4Another large fund, known as the Paul Beck fund, which gives away 82% tons of a winter, is confined to the old city limits, and specifies that it shall be given to the "outdoor" poor. This fund was established in 1844. Three years later the Spring Gar den Fuel fund was established, pro viding for warm homes for the needy residing in the Spring Garden district east of Broad street. This has an in vested capital of $3,200, and permits the distribution of some 16% tons of coal. Frederick A. Sheaff was the first to create an additional fund after the war. This was in 1874. It permits of an annual distribution of about 24 tons of coal. A fund of $10,000 was left to the poor of the city "without respect to color or creed" in the will of Mary Shields, probated in 1880. For the last twenty-three years some 43% tons have been distributed annually from the Shields legacy. The Seybert fund, of like value, created in 1883, allowed the distribution of 61% tons during 1912. The incomes from the two legacies are not equal, Many Distribution Methods. The board of city trusts has many methods for the distribution of coal under its care. All of the families benefited are, carefully investigated. The funds are managed in such a way that there is always a large cash bal ance for a stormy day, or for any oth er emergency that warrants its use. The year 1912, for which the last of ficial report is made, was not espe cially severe, nor were the times bad, so that the cash balance that was set aside from the numerous incomes amounted to about $15,000. In addition to these free funds, there are a great number of others that permit the selling of coal at half rate to deserving persons in humble circumstances. The best known of these is the Harte Grandom Coal - found, commonly known as the "Widows' Coal." This fund, which amounts to more than $100,000, pro Svrides for the distribution of coal to widows at half price. The fund has been incorporated since 1840, and a specific clause among its provisions states that the intemperate are not to benefit. About 5,000 tons of coal are supplied to poor women annually. The fund is managed by a board of direc tors. composed of prominent men. I Each one has ,a district, and he has charge of the distribution in that par tlcular section. Edwin G. Dixon, who is the chair man of the board, said that all of the cases are thoroughly examined and efforts are made to help the worthy, and particularly those who. struggling for a living, are trying to help them selves. Frequently the directors re ceive complaints from charitable as sociations because they have furnlished coal to certain women, with the report that these women go out scrubbing every day and by their careful thrift are able to make ends meet. Mr. Dixon says it is this very type of woman the Grandom fund tries to help. The fund is overrun with appli cants every year, and has all it can do to handle the cases under its care at present. Besides the free and half-rate coal systems, many methods hae been de vised to assist the poor .to get their winter's supply. Savings fund and other plans which permit them to pay for it on installments have been in existence for nearly a century. Prob ably the oldest and most important of these is the Fuel Savings Society of the City and Liberties of Philadelphia, established in 1S21. Its object is to teach the industrious poor the benefit they may derive from saving small amounts from their earnings during the spring, summer and autumn, and so provide themselves with fuel for the winter. Deposits not exceeding one dollar at a time are received, and coal is delivered to the depositors during the winter for the amount of their credit. The income of the so ciety is applied to a reduction of the price of coal, and in that way assists the poor. Mothers Get Supply of Coal. This method of encouraging the poor to prepare for the stormy weath er is practiced in many of the charit able societies and neighborhood houses, especially those managed by friends. The Bedford Street mission, where Comly B. Shoemaker is presi dent of the managers, not only helps the people of the neighborhood, most ly foreigners, to save, but also dis tributes the coal. It is not an un usual sight to see a long line of wom en leaving the Neighborhood house, on Kater street above Sixth, with buckets and bags of coal. Many carry the coal, in their old country style, on their heads. Twenty three pounds are given to a bucket. In cases of destitution the coal is given free. During the course of a season about 25,000 buckets are sold at the mission and more than 1,000 buckets are given free, in addition to the coal supplied in half-ton lots. The mission sells coal in ton and half-ton lots at cost to the depositors in its savings fund. Miss Mary Boyd, who for years has acted as missionary for the society, visits the homes and receives the money for the coal during the warmer seasons. Not more than a dollar is received at a time, or less than a nickel. Miss Boyd investigates every case. Another worthy coal saving plan is that of the Whittier Center, which has for its object the assisting of poor negro families. It was formerly man aged by the Starr Center, 725 Lows bard street, but last year was turnal over to the Whittier Center. Man promi_ s er can be found in from door to door in the side streets of the negro section encouraging the inhabitants to save for the next win ter's coal and be prepared for the blizzards and frosts. Coal clubs have been formed, and the members meet at the center, bring their savings and have entertainments and sociables. Besides supplying eoal at half rates, the Union Benevolent association of 716 Spruce street loans stoves to those in need of them. A few years ago, when stoves were more general ly used, about 500 stoves were dis tributed every season, but now there is a deman4 for only about seventy stoves. Many other organizations, including the Home Missionary society and the Matzo and fuel association, a Jewish society, have means of assisting those in distress to get coal. Where Ceilings Count. The landlord was very seriously dis turbed by the final clause which the prospective tenant insisted upon writ ing into his lease. "Decorate the ceiling every six months," he exclaimed. "Ridiculous, I never had such a request from any other tenant, and many of them have been unreasonable enough, heaven knows." "May be none of them was a bar ber," said the tenant. "I am. The ceilings of ordinary trades people don't count for much, because no. body is going to spend much time staring at them. With a barber it is different. "The average man spends 'a good deal of time every year looking up at some barber's ceiling, and the least the barber can dowo make it tolerable for him is to give him something in. teresting to look at. "I have known men to changA bar bers just because they got tired of staring at the same old ceiling. May be you have changed on that account yourself before now." The landlord consented to the un usual clause. Troemel Out of Service. When, last March, Burgomaster Troemel of Usedom went to Algiers and enlisted in the Second F'oreign le gion, Germany made an international incident of it. Like many similar cases, there was a great deal of bluster, but nothing more. The controversy ended when the newly-enrolled private published a declaration that he had nothing to complain of. The enlistment was for five years. But Troemel has Just been discharged for disability--deafnes_--after having been for some time in the Oran hos pital. That Germany's fear for his safety was groundless is shown by a new statement, that he regrets that he has been discharged before his term was ended. NO iLACE FOR THE LOAFER Banished From Every Branch of In dustry to Make Way for the Man Who Is Willing. The Boston Globe has this heading )ver a long editorial: "Farm No Place .or the Loafer." The editorial goes on to prove the statement made in this heading. But it needs no proof. It is axio matic. The farm is a place where in justry and intelligence and persistent application yield big dividends, and where laziness and ignorance fail. But where is there a place for the loafer? Not in school-because there, as elsewhere, energy and application win the victor's laurels. Not in the office-for there the hus. tier wins promotion and the loafer gets kicked out because he is in the way. Not in the shop-for there the steady, faithful, thinking worker gets the best wages and the foremanships and superintendencies. Not in the store-for there those who study the goods and the business and strive to please patrons win the honors and the rewards. Not in the law, or in medicine, or in the ministry, or in the school faculty, or on the newspaper-for there, as elsewhere, the loafer soon finds his level, which is the nearest exit. Then there is there a place for the loafer? The grave, perhaps; there isn't much going on there but resting maybe that's the loafer's place. No other occurs to us at this moment. From the Duluth Herald. MOVING 186 MILES A SECOND That is the Speed of the Greatest Nebula, If Figures Lately Com piled Are Correct. A great deal of controversy has been waged about the structure and composition of the great spiral ne bula in Andromeda, the most beauti ful and striking apparition which ce' lestial photography has revealed. It was suggested some two years ago that the nebula was not gaseous, but was a universe of stars external to our own galaxy. This inference, made by V. M. Slipher, was based on the appearance of certain lines in its light spectrum which were inconsist ent with the idea that it was a 'gase. ous nebula. The same observer by examining the shift of the lines in its spectrum -from four good plates obtained some months ago-has calculated the speed at which the nebula is moving. He obtains the startling result that the nebula is approaching us at the rate of 186 miles a second. S. .. A U'-to erdit that e least e fma e must 5T lfui ldeI of millions of miles in diameter, could be moving at so great a speed. Moreover, no movement sideways of the nebula has ever been detected, Sand therefore, since it does not seem probable that it can be coming toward our telescopes directly "head on," it must either be at a very great dis tance or else there' is something wrong in the observations. Longevity Due to Onions. "Onions are the cause of the good health and long life of the French peo. pie," remarked Oliver Holmes of New York, an American who has lived in Paris for many years, at the Shore ham. "I have tried to study the French people in the years I have lived among them, and I have come to the conclu' sion that the strong-smelling onion is the cause of their good health. The French live out of doors as much as they can. They take their meals on verandas and in the gardens when ever the weather is favorable, and al' ways seek the fresh air in the day time. At night they retire to their rooms, close their windows, and sleep in apartments where there is no air. It is contrary, of course, to the Eng lish and American idea, but no one can deny that the Frenchman ordinar ily is a healthy person. Lost Benefactress. Many years ago every Christmas eve, there came to the workhouse in Tannbr street, Bermondsey, a rich woman. She drove up in her car riage to the workhouse, and the car rlage was filled with Christmas gifts for the paupers. The woman came for five years; then a Christmas eve arrived and the inmates waited for her in vain. The years passed, and then, when Christmas eve came around, the ma tron, who was distributing some small presents to the old women in one of the wards said: "Today some kind friend has sent these. But we still remember the good fairy who came for so many years on Christmas eve and was so generous to us. I won der why she has given up coming. Per haps she is dead."-The Referee. Human Purchase in Africa. Lecturing on his African experi' ences, a traveler says he once saw a native sold as a slave for seven goats, which in open market fetched $1.44 apiece. As values go in some parts of Africa, the price was high, for with in a few hundred miles of the equa tor wives are transferred for less. Marriage, of course, is by barter, and the indemnity demanded by a father for the loss of a daughter used to be $2.40 from the bridegroom. Today it has risen to about $5, but the scale of values is shown by the fact that a native will gladly give his labor for a week in return for an empty medicine oottle with a metal screw stopper. G " CO ---M Some Inside Facts About the "Great White Way" NEW YORK.-B-roadway is one of the longest and most remarkable -: in the world. It starts at Bowling Green, amidst towering office bui!!itr: s and meanders off into the wilderness somewhere near Yonkers. Bosi'. ing noted for its night life, Io!ut.d1ray . rJSO has more skyscrapers, cafes. restau PLArATIOf rants, actors, get-rich-quick-men. pan " - K handlers and automobiles to the mile A WON IO than any other thoroughfare in Amer - ica. It also is the headquarters of the (OUtD Forty-Second Street Country club, YOU MAKE which meets every mild and sunny SA FEW afternoon at Forty-second street and 00 t !roadway. SIR.-. lIroadway's principal industry is -t raising coin. In this art it has become quite proficient. Two classes of peo ple frequent Broadway. They are New Yorkers without money and out of-towners with money and anxious to separate from it. At Bowling Green, Broadway is the very spirit of innocence. It runs past Wall street as if it were afraid of becoming contaminated. To add to its respectibility at this point Broadway nestles in its arms Trinity church, a re ligious institution which owns tenement houses on the side. Past oflice build ings that shoot high into the air, Broadway runs to St. Paul's, where there is another church and graveyard. "How fortunate," sigh the night-lifers, fre quenters of another part of Broadway, "that all of the churches and dead ones are at the lower end." Ignoringthe remarks of the gay Tenderloiners, Broadway dashes on uptown, past more office buildings, now not quite so tall, until Astor place is reached, just above which Grace church is met. From a thoroughfare of office build ings, Broadway has now changed into a street of plain commercial atmosphere. To tell the truth, however, Broadway has a commercial atmosphere for its entire length, although in the vicinity of Forty-second street it is skilfully dis guised as "gayety." When you begin to see the names of theatrical booking agents, when the cafes become more and more to the block, and the loiters on the corners great er and greater in number, you know you are then getting into the famous "White Light" district. Being gay along Broadway is a business. Some New Yorkers know just how to be gay, and thereby infect others with the brand of gayety that in duces them to spend their money. When the Singing Hushed, the Crowd Hurried On I INDIANAPOLIS, IND.-Coming down Meridian street one morning, .shortly after 8 o'clock, just after crossing Ohio street, one heard a rich, sweet tenor voice. Pedestrians, hurrying to their work, listened to the sweet melody. Persons in the street looked up at the windows in the board of trade building CUT uT and again over toward Christ church, ( U. VLL as the melody seemed to come from YES PINCH that direction. However, no window S S 4 YEZ was open and no one was to be seen. E 0 The stra'ns grew louder and the words, "1.ch che Ia Morte" from '"l tinct. Who It, It! and where is it! was in everyone's mind and on every tongue. & The sou ads now. came from the space between the board of trade building and Christ church, and the crowd moved Ia that direction. From the popular melody from "II Trovatore" the sini;er took up the aria "Quando rapita in estasi," from "Lucia." and a florid aJd showy execution of that air followed. By this time a policeman appeared and made inquiry as to the cause of the blockade. Apparently he was deaf to the music which every one enjoyed. His attentian being called to the singing he walked to where a little hunchbacked street sweeper, stooping over his work, busily engaged in sweeping the alley, and utterly oblivious to the crowd, was giving vent to his enthusiasm by song. "fhut up or I'll run yez in for disturbing the peace!" The 3inging was hushed, the spell was broken, and the crowd hurried on. Cal Drives Off Burglars, and Puts Out a Fire S IC- ANE, WASH.-Sergt. Fred Pearson of the Spokane police department has a remarkable kazaaroo cat, and the cat has a unique record of accom pl shments for a feline. A year ago this cat began its career of notoriety by awakening Sergeant Pearson in time _ , to drive three burglars away from his home. A few weeks later the cat put .- *out a fire behind the kitchen stove by - _rolling in the flames, while Mrs. Pear son was in another room. Still an other exploit was added to the cat's >list of adventures when it woke Pear son up at midnight and led him to where a cow was doing damage to the *-garden. These are just a few of this . "-- animal's strange experiences. Sergeant Pearson says his cat dem onstrated its abnormal powers along a different line the other day, when it qualifed as a milk inspector. Arising early the other morning, Sergeant Pearson discovered the cat sitting beside the milk crock left out all night for the milkman. Sergeant Pearson called the cat to give it its breakfast of meat, but the cat would not budge from its position beside the crock. Soon the milkman arrived and poured out the supply for the Pearson home, the cat all the time watching him closely. The milkman returned the cover to the crock and left. For a number of minutes the cat watched the crock and then gradually crawled up to its side, With a paw the cat struck the cover from the top of the crock and made a dive with its head into the depths of the milk. Pearson ran up to interfere, and, to his surprise, saw the cat holding a small minnow in its mouth. Goats Eat House 'Til Owner Robert Brady Balks C HICAGO.-The prisoner was given the usual apportunlty, before hearing his doom pronounced, to say anything that might seem to him pertinent. He was Robert Brady, 7806 Langley avenue. The charge was "disorderly con duct" in kidnaping three goats. "A year ago I wanted my shirt," Brady said. "Well?" said Judge Sullivan. "Well, well," the court said sharply. "It ate all my underwear-and my wife's and-" "Passing the anecdotes," interrupted the judge, "what have you to say in . your defense?" "And the children's gingham aprons j ' The judge drummed impatiently on his desk. And then the back fence disappeared, and the back porch, and one morn ing there was a goat nibbling at my front porch-and I live in a very small house and-" "Did you kidnap those goats?" "Yes." "You had no e:cuse. You complain of what they eat. Don't you know that goats must live? Five dollars and costs for you, young man-and retur, the goats to their owner." Mrs. John O'Neill owns the goats She lives across the street.