Newspaper Page Text
Principles of flealthh .4 . SBy ALBERT S. GRAY, M.D. s (Copyright, 1914, by A. S. Gray) MOTHER'S MILK. It is universally conceded that the most carefully bottle-fed infant has a smaller chance of escaping trouble and s achieving health and life than a breast- s fed baby of the most ignorant and slovenly mother. Of course, when the child's artificial food is prepared and given by an intel ligent person under competent advice, the baby may get through with a mini mum of discomfort and danger from digestive disorders arising from bac- q terial contamination of its food from unclean cans, bottles, spoons, nipples tubes and other utensils, devices and n attachments intervening between the c cow or the factory and its mouth; but a granting that all sources of bacterial t contamination are overcome, there still will remain the absence of an au- i tomatically adjusting physiological s food supply, which no other than the human animal can furnish. In composition milk is highly com plex and variable. The important con stituents are the fats, held in emul sion as minute oil droplets; casein, a nucleo-albumen which clots under the influence of rennin; milk albumen or lactalbumen; a proteld resembling serum albumen; lactoglobulin; lactose a or milk sugar; lecithin, cholesterin, a phosphocarnic acid, urea, citric acid, 0 enzymes and mineral salts. The min- r eral contents of milk comprise appre ciable quantities of sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and cho- Z rine, besides probably minute quanti- u ties of other elements not yet deter- t mined. ii By reason of the fact that casein P and milk sugar do not exist in the P blood it is held that they are formed e by the secretory metabolism of the s gland cell under the action of a her- f mone (stimulating property). And the t' composition of the milk fat and the ti histological appearance of the gland P cells during secretion leads to the view that the fat is also constructed g within the gland itself. Bunge has 0 called attention to the fact that the in- o organic salts of milk differ quantita- a tively from those in the blood plasma 1i and resemble closely the proportions d found in the body of the young animal, a thus indicating an adaptive secretion. I The casein of human milk Is smaller o in amount, curdles in looser flocks 1 than cow's milk and seems to dissolve I: more easily and completely in gastric d juice. Human milk also contains rela- s tively more lecithin and less ash, while cow's milk, on the other hand, can- r tains less sugar and fat. Human milk, t in short, is a. complex compound no factory can even approximate to any I appreciable degree. Experience by poultry raisers proves artificial brooding to be lamentably In efficient; the best kerosene lamp, as sisted by the most earnest human ef fort, making but a pitiable showing compared with the average results achieved by a sturdy old hen-and bot tle fed babies are about at par with brooder chicks. The absence of normal building ma terial while the foundations of life are . being laid insures a handicap the or ganism must carry all through life; hence every mother should recognize the ethical and racial obligations she is qnder to keep up a supply of milk through the period of normal lactation This brings up the question of how a poor or deficient supply of mother's milk may be increased or bettered and how it may be maintained through the period of lactation Generally the physician is not consulted about the *matter until a short time before the baby is expected, and then the best he can do is to recommend a nourishing diet. It is highly suggestive in this connection to note that practically every such recommendation includes some form of malt extract. and that practically without exception all pro prietary compounds claiming to be good for nursing mothers are founded on malt. Experience proves that noth ing appears more quickly to promote the secretion of milk than good malt extracts and many brands possessing various degrees of merit and grades of nutritive value are to be found in the market. The experience of dairymen proves that it makes little difference what food is given a cow; the quality of the milk, so far as the fat content is con cerned, will remain the same. Quality is inherent and essentially a matter of type and of breeding, but quantity can be developed. A cow will be born to give milk containing, for example, four per cent butter fat, and she will con tlnue to give four per cent milk under all conditions, be the quantity much or little. An abundance of food and wa ter coupled with kind treatment may increase the quantity of milk given, but it will not influence the quality; that will remain steadfastly at four per cent fat. The cow is generally believed to be the moat placid, calm and docile of ant male; nevertheless she is highly senas tive to handling and under identical conditions of food and stabling one milker may be able to secure nearly double the quantity of milk from the same cow that another milker will pro duce, the difference in the results de pending on the bond of sympathy es tablished between the animal and the milker. Good food and equanimity then, are essential factors to an abun dant milk supply. Inasmuch as all animal life is subject to the same laws it is reasonable to assume that, f as the human being is more intellec- 0 tual than the cow, mental irritation s and anxiety may exert proportionately e even a greater influence on the hu- a man milk secretion. But however that f may be, obviously the full action of f these two factors will not be attained by telephone conversations or by i means of a written order on a drug store; on the contrary results can be r expected only from a careful, compre hensive preparation and training on the part of the mother. 1 The absence of this training in the individual home constitutes one of the fundamental weaknesses in our civili- t zation and is, to no small degree, re- I sponsible for our weaklings and the serious problems of intemperance and social unrest now confronting us. MALT AND MILK. It is perfectly obvious that the ul timate source of milk in all mammals must rest on the food intake. Conse quently, wherever a mother suffering from a deficient milk supply seeks, from those qualified to advise, infor mation as to how she may correct the unfortunate condition, she is invaria ally recommended to use a more nu ittious diet. In other words, she is informed indirectly that the food she has habitually used is deficient in some important particular. Almost without exception, the diet recommended to a mother includes some form of malt. The word malt is believed to be de rived from a Sanscrit word meaning soft, and having a reference to the fact that malt is raw grain made soft or tender by a process in which germ ination has been caused to proceed to a certain stage and is then controlled and checked by the gradual removal of the w;ter and finally completely ar rested by drying through the applica tion of heat in kilns. During this limited germination en zymes are developed and the constit uents of the grain are so modified that the finished malt differs from the orig inal raw grain in that the greater portion is split into simpler com pounds that more easily dissolve. An enzyme is a complex organic sub stance, or an unorganized or chemical ferment, capable of effecting by ca talytic action the transformation, split ting up or digestion of other com pounds. The changes effected by the partial germination and subsequent treatment of the grain are chiefly the conversion of the nitrogenous substances into di astase, the conversion of the starch into grape sugar by the action of the diastase, and the imparting of color and flavor to the malt in the kiln. Diastase is an enzyme of great physi ological importance in that it is capa ble of converting starch and glycogen into sugar (principally maltose) and dextrins. It occurs in germinating seeds, in the leaves and in other parts of plants and also in various ani mal secretions, such as the saliva and the pancreatic juice. A very common medical preparation in the form of a sirup of about the consistency of a heavy molasses is made by digesting sprouting malt in water, expressing the solution, pre cipitating It with alcohol and drying the precipitate Two new words have recently been added to our vocabulary-"hormones," by Starling in 1906, and "vltamlnes," by Funk in 1912. Investigations conducted since 1889 have fully demonstrated that some of our ductless glands play a role if vast importance in general nutrition, and this knowledge has proved very useful in widening our conception of the nutritional relations in the body. The conception that cer tain glandular organs may give rise to chemical products which on enter Sing the circulation influence the activ Sity of one or more other organs is finding application in the study of the digestive secretions. The gastric and pancreatic "secre Stions" are regarded as examples of in ternal secretions. Chemical products e of this kind which stimulate the ac- i. g tivity of special organs are what Star ling designates hormones Following a long series of investiga tions into the causes of ber-ber' and similar diseases, Funk in 1912 Tho-: lated some highly complex nitrogen Sous bodies from the grindings from rice, from seeds, whole grains, raw milk, fresh meat, yeast, fresh fruit juices, the yolk of egg and the like. Because these compounds were anitro genous and proved to be absolutely essential to organic life-the absence of them is demonstrated to be the cause of death from polyneurltis Funk named them "vitamlnes." The vltamines are soluble in water I e and are destroyed by exposure for ten Sto twenty minutes to a temperature of S248 to !60 degrees Fahrenheit and by extreme dryness. So far as is known. animals are incapable of making vita Smines; normally they are found in r plants, and especially in their seeds, and in animals that eat fresh vegeta. Sble matter containing vitamines. Punk regards vltamlnes as the mother sub stance of ferments and the hormones, and of vital importance to the thyroid Sand other ductless glands; conse quently, they are fundamentally the regulators of the genera' Qo-ordina* tion of our bodies. S Obviously this all points to a rea son for the effectiveness of malt on milk secretion and opens wide the question of nutrition In general. y Panama is considering the estab e lishment of a national school of teleg. > raphy. ONE CAUSE OF EYESTRAIN Glossy Paper Exceedingly Harmful Cream and Pale Blue Tints Said to Be the Best. It is said that the reflection of light from glessy paper is particularly hard on the eyes. Some persons have gone so far as to recommend that no cal endered or coated paper be used in any schoolbooks, since glossy paper re flects light rays directly without dif fusing them, to save the eyes. The public and the printers, on the other hand, have been demanding more high ly glazed paper on account of its rich ness and fitness for half-tone work. To prove their point, the antiglare socie ties have printed a number of pamph lets on mat and even bond paper. While the half-tone work is not so good, beautiful results can be ob tatned with the offset process, and the higher cost of the paper is compen sated for by its lightness. From rough I surfaced paper the study has been car ried to tinted paper. Cream and pale blue tints seem to involve less eye Sstrain than white paper, and if the tints are alternated throughout a book, each page brings a restful cl ,nge to the eyes. The thickness of the paper and the presence of too much wood pulp has been considered, along with the question of size and legibility of type. The whole discussion has been brought about by the increase in eye trouble among school children. COMETS AND SOLAR SYSTEM New Suggestion Has Stirred Up Sci entists-Existence of Gaseous Masses Now Believed. It is suggested that some of the striking changes manifested by cer tain comets in executing their orbits are due to the fact that they encoun ter masses of gas in interplanetary space, and that they are not moving in a vacuum, says a writer in the Scit entific American. If there are such gaseous masses, then in view of the inclinations and extent of their orbits, comets are peculiarly fitted to act as explorers, and there is every proba bility that they will sooner or later en counter such masses. The planets move in a narrow zone near the plane of the ecliptic, while the inclination of the cometary orbits is sometimes considerable, varying for the periodic comets from three degrees to 162 de grees. As a consequence, comets at tain regions of the solar system, where no other bodies pentrate. Many phe nomena seem to receive a satisfactory explanation if the existence of gaseous masses scattered through the solar system be admitted. These gaseous masses, probably of different chemical constitution, may be considered as the residue of the initial nebula, having es caped the phenomena of combustion wh!ch gave rise to the other members of the solar system. The Pragtlce of Kicking. Kicking, like charity, should begin at home. It ought to be the duty of every body at home to object, persistently and effectively, to the specific over crowded street car, the badly paved road, the encroaching doorstep, the neglected yard, the malodorous cess pool, the irresponsible motor car and the reckless railroad-especially if he have any personal part in the main tenance of similar abuses. If the ten dency of these evils were rightly ap prehended, if a part only of the ef fort that is expended, presumably, in objecting to generalized, foreign and futile subjects were bestowed on spe cific and tangible details, if we would forego the emotional pleasure of the impersonal "muckrake" to assail the evil at our very feet-especially if each one of us were careful to avoid offense in matters of the same kind our country would surely be a much Sfairer one.-Unpopular Review. Some New Ones. In a recent school examination the following answers were given to ques tions asked: How fast does the heart beat? Sixty times a minute. What is the pulse? The pulse is Ssome little muscle that bumps up and down. What use is the pulse to physicians? The doctor feels it to see if he is bet ter next time. Name two breeds of dairy cattle and tell which is best milk producer. An 3 swer: Bull and cow; the cow is best p Ipilk producer. t Name three countries in the Balkan Speninsula and tell why they are of Sinterest at present. Answer: Nicara p gua, Yucatan and Turkey, and are of a interest because they are trying to e drive the turkeys out of Europe. Never Got Through Beresford Book. r During the Boxer rebellion in China Sone of the missionaries was reading SLord Charles Beresford's book on "The P Break-up of China" while the bullets . of the Boxers were raining round. SHe had not gone very far into the D volume when the pages wooed him ' to sleep. The book lay beside him on the pillow. Bifffft-ff! came a Mann. licher bullet through the window, in a bee line for the man's head, but Lord Charles' book lay in the bee line. The bullet stuck in the book, but Sfailed to penetrate it. The missionary jumped up, gave thanks for his escape, packed up the Sbook ready for the first parcel post, and addressed to Lord Charles Beres Sford with a polite note. He said: "My Lord-I think it only right to send you this copy of your excellent book b as neither myself nor the Boxers' but. - toets can get through it." HIGH BRIDGE SPANNING WESTERN CANYON i@ J Pecos River Bridge, One of the Highest Railroad Structures in the United States-The Distance From Bed of Stream to Track Is 321 Feet. States...The Distance From Bed of Stream to Track Is ,71 Feet. One of the highest railroad struc' Lures in the United States is the bridge spanning the Pecos river can yon, 216 miles west of San Antonio, c Tex. The distance from the bed of the s 4tream to the track is 321 feet. The bridge is a light-appearing structure NEW IDEA OF ECONOMY RAILROADS AIM TO MAKE EM PLOYEES MORE CAREFUL. Move Has Resulted in Cutting Down the Heavy Requisitions for Small Supplies-Better Than Old System Employed. The railroads, the greatest spenders of the age, have recently been pro pounding to their employees the co nundrum: "How long will a broom last?" writes George Ethelbert Walsh, in the Sunday Magazine of the Chi cago Herald. If the once-a-month broom can be converted into the two months'.broom, the economical station agent saves for his railroad the cost of hauling one ton of freight 35 miles every two months; which, six times a year, means the cost of hauling a ton of freight 210 miles. But the broom is merely taken as a symbol in the new railroad economy. Take lamp chimneys, several of which have to be used in each station. Every time one breaks a charge must be made against the railroad equal to the cost of hauling a ton of freight 101/ miles. Twenty lamp chimneys broken a year in a single station means that some poor locomotive must stagger under extra ton of freight over 210 miles ast to pay for them. Ev the lead pencil must not be des . A requisition for a new lot of Eleis n be made out in a few minutes?;ut a ton of freight must be hauled two miles to pay for each new one. The same is true of each track spike that works loose and is thrown aside. A track bolt is similarly treat ed as waste; but it is worth three and a half miles of haulage of a ton of freight. The man who was responsible for working out these details of cost of or dinary trifles in railroad language was something of an economist. He had the idea that waste in trifles had some thing to do with the high cost of rail road operation. The monthly requi sition for supplies of a trifling nature reached the huge sum of $25,000, or $300,000 a year, and he forthwith de cided to cut down the cost. After figuring out the freight haul age of the different items, he offered rewards ranging from $100 to $10 to every station agent who showed the greatest annual saving of general sta tion supplies. He paid out $500 in prizes, and cut the requisitions down $25,000 the first year. The second year the requisitions for lead pencils. brooms, lamp chimneys, lanterns, coal shovels, waste and pails decreased so generally that the suspicion was aroused that many of the agents were buying their own supplies in order to get in on some of the prize awards. At one time railroad economy gen erally meant laying off a few men, cut ting wages of others, and postponing the purchase of much needed new equipment and rolling stock. In the end this sort of economy resulted in more inefficient service, grumbling and strikes, and deterioration of tracks, roadbed and general equipment. Soon er or later the railroad had to pay for a policy that was about as economical as killing the old goose that laid the golden eggs. An Impression of Gorky. "Once when I was singing in Nljni early in the morning," said Chaliapine, Russia's greatest singer, "I looked out Sand saw Gorky standing .at a window in the same hotel, and gazing silently over the city. The sun was shining on the towers of the churches, over the silver river and turning the roots red. 'You are up early,' I said. 'Yes,' he answered. 'Come in my room for a moment' When I reached his window I saw that he had tears in his eyes, iand I did not understand. 'Look,' he said to me, 'how beautiful it is. Just the world and not a human being any where. The humanity which has made Its gods and its laws, built its houses ald its churches, all asleep and help less as children, powerless to change or adjust all this that it has made.' "He spoke very softly and very sweetly, and for the moment he seemed to me the most perfect human being in the world. Truly one of Rus asla's flowers of genilus."-From the Craftsma. consisting of girders and deck trusses carried on lofty steel towers. The I!auniicfinnc e of thlie view from the deck of this bridge is said to be ex ceeded only by that of the Grand can yon, famed the world over.-Popular 1 Jlechanics. EARLY TRAVEL ON THE LINE Rules and Regulations That Made Passengers Toe the Mark Were in Force. As a contr:u.;t to the traveling facill ties whi.ch are now so universal, it is intoerestiig to read a "Copy of the Rules for Travelers on the First Railway," a document still preserved among the archives of the company of the Man chester to Liverpool railroad, and whi-h has been sent by A. S. White field to Notes and Queries. The rules are as follows: 1. Any person desiring to travel from Liverpool to Manchester, or vice versa, or any portion of the journey thereof, must, 24 hours beforehand, make application to the station agent at the place of departure, giving his name, address, place of birth, age, oc cupation and reason for desiring to travel. 2. The station agent upon assuring himself that the applicant desires to travel for a just and lawful cause, shall thereupon issue a ticket to the applicant, who shall travel by the train named thereon. 3. Trains will start at their point of departure as near schedule times as possible, but the company does not guarantee when they will reach their destination. 4. Trains not reaching their destina tion before dark will put up at one of the several stopping places along the route for the night, and passengers must pay, and provide for, their own lodging during the night. 6. Luggage will be carried on the roof of the carriages. If such lug gage gets wet the company will not be responsible for any loss attaching thereto. NEW ALPINE ROAD BUILDING Will Be the Longest Yet Constructed and Should Prove a Delight to Tourists. The longest Alpine railroad in ex istence will run from Brieg, near the Italian border, to Disentis and will thus connect the former with the Federal Swiss lines. Beginning at the end of the Simplon tunnel, at 2,200 feet above sea level, this remarkable road passes directly over the Saint Gothard tunnel as a surface road at 4,700 feet above sea level and rises at one point to 7,100 feet. With a branch of an existing road, the new line will connect Brieg with Saint Moritz, between which points daily runs will be made each way and af ford tourists a route of surpassing beauty through the hitherto remote and little known region of the upper Rhone and past the headwaters of the upper Rhine.-Scientific American. Extending Use of Wireless. For many years F. H. Millener, ex perimental engineer of the Union Pa cific railroad, has been working on wireless telephone apparatus for di-I rect communication with moving trains. He announces that his plans have been completed and a satisfac tory system has been developed where by he is able to talk with a moving train 100 miles away from the wire less transmitting station. Cost of Locomotives. It is impossible to state definitely the cost of a locomotive, as they vary so greatly in size. and specification. SOne of the small two-wheel class, used for yard shunting and similar light service, costs about $15,000 or $20,000, while one of the huge, high pressure passenger locomotives, known to the drivers as "hogs," might range Sfrom $150,000 to $200,000. a Credit for Lord Lister. SSir Frederick Treves is said to have r stated that Lord Lister won the Russo Japanese war, and certainly the sta tistics revealed a surgical triumph t over wounds and inflammations that Swas all-important when a small nation Swas fighting a large one. As an ex 5 ample of the aseptic and antiseptic Splans followed it is reported that when a any Japanese battleship was going into action the men were ordered to rtake a bath in disinfectant and to a wear clean boiled underclothing, thus I insuring the cleanliness and easy .healing of possible wounds, and a a quick return of healthy men to active service. HER LESSON IN PROPOrTION Small Hearts, Too, She Found, Are to Be Found in Very Large Mansions. There was a girl who was quite sure that when it came her turn to marry she could not live in a house any smaller than her father's. "Love in a cottage" was not her idea. Cupid, she thought, needed plenty of room to flap 1 his wings and to practice his archery; he could not pine in a bird cAge. So she must have an immense library with a fireplace that would take a six foot log; there must be a drawing room with parquetry flooring and thick rugs sliding about on it; the dining room ntist be able to hold a large table with an imposing bowl of flow ers. She visualized herself ruling a salon, hostess to a brilliant coterie of people who would help her social am bition and her husband's business. A school friend of hers came to see her a year and a half after she had I married and found her in a little frame house on a side street, ridiculously happy with her husband and her baby. The back yard was just about big enough to hold a whirling clothes frame and a narrow flower bed against the fence: the piazza was as snug as a sailor's hammock: the largest room was about the size of the vestibule of the bride's girlhood home. "I know what you're thinking," laughed the proud little housekeeper to her guest. "You're wondering how I could make rip my mind to live in this tiny piano box. But I've mare a dis covery. I've found that it isn't the size of the house that matters: it's the size of the heart, and the biggest hearts can live in the littlest houses." -Philadelphia Public Ledger. CRUDE, BUT DOES THE WORK SPrimitive System of "Wireless Teleg. raphy" in Use Among Tribes of Amazon Region. In the Juamara region of the Ama zon the natives use a crude system of wireless telegraphy, which, it is claimed, has been in operation for thousands of years. The transmitter found by an explorer was a hollowed trunk of a tree suspended from a hori zontal pole stretched between two stumps. Inside the transmitter had been arranged much like a violin, and it was explained that when the in. strutnent was struck smartly with a small rubber hammer a vibration was created that carried for miles over the hills. The receiver is very similar to the transmitter, except that It is placed on a hardwood platform, the base of the hollowed tree trunk being ground. ed on the platform. When the mes. sage is struck in the neighboring vii lage, sometimes thirty miles away, this receiver catches the vibrations, causing a jerky, singing sound. The sound system, it is said, can be read by the members of the tribe, and in this way news of victories and other happenings are told throughout the countryside. Impromptu Solo. Pierre Garat, the singer and exquis ite of Napoleonic France, was not merely a glass of fashion and a won derful, self-instructed singer, but an artist devoted to his art. But is the following, asks Mr. Bernard Miall in his biography, an example of sincerity Sin art, or of love of attracting atten tion? Coupigny had supplied him with a "romance" to be set to music. When Sever the two met, Garat replied, "I t have not hit upon an idea as yet." i One day Coupigny was walking down the Rue Neuve-des-Petits-Champs. SHearing a sound of some one running behind him, he turned; it was Garat, t who seized him by the arm, dragged him up the stairs of a neighboring house, and, halting on the first landing, exclaimed, "I've got it!" At once he began to sing the romance through at Sthe top of his voice. The inhabitants of the house began to open their doors; heads were projected over the ban isters; finally they began to approach; but Garat, having finished, tore down the stairs like a monkey, dragging the bewildered poet with him.-Youth's Companion. Only Worse. i A Philadelphia school teacher has lately been instructing her pupils in Grecian mythology. It is the plan to Shave the children read the tales aloud, and the next day recount them in their own language. One lad, to whom was given the assignment to render in his own language the story of the Gor Sgons, did so in these terms: "The Gorgons were three sisters that lived in the Islands of Hesperides, somewhere in the Indian ocean. They r had long snakes for hair, tusks for r teeth and claws for nails, and they looked like women, only more hor 1 rible." - Pittsburgh Chronicle-Tele 3 graph. Unfamiliar to English. Many of our names for common fauna and flora are unknown to an Englishman, save as strange American* isme, e. g., raccoon, opossum, shnk, tterrapin, chipmunk and moose; per simmon, chinquapin, alfalfa and yam. He seldom sees popcorn or an oyster stew; he knows nothing of oyster sup pers, clam bakes and burgoo picnics. He doesn't buy either red lemonade or peanuts when he goes to the cir Scus; the former he calls lemon-squash and the latter he doesn't know at all. The common American use of peanut Sas an adjective of disparagement, e. g., * peanut politics, is bacomprehensible to him.