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Principles of lHealth sý By ALBERTS. GRAY. M.D. (Copyright. 1914. by A. S. Gray) HAY FEVER. Hyperesthetic rhinitis, commonly known as "hay fever," "rose cold," "autumnal catarrh," and so forth, is a condition characterized annually by paroxysms of sneezing, accompanied by varying degrees of coryza (cold in the head) more or less prolonged. It is acute catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavi ties, the eyes and the respiratory tract, sometimes accompanied with fever and asthma. Hay fever rages during August and September, and the popular belief is that the pollen of the goldenrod is responsible for it; but ragweed, trees, grasses and other plants, including the cereal grains, also cats, dogs, sheep, chickens, horses and cows all do their part in adding to the atmospheric dust to which so many are hypersensitive. Besides these dusts, chemical fumes and many pungent odors also have their victims. But it is not necessary to the condition that even the irri tant should enter the nose. For exam ple, there are probably few persons who have not under certain temporary physical conditions experienced sneez ing violently several times immediate ly on stepping from a dense shade into the bright sunlight-that is a re flex irritation - and unfortunately many individuals are so adjusted that under certain conditions the irritation of any area supplied by the fifth nerve suffices to create distress; hence, a bright light entering the eyes may irritate the hyperesthetic ciliary nerve filaments and for a long time maintain reflex symptoms in the nose. In addition to the dust, light, heat, cold and other external agencies, there are more immediate local irrita tions so frequently to be found in the neurotics, consisting of turbinal en largements, ethmoid, frontal or maxil lary sinusitis, deflected septum, polypl and eyestrains. But generally these must be considered concomitant to the fundamen physical condition and sat the ,MOsse ed and ted upon with a view to i the removal of the irritation through the correction of one or more of these local morbid conditions, only to have 1 the hay fever paroxysms continue froth year to year without abatement; while others have been relieved. It is generally accepted that only two factors are necessary for the causation of hay fever; namely, first, I an internal condition which will in sure an abnormal sensitiveness of the 1 nerve centers and filaments; and, see ond, an external irritation. The strong, well nourished organism is not as a rule excessively irritable; but, on the other hand, the internal condition of abnormal sensitiveness is known to be induced easily as the re sult of defective metabolism creating a physical state of excessive suscepti bility in the individual, a condition generally recognized as a common cause of areas of superficial hyper esthesia and even of neuralgia in va rious parts of the body; a general dis-. turbance of the normal functional equi librium, under which condition the individual reacts violently to stimuli. We take it quite as a matter of course, because it is universally known, that an ill nourished or a hungry baby will be fretful and pee vish, and we are not at all surprised at very marked evidence of irritability in a convalescent formerly noted for gen eral calmness and self-possession. Hence it should require no great strain or stretch of one's imaginative powers to be able to apply the same p rlinciple to the individual cells com posing our bodies and to comprehend that the neurotic temperament is fund amentally a matter of defective metabolism, because of which the in dividual cells are not properly nour ished. The universal remedy for a fretful nfant is proper nutrition; the 1 universal remedy for the irritable con valescent is propert nutrition, and so, too, the remedy for the hay fever vie tim is to build up a stable nerveus system by means of proper nutrition. The authorities are akree that among the personal habits which pre dispose to hay fever are the habitual use of narcotics and alcoholic stimu iants, excessive excitement and over exertion and what are known as the rheumatic and gouty tendencies. This 11 points in the direction of defective metabolism. Moreover, 8aJous ree- 1 ommends as a preventive the use of 1 thyroid extract, commencing four weelks before the onset of the periodic attack. Obviously, it the use of the thyroid extract for four weeks prior to the expected attack is of any value as a preventive, it is reasonable to assume that such hygienic steps as will lead to an increased activity of one's own thyroid secretion, begin- . ning right at this time and continuing I without interruption up to anda through the next season, must inev- . itably produce some modificatio) il t the severity of the symptoms, and con- . :4 tinucd from year to year it w:ll in timUe tend to overcome the hypcres t thesia permanently. The great difficulty in such cases f lies in the fact that the very nature of the condition is such as almost to ci preclude the possibility of the victim's persistently adhering to so simple and º logical a line of action. But to such as have the courage to investigate * and come to understand that even the f cell is not the unit of life; that the cell is not only made up of protein molecules but its form and function are determined by the chemical struc ture of its constituent molecules; in short, to those who come to know themselves and treat their bodies ac cordingly there Is undoubtedly the certainty of permanent relief. THE PITUITARY GLAND. Y The puzzle of the pituitary gland 4 (hypophysis cerebrl) presents one of s those curious instances known to med y ical history wherein widely contradic d tory observations make it difficult to n confirm the answer to any given t question concerning the physiology e and the pathology of the organ or I the action (function) of the gland Y either in health or in disease. Even in the apparently extremely simple propositions as to whether the organ is essential to life we find the investigators divided into two groups, one group comprising those who main tain that the gland is indispensable a to life and the other, almost equal in " number, holding It to be nonessential r to life. Undoubtedly the confusion is large ly due to the fact that the position of this gland is such that it is extreme ly inaccessible to operative interfer ences, so that attempts to remove it are usually attended with fatal results from the operation itself; hence we are able to learn but little if anything concerning the significance of the organ in this way, and are forced to depend for our knowledge concerning the pituitary gland on what may be revealed by pathological anatomy and clinical observation. Then, too, this body, while not much larger than a pea, consists of two parts or lobes, very closely blended, but one distinct ly larger and of a structure distinctly different from that of the other. The larger anterior lobe is of a glandular structure and belongs to the type of glands which are believed to form an internal secretion. The much smaller posterior lobe is of nervous origin and composed chiefly of a net like framework of fibers, the inter stices being filled with brain cells. The two lobes are very closely associ ated, the neck of the posterior lobe being completely enveloped or sur rounded by the epithelium of the an I terior lobe, this insuring an intimate extracts of the anterior lobe when in jected into the veins have little or no physiological effect, while extracts of the posterior lobe, on the contrary, cause a marked rise of blood pressure and a slowing of the heartbeat. These effects resemble in general those obtained from adrenal extracts Sbut differ in some details. For in. Sstance, an extract of the pituitary gland known as "pituritin" is prepared for Suse in medicine and has been used for the stopping of hemorrhage after childbirth, since it acts like "adrena Slin" but maintains its action longer. And Ott discovered that extracts of I this body stimulate the activity of the Smammary glands and constitute In etf .fet an efficient galactagogue (milk Sforming stimulant). It is generally believed that the pitu Sitary body, in relation with the other 1 Sducti-ss glands, helps to promote the Snormal growth of the body, particu larly the bones, and there is evidence associating disturbance of pituitary function with deranged nitrogen, cal Scium and phosphorus metabolism. Knowledge derived from the action of Sother glands on these elements proves r this alone to be a highly important Sfunction and sufficient to justify the existence of the gland. SPierre Marie in 1886 appears to have Sfirst associated a disease known as Sacromegaly (gigantism) with the pitui tary body; the idea was accepted and Sthe connection has since been con fi rmed by many until at tlhe present I time it is generally conceded that - there are two distinct clinical entities, I both disturbances of growth, to be as Scribed to deranged functioning on the !part of the pituitary gland. One of 1 - these is acromegaly, a disease char acterised by the enlargement of cer I tain bones; the other is distinguished I by a delayed development with adi posity (excessive development of fat) and general atrophy (a wasting from lack of nutrition). - Regarding the exact nature of the disturbance in the pituitary gland in acromegaly, there is still considerable difference of opinion, but the weight I of evidence faTors the view that it is due to increased secretion of the an Sterior lobe. The pathologic condition I moat frequently assoeltated with acro I megaly is an enlargement of the an terior lobe with material increase in the secretory cells. There seems to be iome antagonistic relation between b the pituitary gland and the sexual r glande (ovaries and testes), and it is perfectly well known that when an animal Is spayed it grows abnormally large; this would seem to provh that a the latter exert a restraining Indfluence over the former, probably preventing its oversecretion. Obviously this im- d plies that whatever will favor general 0 health conditions tends to regulate the e action of the powerful ductless glands. so that in wholesome food we have : the key which will give us the control of these wonderful vital powers. SKIRTS OF ALL KINDS WIDE VARIETY IN OFFERINGS OF THE SEASON. "Skimpiness" Is No Longer the Fash ;onable Effect-Illustration Gives Idea of Just What the New Styles Are Like. Among the novel tendencies which appear in the choice of styles offered to the smart woman are an extensive variety of skirts, or, to be more ex plicit, an extensive variety of full skirts. They will continue to put a note of fantasy in the toilets. The plain ones are either circular, kilted, or shirred, while others show a sue4 cession of short ruffles, plaited, gath ered, scalloped or plain, in materials that match or do not match the dress. Then, too, there is a craze for the full tunic attached to a hip yoke. Where there is such a wide choice, monotony is not expected to figure. The silhouette is entirely t formed from that of last year, vJ gave an undeniable appearance of skimpiness. This marked change is comprehensively expressed in the il lustrated suit design. It is carried out in bisque-colored ratine with touches of light fur and black trimmings. The jacket is especially modish, with its short-waisted top and flaring hip-length skirt portion applied under a covered cord. The fastening is novel. A center panel across the front forms a sort of square bib, trimmed with a close row of black ball buttons on either edge. Only one edge is real ly used for the opening. The open space below discloses a generous glimpse of the very wide, t z 1 I Several Novel Features Are Exploited] Here. handsome girdle of black and putty. colored brocade that swathes the waist. Oddly cut sleeves with close. fitting undersleeves add another note of the unusual. The skirt is in two sections; the deep circular yoke, and the gathered lower part, joined a trifle below hip line under a covered cord finish. Modish Wraps. A handsome fabric for a driving wrap or certain type of evening cloak I is a corduroy of bold "cord," each al- 4 ternating strand being woven so as to resemble an actual cord of silk, the 1 other of velvet. Another beautiful fab ric is a white velvet printed with a 1 design in aluminum and bright silver. A third is a striped silk and velvet, black and white, with a lovely little running pattern in brilliant reds, greens and browns occurring occasion ally between the stripes, which are I broad in the case of the black and nar row in the white. BABY COIFFURE IS POPULAR New Style of Hairdressing, Popular In New York, Makes Women Look Younger. The newest thing in belfry decora tions is called the baby coiffure. This style has suddenly hit the night life district and New York is "doing it I hard" in its N w Yorkiest way. And der. t makes women look fl W4 younger. Ip. act, e y s back in the chicken' class. To get the effect the gorgeous tresses are reduced to a frizzy fringe around the ears, a bandeau is worn to I hold it in place. It looks like a Bus ter Brown hair but, but is called coif fure de la bebe. Here's the way to fix the hair so it looks cut off but isn't: First you 4tvide it over the temples straight across a the head, half way back. You pin this 3 together in front to keep it out of the way while you fix the rest of it. A d little hair on each side you puff out over the ears and then pin the ends to a tight little "foundation knot" in the crook of the neck at the back. Then * you comb that front hair straight back and instead of twirling it up e you twirl it under and fasten it to your "foundation." Then you fasten e your bandeau-and there you are. The Cape With a Yoke. The cape with a yoke, that most old fashioned looking garment, is very much in fashion for an evening wrap. Often this yoke is only the appearance g of a yoke, for the cape is cut on circu k lar lines, shirred in below the shoul I- ders to form the semblance of a yoke o and give it added warmth. RED TOP COATS FOR GIRLS A i Few More Durable or Becoming Gar. 1 d1. ments Have Been Produced i This Season. At A number of smart top coats in at vivid rust red have been noted on o girls of the school set. These are fi s. necessarily quite severe in cut, usu e ally with a belt to correspond and f, of large buttons down the front. Bands ii r" of fur around the neck and sleeves ti are sometimes found. o d On the girls under twelve or thir- e II teen these coats usually reach to the t) bottom of the dress, but they may be m of three-quarter length. A Jaunty little hat with a red crown or a red wing is the natural accompanimfnt to such a coat. le Vivid colors are being used a great it deal for young children this year, es l pecially in the little angora or knitted sweater suit, which seems to be in n dispensable to the outfit of all the o youngsters under seven. Hunter's . green, bright blue and a brilliant rose n red seem to be most in favor, but there are also plenty of fawn and brown to be found when the child has l rosy enough cheeks to look well in is more somber tones. Cap, leggings, mitts and sweater to correspond make ly the children look like little goblins t and not only are they snug and quaint, s but they are fine for sledding, wear v g under raincoats in bad weather, un- a der top coats in extreme cold and for tl open-air school use they have proved lI excellent. B. r e Optimistic Thought. b )1 We may despise the world, but we r cannot do without it. C WALKING SUIT S., Of Blue Wool, With Sailor Collar; Standing Collar of White Maline. Sash of Black Silk With Frogs. MAKES NEAT BOUDOIR CAP . Trifle of Ribbons and Lace That Will Be Appreciated by the Fas tidious Woman. 1 A pretty boudoir cap can be made n of ribbons and short pieces of lace by a following this diagram. Cut *your ribbon C in half and I feather-stitch in pink to either side of insertion D. Cut net through the cen a ter (the long way) and baste each half over silkaline cut accordingly. Feath er-stitch one of the B's to each out * It B C C a a .1 Diagram to Follow. side edge of a flowered ribbon. This r will form a square. Round corners and face under side to put rubber r through. Sew lace A on edge as plain I ly as possible, draw rubber through and tie in a bow, so that wearer may readjust if necessary. Cut baby rib bon in halves, making two pretty a rosettes and attach each as shown in cat IAPPENING5in he CITIf5 Too Many Lessons Killed Educated Angleworm B OSTON.-One-Eyed Pete, the educated angleworm of HIarvard university, is dead. The rigors of a Harvard education have proved too much for him. Pete, before his matriculation at the psychological laboratory of Prof. R. M. Yerkes, lived an idle and dis solute existence in a Cambridge back yard. The professor dug him up in an effort to disprove the claims of S\ another scientist that worms have no intelligence. Pete was given ten les sons a day wriggling on prepared laths. The right one led to a soft bed of wet blotting paper. The wrong one took him to a place where he got J , an electric shock. Pete finally learned which was the way to worm para dise. Put the 1,000 trips necessary to teach him this has sent him to Ins grave. Pete, according to the profes sor, thought like a regular human being and could distinguish between what was good for it and what was not so good for it. When Professor Yerkes took the worm in charge many months ago, it didn't know enough to get in out of the rain. Professor Yerkes rigged up a device full of holes like a cheese, and one of the apertures was constructed in a manner that is particularly inviting to a poor, wandering worm, alone in a great city. Halfway through the hole the slime-packed course spread out in two directions. At the end of one passage was a comfortable resting place-as comfortable resting places for worms go -and at the end of the other passage was an electric device which would give the creature a sharp shock as soon as it entered it. Every afternoon Professor Yerkes took the worm out of its cage and let it take a constitutional through the tricky hole with two ends. Church Merit Card to Chicago Family of Nine C HICAGO.-Mrs. Edwin H. Danegemond of Morgan Park rose early on a recent Sunday morning. Then she awoke her husband and seven chil dren. When all were dressed she lined them up for inspection and called the roll. When all had reported pres ent and she found that all were warm ly dressed, she took her husband's arm, and telling her children to walk ahead, marched to the Morgan Park Congregational church. The smallest, three years old, led the parade, which marched in single file through the slush. The oldest, eighteen years old, captained the ex pedition, while Mr. and Mrs. Danege mond acted as rear guard. As the family entered the church exclamations of admiration greeted its members. The church was filled with many other children of varying sizes, but no one family group was as large as that of the Danegemond family. It was the annual "family service" at the church. The pastor, Rev. Philip Yarrow, in an endeavor to bring back the old custom of having the family attend church in a body, had offered a hand-painted certificate to the largest family, all of whose members attended church that day. When Reverend Yarrow had finished his sermon he glanced over the parents and their children. His eyes rested on the pew where the Danege mond family was seated. He looked at the smallest Danegemond, who was trying hard not to fall asleep, and counted up the row. "Flur bopy and three giris," be exlalumd "as anybo else brqught more than seven'chlidten?" There was no reply. "The certificate of merit will be awarded to the Danegemond family, he said. Dangerous to Give a San Francisco 'Cop' Money S AN FRANCISCO.-If Diogenes could have known Policeman Hyland he would have ended his search right there. It happened as follows, to-wit: Richard Stanton, aged forty-four years, who lives at 84 Broadway, was walk ing along Commercial street, near SGrant avenue, when he suddenly spied Hyland and hailed him frantic ally. Stanton is short, a 100-point "zft," with an added 25 points for the redness of his luxuriant whiskers, and he was dressed in overalls and working coat. "Hey, officer, here's something for you!" shouted Stanton, and he waved before the eyes of the aston ished Hyland a handful of $10 bills. Before he could be questioned Stan ton thrust the money, $100 in all, into Hyland's hands and walked away. But the policeman did not let him go. Instead, he halted Stanton, who said he merely wanted to help out the policeman, because he had enough money for himself. Hyland took him to the city prison. In addition to the original $100, $97 more was found on Stanton. He was booked for insanity. Stanton says he has $1,000 more in a bank, the fruit of years of labor. When Hyland made his report, Captain Gleeson appended the following: "This man was not so insane. He chose the right policeman." Little New York Girl Has Meat Line for Cats EW YORK.-Every afternoon when little Ruth Owen, seven years old, runs from school to her home at 349 East One Hundred and Forty-ninth street, the Bronx. there awaits her in the rear yard a coterie of cats. The daily line-up of felines is as regular as the day itself, for they have come to know the little girl as their friend. Ruth feeds the kitties at precise-_ _ _... ly half-past three o'clock, and if she should happen to be late the entire neighborhood knows it from the chorus of meows in the yard. . More than a year ago Ruth strolled into a restaurant in One - T5 Hundred and Forty-ninth street, near Third avenue, and bashfully asked Miss Helen Hartnett, the cashier there, if she would not sell her five cents' worth Of waste meat and bones. The young woman behind the desk was highly amused at such a request com ing from the youngster and asked her for whom she wanted the scraps. Ruth replied that the meat was for her back-yard cats, and she was sent away with a good supply under each arm as a gift It soon became a daily habit with the little girl and the waiters in the restaurant began to regard the day's business incomplete if Ruth did not ap pear for her cat meat. To her back yard she hurries and is greeted by the feline aggregation. Bhe is the center of attraction for a few minutes only, as eaqh cat, snatching the biggest portion available, runs off to safety. This performance is re oeated daily. Winter Hog Pasture. When it comes to winter and spring hog pasture, nothing equals dwarf Es sex rape. Ground where it is sown, however, must be in good condition. Then the yield is enormous. Drills two feet apart sown at the rate of three pounds per acre give us best re sults. Air for Cornstalks. Remember that cornstalks need plenty of air, and that stacked in large ricks they are sure to heat. Use Thermometer. Before churning use a dairy ther mometer and have the cream at from 60 to 70 degrees. Butter should require from 25 to 30 minutes to come. Regu late temperatures so that this will be true, but do not add hot or cold water to the cream. Raising Heifers. Raise well the heifer calves from cows which for one or more genera tions have made large and profitablj productions of mhilk and butterfat.