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The Banner-Democrat. (Lake Providence, East Carroll Parish, La.) 1892-current, April 05, 1902, Image 1

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I sit before my window But 0 the lonely morning!
And watch the sullen rain; And O the dreary night!
The hand of age is on me, Ah, life itself should fo,low
And weakness grows to pain. When love and hope take flight.
My sons are men, far from me; No happy days await me,
Their father-he is dead; No joy that all must crave;
I own the roof above me, The only path before me
I do not lack for bread. Ends in an open grave.
-Ninette M. Lowater, in New York Sun.
By Norman Duncan.
E" was a Newfoundland dog,
born of reputable parents at
Back Arm and decently bred
in Ruddy Cove, which is on
the northeast coast. He had black
hair, short, straight and wiry,-the
curly-haired breed has failed on the
island,-and broad, ample shoulders,
which his forbears had transmitted to
him from generations of hauling
He was heavy, awkward and ugly,
resembling somewhat a great draft
horse. But he pulled with a will,
fended for himself, and within the
knowledge of men had never stolen
a fish; so he had a high place in the
hearts of all the people of the Cove,
and a safe one in their estimation.
"Skipper! Skipper! Here, b'y!"
The ringing call, in the voice of
young Billy Topsail, his master, a
fisherman's son. never to bring
the dog from the t[chen with an
eager rush, when the snow lay deep
on the rocks and all the paths of the
wilderness were ready for the sled.
He stood Stock-still for the harness,
and at the first "Hi, b'y! Gee up,
there!" he bounded away with a
wagging tail and a glad bark. It was
as if nothing pleased him so much on
a frosty morning as the prospect of a
hard day's work.
If the call came In summer-time
when the Skipper was dozing in the
cool shadow of a flake,-a platform
of boughs for drying fish,-he
scramled to his feet, took his clog in
his mouth and Jan, all a-quiver for
what might come, to where young
Billy waited. (In Newfoundland the
law requires that all dogs shall be
clogged as a precaution against their
killing sheep and goats which run
wild. The clog is in the form of a
billet, of wood, weighing at least
seven and a half pounds, and tied to
the dog's neck.) If the clog were
taken off,-as it was almost sure to
be,-it meant sport in the water.
Then the Skipper would paw the
ground and whine until the stick was
flung out for him. But best of all he
loved to dive for stones.
At the peep of many a day, too, he
went out in the punt to the fishing
grounds with Billy Topsail, and there
kept the lad good company all the
day long. It was because he sat on
the little cuddy in the bow, as if
keeping a lookout ahead, that he was
called the Skipper.
"Sure, 'tis a clever dog, that!" was
Billy's boast. "'He would save life
that dog would!"
This was proved beyond doubt when
little Isaiah Tommy Goodman toddled
over the wharfhead, where he had been
playing with a squid. Isaiah Tommy
was four years old, and would sure
ty have been drowned had not the.Skip
per :;trolled down the wharf just at
that moment.
The Skipper was obedient to the
instinct of all Newfoundland dogs to
drag the sons of men from the water.
He plunged Li and caught Isaiah Tom
my by the collar of his pinafore. Still
following his instinct, he kept the
child's head above water with power
ful strokes of his fore paws while he
towed him to shore. Then the outcry
which Isaiah Tommy immediately set
up brought his mother to complete
the rescue
For this deed the Skipper was petted
a day and a half, and fed with fried
caplin and salt pork, to his evident
gratification. No doubt he was per
suaded that he had acted worthily.
However that be, he continued in
merry moods, in affectionate behavior,
in honesty-although the fish were
even then drying on the flakes, all ex
posed, and he carried his clog lihe a
"Skipper," Billy Topsail would ejac
ulate, "you do be a clever dog:"
One day in the fall of the year, when
high winds spring suddenly from the
land, Billy Topsall was fishing from
the punt, the Never Give Up, over
the shadows of Molly's Head. It was
"fish weather," as the Ruddy Cove
men say-gray, cold and misty. The
harbor entrance lay two miles to the
southwest. The bluffs which marked
it were hardly discernible, for the mist
hung thlek off the shore. Four punts
and a skiff were bobbing half a mile
farther out to sea, their crews tishing
with hook and line over the side.
Thicker weather threatened, and the
day was near spent.
"'Tis time to be off home, b'y," said
Billy to the dog. "'Tis gettbng thick
in the sou'west."
Thb Skipper stretched himself and
wagged his tail He had no word to
say, but Billy, who, like all fishermen
in remote places, had formed the habit
of talking to himself, supplied the
"'Tie that, Billy, b'y," said he. "The
punt's as much as one hand can man
age in a fair wind. An' 'tls a dead beat
to the harbor now."
Then Billy said a word for himself.
"We'll put in idr ballast The punt's
too light for a gale."
He sculled the punt to the little
cove by the Head, and there loaded her
with rocks. Her sails, mainsaill and
tiny jib were spread, and she was
headed for Grassy Island, on the frst
leg of her beat into the wind. By this
time the other two punts were under
way, and the sails of the skiff were
fluttering as her crew prepared to
heat home for the nialght The Never
Glive Up was ahead of the fleet, and
held her lead in such fine fashion as
made Billy Topsal's heart swell with
The wind had gaied in fore. It
was sweepPI n owa from the hills
gst New It ~hit te a brese, and
.al It emas w .S .l with angry
perceived, for the sea was choppy and
the bluffs shielded the inshore waters.
"We'll fetch the harbor on the next
tack," Billy muttered to the Skipper,
who was whining in the bow.
He pul the steering oar hard alee
to bring he punt about. A gust caught
the sails The boat heeled before it,
and her 'unwale was under water
before Bi y could make a move to
save her. Trhe wind forced her down,
pressing ht vily upon rue canvas. Her
ballast shi Ied and she toppled over.
Boy and log were thrown into the
sea-the on t aft, the other forward.
Billy dived `deep to escape entangle
ment with the rigging of the boat.
He had long ago learned the lesson
that presence of mind wins half the
fight in perilous emergencies. The
coward miserably perishes, where the
brave man survives. With his courage
leaping to meet his predicament, he
struck out for windward and rose to
the surface.
He looked about for the punt. She
,had been heavily weighted with bal
last and he feared for her. What was
he to do if she had been too heavily
weighted? Even as he looked she
sank. She had righted under water;
the tip of the mast was the last he
saw of her.
The sea-cold, fretful, vast-lay all
about him. The coast was half a mile
to windward; the punts, oi to sea,
were laboriously beating toward him,
and could make no greater speed. He
had to choose between the punt and
the rocks.
A whine-with a strange note in it
attracted his attention. The big dog
had' caught sight of him, and was beat
ing the water in a frantic effort to
approach quickly. But the dog had
never whined like that before.
"Hi, Skipper!" Billy called. "Steady,
b'y! Steady!"
Billy took off his boots as fast as he
could. The dog was coming nearer,
still whining strangely and madly paw
ing the water. Billy was mystified.
What possessed the dog? It was as
itf he had been seized with a fit of ter
ror. Was he afraid or drowning? His
eyes were fairly flaring. Such a light
had never been in them before.
In the instant he had for speculation
the boy lifted himself high in the
water and looked intently into the
dog's eyes. It was terror he saw in
them; there could be no doubt about
that, he thought. The dog was afraid
for his life. At once Billy was filled
with dread. He could not crush the
feeling down. Afraid of the Skipper,
-the old, affectionate Skipper-his own
dog, which he had reared from a pup
py! It was absurd. But he was
afraid, nevertheless-desperately afraid.
"Back, b'y!" he cried. "Get back,
Billy was a strong swimmer. He
had learned to swim where the water
is cold-cold, often, as the icebergs
stranded in the harbor can make it.
The water was bitter cold now, but
lie did not fear it, nor did he doubt that
he could accomplish the long swim
which lay before him. It was the un
accountable failure of the dog which
disturbed him-his failure in obedience,
which could not be explained. The
dog was now within three yards, and
excited past all reason.
"Back, sir!" Billy screamed. "Get
back with you!"
The dog was not deterred by the
command. Ile did not so much as hes
itate. Billy raised his hand as if to
strike him-a threatening gesture
which had sent the Skipper home with
his tall between his legs many a time.
But it had no effect now.
"Get back!" Billy screamed again.
It was plain that the dog was not to
to bidden. Billy threw himself on his
back, supported hiimself with hi hands
and kicked at the dog with his feet.
The Skipper was blinded by the splash
ing. He whined and held back. Then
blindly he came again. Billy moved
slowly from him, head foremost, still
churning the water with his feet But
swimming thus, he was no match for
the dog. With his head thrown back
to escape the blows, the Skipper forged
after him. He was struck in the jaws,
in the throat and again in the jaws.
But he rawed on, taking every blow
without complaint and gaining inch
by3 inch. Soon he was so close that the
lad could no longer move his feet
freely. Then the dog chanced to catch
one foot with his paw, and forced it
under. Billy could not beat him off.
No longer opposed, the dog crept
up-paw over paw, forcing the boy's
body lower and lower. His object
was clear to Billy. The Skipper, fren
sled by terror, the boy thought, would
try to save himself by climbing on
his shoulders.
"Skipper!" he cried, "you'll drown
me! Get back!"
The futotility of attempting to com
mand obedience from a crazy dog
struck Billy Topsall with force. He
must act otherwise, and that quickly,
if he were to escape. There seemed
to be but, one thing to do. He took a
long breath and let himself sink
down-down-as deep as he dared.
Down-down-until he retained breath
sunelent but to strike to the riggt and
rise again.
The dog-as it was made known later
-rose as high as he could force hbin
self, and looked about ain every direc
tlos, with his mouth open and his ears
rigidly cocked. He gave two short
barks, Iike obs, and a long, mourntful
whine. Then, as it acting upon smidden
thought, he dived.
For a moment nothing was to be
skeen dt either boy or dog. There was
nothtag but a choppy sen in that place.
Men who were watching thought that
bhth had tolhowed the levter OGie Up~
Sto the bottom.
SI the .mansmau nhsp maid
water Billy perceived that his situa*
tion was desperate. He would rise,
ht was sure, but only to renew the
struggle. How long he could keep the
dog off he could not tell. Until the
punts came down to his aid? He
thought not.
He came to the surface prepared to
dive again. But the Skipper had dis
appeared. An ejaculation of thanks
giving was yet on the boy's lips, when
the dog's black head rose and moved
swiftly toward him. Billy had a start
of ten yards-or something more.
He turned on his side and set off at
top speed. There was no better swim
mer among the lads of the harbor. Was
he a match for a powerful Newfound
land dog? It was soon evident that
he was not
The Skipper gained rapidly. Billy
felt a paw strike his foot. He put
more force into his strokes. Next the
paw struck the calf of his leg. The
dog was now upon him-pawing his
back. Billy could not sustain the
weight. To escape, that he might
take up the fight in another way, he
dived again.
The dog was waiting when Billy
came up-waiting eagerly, on the alert
to continie the chase.
"Skipper, old fellow-good old dog!"
Billy called in a soothing voice.
"Steady, sir! Down, sir-back!"
The dog was not to be deceived. He
came, by turns whining and gasping.
He was more excited, more determined,
than ever. Billy waited for him. The
fight was to be face to face. The boy
had determined to keep him off with
his hands until strength failed--t
drown him if he could. All love for
the dog had gone out of his heart
The weeks of close and merry com
panionship, of romps and rambles
and sport, were forgotten. Billy was
fighting for life. So he waited with
out pity, hoping only that his strength
might last until he had conquered.
When the dog was within reach Billy
struck him in the face. A snarl and an
angry snap was the result.
Rage seemed suddenly to possess the
dog. He held back for a moment,
growling fiercely, and then attacked
with a rush. Billy fought as best he
could, trying to catch his enemy by
the neck and to force his head beneath
the waves. The effort was vain; the
dog eluded his grasp and renewed
the attack. In another moment he
had laid his heavy paws on the boy's
The weight was too much for Billy.
Down he went, freed himself, and
struggled to the surface, gasping for
breath. It appeared to him now that
he had but a moment to live. He felt
his self-possession going from him
and at that moment his car3 caught
the sound of a voice.
"Put your arm---"
The voice seemed to come from far
away. Before the sentence was com
pleted the dog's paws were again on
Billy's shoulders and the water stopped
the boy's hearing. What were they
calling to him? The thought that some
helping hand was near inspired him.
With this new courage to aid, he
dived for the third time. The voice
was nearer-clearer-when he came up,
and he heard every word.
"Put your arm around his neck!" one
man cried.
"Catch him by the scruff of the
neck!" cried another.
Billy's self-possession returned. He
would follow this direction. The Skip
per swam anxiously to him. It may
be that he wondered what this new at
titude meant. 'It may be that he hoped
reason had returned to the boy-that
at last he would allow himself to be
saved. Billy' caught the dog by the
scruff of the neck when he was within
arm's length. The Skipper wagged
his fail and turned about. There. was
a brief pause, during which the faith
ful old dog determined upon the direc
tion he would take. He espied the
punts, which had borne down with all
speed. Toward them he swam, and
there was something of pride in his
mighty strokes, something of exulta
tion In his whine. Billy struck out
with his free hand, and soon boy and
dog were pulled over the side of the
nearest punt
Through it all, as Billy now knew,
the dog had only wanted to save him.
That night Billy Topsail togk the
Skipper aside for a long and confiden
tial talk. "Skipper," said he, "I beg
your pardon. You see, I didn't know
what 'twas you wanted. I'm sorry I
ever had a hard thought against you,
and I'm sorry I tried to drown you,
When I thought you only wanted to
save yourself. 'twas Billy Topsail you
were thinking of. When I thought
ybu wanted to climb atop of me, 'twas
my :ollar you wanted to catch. When
I thought you wanted to bite me,' twas
a scolding you were giving me for
my foolishness. Skipper, b'y, honest,
I beg your pardon. Next time I'll
know that all a Newfoundland dog
wants is a chance to tow me ashore.
And 1'll give himnt a whole chance. But,
Skipper, don't you think you might
have given me a chance to do some
thing for myself?"
At which the Skipper wagged his
taiL-Youth's Companion.
Tbe Throb Artiatle.o
"You've heard of people who liked
to buy books and magazines with un
cut leaves because they took a sort
of artistic delight in going through
them with the paper cutter, haven't
you? It often happens that they never
read what is printed inside at all. It
is just cutting the leaves and glancing
through that gladdens their hearts
Well, sir, I know how they feeL I
have the same thrill once every week.
When I get the envelope with my pay
in it I know there isn't a cent there
that I can have for my own use, yet
do you knkw, I asimply can't heli
opening the envelope and looking Inm
It must be the artistle feeling thai
comes to the book lover. I can account
for it in no other way. If I didn'l
care for that thrill I might Just givi
the envelope unopened to my wife, and
let her pay the money out But the
privilege of cutting of the end of that
envelope and Iotlag In It is worti
-my whole week a bwrk After all
there's nothing like the artistie throb
is therel"Y'-Chleago Becord-Herald.
A sps auge s. Te .
In Sante, one of the lemIsa lalands
there is a petroleum qprS Whtch ms
i bee kamew for naseraM W veers. I
Diselpline of tlb Railway Employe. I.
Probably Stricter Than in Any Other
Line of Work-Dimnlasalt for Drlnktag
Is Fatal to C iaces for Another Job.
One of the teatest armies of tem
perance refoliners in the world
preaches its doctrine daily in our
midst by actiol, and not by precept
or sermon; but few of the thousands
who travel up Ind down the railroads
of our country ever stop to consider
this silent force which has become
stronger in its example and power for
good than all the temperance organ
izations. There are several million
men employed in various capacities
on the railroads of the United States,
and of this considerable army fully 50
percent occupy responsible positions
which render their work of a pecu
liarly public claracter. The engineers,
firemen, switchmen and train dispatch
ers are daily responsible for the lives
and property of great numbers, and
to prevent mistakes, which might
cause great disasters, every possible
precaution is taken to eliminate er
The discipline of the railroad em
ployes of the country is probably
stricter, and better enforced, than in
any other line of work. A number of
years ago temperance was not strict
ly enforced on trainmen, but the en
gineers were compelled to report for
business in a perfectly sober condi
tion. There were some lax rules in
regard to the trainmen, and it was not
uncommon to see many of them drink
ing at the public houses along the
route when their train was waiting
for orders. But today not only tem
perance, but almost teetotalism, is en
forced on our leading railroads, espe
cially among engineers, firemen,
switchmen and train dispatchers and
conductors. The managers of the rail
roads found that many of the acci
dents were due to drink among the
employes, and, after considering the
problem for a few years, the man who
could not get along without drinking
was gradually forced from the ranks
of the railroad employes. Today these
workmen represent the largest and
strongest army of upright, sober, in
dustrious men in the world.
Dismissal for drinking is the worst
roads today for drunkenness, and they
must continue so long as human temp
tations are in existence; but it is be
coming more difficult every year for
a drinking man to secure any respon
sible position in the railroad com
panies. A drinking engineer would
no more be tolerated on a railroad than
a wild Indian. Such a man might
cause more damage and loss to the
road than his wages would amount to
in a century. The man who has a dis
position to drink must be content to
seek employment in other lines than
on the railroads. The engineers are
as a body strictly sober and temper
ate men. Their calling has made them
so. They realize the dangers which
they must daily meet, and their respon
sibilities sober them. It is rarely that
an active railroad engineer ever
touches liqaor on or off duty. Habit
makes him dislike to introduce any
risk .in his work. He knows that
liquor might tend to befog his mind
some day, and an accident that result
ed therefrom would mean his eternal
ruin. An engineer discharged for
drinking could never hope to find a
position on another railroad.
Dismissal for drinking is the worst
possible thing that could happen to a
railroad man in any position. If he
applies to another road he must fur
nish reference or tell where he was
last employed. His record is then
looked up, and each road furnishes an
other with the correct data required.
If the dismissal has been for drinking,
the applicant is very naturally turned
Yet allowances are made for human
weakness, and if an otherwise good
employe fails once, unless h9 is an
engineer or train-despatcher, he may
receive a reprimand and warning.
He is then placed on trial, and if he
does not repeat his offense he may
be retained indefinitely, Indeed many
men have been-reformed from drink
in this very way. Realizing that their
positions depend upon their sobriety,
they have steadily refused to touch
liquor at all. In this effort to reform
they are mightily helped by their as
sociates. These are all railroad men
who are placed in the same position;
they must live a sober life. Conse
quently the weak than in the number
is encouraged rather than tempted,
and his battle is rendered much
Next to the engineers, the train-de
spatchers are probably the most im
portant employes who must observe
the strict rule of sobriety. The task
of the dispatcher is so difficult that
nothing except a perfectly clear, in
telligent mind can do the work with
out endangering the lives and proper
ty of others. A train-despatcher who
reported for duty with the smell of
whisky about him would instantly be
reported to the general superinten
dent. He would receive a warning
delivered in no unmistakable words,
and the second offense would be fol
lowed by instant dismissal Usually,
however, there is little trouble with
this class, for the train-despatchera
are men of unusual ability and ambi
tion, and they have themselves under
perfect control.
The switchmen and yardmnen have
the greatest temptation to drink of
any employe, and even when on duty
it is easy for them to gratify their
thirst. Consequently there are more
.samissals of these workmen than of
any other grade. This is partly due
to the fact that their work Is very im
portant and critical, and yet, compara
tively speaking it is not paid well for,
and is of a lower grade than that of
the train-despatcher or engineer. It
does not require talent or a high
grade of skill to be a yardman or
switchman, hut the work does demand
clear nmatl and stead nerves. The
switchman who drinks becomes a
menace to the whole rallhed system.
So many accidents, bhave happened
Lhrou the meigseace eo switchaem
hat the ralrads are beconij
IlWtvef rear V with th ss
- i
employees. Some roads have promul
gated orders which absolutely rule
out of the service any man who drinks
at all, and switchmen in particular
have to give their pledge that they do
not touch liruor in any form. In
the opinion of the railroad managers
this seems to be the only absolute
way of obtaining the services of men
who can be depended upon to bring
a clear mind to their work daily.
Meanwhile the grade and pay of the
men are being raised, and better work
men are attracted to the positions.
Railroad managers are pooling their
interests in respect to the drink ques
tion, so that these great corporations
are gradually eliminating the drunk
ard or the drinking man from the rail
road service. Every competent rail
road man understands this, and he
will advise a beginner ambitious to
work up in the service to give up ab
solutely the habit of tippling or drink
ing at home or in public. No man,
however bright, can expect to make a
success'in railroading who is not will
ing to yield to this inexorable rule of
the road. Thus from the highest
down to the lowest, the railroad men
are invariably temperate and sober,
and if they ever had the habit of
drinkkg they have bravely overcome
it. Consequently the force of exam
ple set by this great body of workmen
is far more powerful in its effects than
any preaching or open advocacy of
temperance from a moral point of
view. The railroads demand the
strictest sobriety, and by rigidly en
forcing the rule voluntary teetotalism
is spreading throughout the thousands
and millions of their employes.
Harper's Weewly.
A Wife Made Tidles Out of Her Buas.
band's Beard,
"Speaking of whiskers," said an old
police officer, "I suppose criminals re
sort to the use of whiskers for dis
guising purposes more than to any
other method of concealing their iden
tity. As a matter of fact, a majority
of men who belong to the criminal
class are clean shaven. Go into any
of the offices of the country where they
keep a rogue's gallery, and you will
be impressed by the number of clean
shaven faces you will find among the
crimihals of the country. Whiskers
are sometimes used, of course, by men
whose faces bear unmistakable evi
dences of degeneracy, but as a rule the
men of this class do not wear whiskers
clinics, in the north the placing of
themselves. The frequently use false
whiskers while working their schemes,
and throw them away in an effort to
break a link in the chain that might
lead to their identity. I recall a rather
curious case which developed in a
southern city a few years ago, and
whiskers played a rather curious part
in the business. The president of a
bank had been chloroformed and
robbed in his room at a hotel. Suspi
cion pointed to a young physician who
wore a rather full beard. The police
took the matter up. The next day the
physician who had been spotted ap
peared on the streets without his whis
kers. The police finally went to his
house and he was placed under arrest.
He was asked when be had his beard
shaved off. He said very promptly
that it was on the same evening that
the robbery was committeed. "There
is no secret about the business,' he
said to the police. 'I got my barber to
cut my wh-skers off, and I brought
them home to my wife, as I always do,
and I suppose she has them now.'
'Yes, I have them,' said the wife, who
was in the room at the time, and she
hustled off after a little work basket,
which she kept in her bedroom. 'Here
are the whiskers,' she said on her re
turn. 'You see,' she said, seeing that
the officers were a little pussled, 'my
husband always brings me his whis
kers when he has them cut off, and I
make jittle tidies out of them,' and
she bagn to display ,Le little things
that she had made out of her hus
band's whiskers. The joke was on
the police. They had gone off on a
false trail, and they got out of the
scrape the best way they could. They
apologized rather awkwardly, and the
throw-down was so violent that they
actually quit working on the case, and
they never did find out who robbed the
banker."-New Orleans Times-Demo
A Telephone Meter.
A patent for an invention by which
the actual length of the time that a
telephone is used on any occasion can
be measures, so that the company may
charge the subscriber only for the ac
tual service he has had, has been re
cently obtained by Thomas Baret of
Sydney, New South Wales. A sub
scriber who, in the course of a day,
should use the telephone for an hour
would pay for that length of time, and
not the same amount as another sub
scriber would pay who would perhaps
uze his telephone several hours each
day. The "telephone meter" consists
of a clockwork mechanism which is
quiet when the telephone is not in use.
but which begins to move the moment
the receiver is lifted from the hoo.
and so registers the length of time the
Instrument is employed. The appar-.
tus is so arranged that the up-and
down movement of the lever switch
winds up the clockwork. A dial plate
indicates how long the telephone has
been in use.
Changred ie Luek.
"ter hear how Charley Rogers
changed his luck?"
"No. Did he give you the recipe?"'
"Well, you know how superstitions
he was-always stooping to pick up a
pin, seeing the moon over his right
shoulder, refusing to sit at table with
13, and adopting a mascot to direct all
his movements. Now he has changed
all that."
"What cured him of his foolish
"His ascot. Chaley was pledged
to follow instractions, and he wa drs
dered to look at the new moon over
his left shoulder, walk over stray plas
without picking them aup, cultivate
the 13 number .for luck, and begin
every journey on a Friday. He had
better lauck from the start than he had
ever known, and he has prospered In
every thing ever' R."
"And what became of his maseot?"
"Oh, Be auIed W"PQhiaease agp
leasuring the Micrn¢cople VezeSqtto on
Which Marine Animals ed - There
Are Two General Cla.eos - IMot of the
Water's Deaizeas Solvive on Ilants.
To estimate with any degree of pre
Cisidn the quantity of fish which may
properly be taken from the seae every
year appears to be no easy task. Some
years the yield is better than others,
but this is largely a matter of luck.
It is only after a long series of fall
ures to catch the old time abundance
of mackerel, herring or cod that one
can tell that there is an actual dim
ivution in the production. And even
from statistics of this kind only an
approximate notion can be had of the
right amount to capture in a single
It is believed, however, that there
is a much better way to get at. the re
suit, though it is a trifle circuitous.
In the ocean, as on land, animal life
depends on vegetation for its support.
There are many carnivorous creatures
ir. the water, but the little fishes and
animalculae on which they feed live
on plants. And in the water, as on
land, plants derive their sustenance
from inorganic substances which they
manufacture into living tissue. If,
therefore, such a survey were" made of
the seas as would show how much
vegetation was produced there, then
it might be possible to figure otit the
amount of -animal life that could be
sustained thereby. Thus, it has been
found that an acre of cultivated land
in Prussia will prodpuce about 75
pounds of beef a year. There are nat
uralists who hope to establish a simi
lar ratio between the vegetable and
animal life of the ocean. Karl Brandt,
in a paper which has been translated
for the latest volume of Smithsonian
Reports (1900), tells something about
their'plans and methods.
In the sea there are two general
classes of vegetation. One includes
seaweed, kelp and other plants of con
siderable size, which are found only
along the shore. The other embraces
microscopic organisms, each consist
ing of only a single cell, like the dia
tom, and distributed all over the
ocean, though not flourishing at great
depths. Plants need light, whether
their abode be terrestrial or marine.
Herr Brandt quotes Schutt as saying:
"The sailor, who fancies he has pure
water under him, really sail every
where in the midst of a rich vegeta
tion." And this microscopic vegeta
tion it is which sustains animal life,
and which corresponds to the pastures
where sheep a'll cattle fatten. The
seaweed along the shore bears about
the same relation to the fishes as the
forests do to land animals, 1o far as
furnishing food is concerned.
The growth of terrestrial planfts is
facilitated by the presence of certain
compounds of nitrogen. These same
fertilizers produce the same effect in
the ocean, and owing to drainage from
the land they are more abundant near
shore than out in midocean; but that
they are intimately connected with
the development of animal as well as
vegetable life there is easily proved.
In Germany much attention has been
givcn to raising carp. Susta, who has
written on the subject, says that in
lhe poorest ponds the yield is about
11 pounds of fish to the acre. The
better ponds produce from three to
c:x times as much, whereas still oth
ers, into which liquid fetilizers drain
from farms, give results about 20
times larger than those first cited.
Consequently, in the researches which
are now being conducted into marine
life, the chemistry of the sea water,
as well as the abundance cf micro
scopic vegetable and animal forms, is
carefully considered. Attention is al
so given to the presence of those
species of bacteria which have the
power of pr6moting and retarding the
development of nitrogen compounds.
When one reads about a "plankton"
expedition, he may understand by that
expression a ship which is equipped
with apparatus for bringing up sam
ples of sea water for such an inve'sti
gation as has Just been described. A
net of very fine mesh is employed in
this work, and is so managed
as to bring up a vertical column of
water at cousiderable depth. Pains
are taken to count the various or
ganisms found in a given volume of
fluid. Owing to the !ncessant stirring
up of the sea, figures for one locality
are believed to be fairly representa
tive of a wide area. But an ideal sur
vey of this kind would embrace fre
quent observations through a full
year; and, though work of this kind
has been carried on in all latitudes in
the last doten years, some .f these in
quiries were only for a few months.
Two results have thus far been
reached by such investigations. 31Mi
croscopic vegetable and animal life is
found to be more abundant in shallow
seas than in deep ones. Herr Brandt
accounts for this fact by supposing
that the fertilisirg material from the
land Is less diluted in the former re
gions than in the latter. The other
conclusion which has been reached is
that life is more abundant in arctic
than in tropical waters, thus reversing
the situation which exists on land. To
explain so strange an anomaly, it is
suggested that one nutriment is more
abundant in cold seas than in warm
ones, though just why this should be
so it is not easy to say. Perhaps the
bacteria which favor the production
of nitrogen compounds are more nu
merous in the one zone than in pie
other, or, perhaps, the other kind,
which breaks up and spoils those com
pounds, is in excess in tropical ell
mates. But this Is a point which has
not yet been cleared up.=-New York
DbpsMaie Wuab the Nedlesm.
One day a Berkeley student in one
of ProO L. Dapont Syle's cleeas came
into the recitation room so late that
the Uagiish teacher made a mild re
moastranee at the extreme taritnes
of the youg man.
"Profesor." replied the yoaag fel
low in excusina himself, "my lrateh
was slow. I shall have sno faith In it
after this."
"My dur tallow," smid syle, "what
us ss isd slt si taM but we,.*-.
as se sw
The Weapon I" in the I osesstlon of the
Sor I)epartment.
Col. Calhoun M. Deringer of 1619
Spruce street, takes issue with &r. hi
tect George Plowman on the interest
ing question of Mr. Plowman's owner:
ship of the pistol with which J.
Wilkes Booth killed President Lin
Soon after the assassination of
President McKinley Mr. Plowman was
quoted in the North American as say
ing that he had the Booth weapon
in his possession. He said that after
the shooting of the president, Booth
in his nervous excitement, dropped
his pistol on the stage of Ford's the
atre, Washington.
The stage carpenter picked it up
and kept it for some time. Then he
gave it to George K. Goodwin, man
ager of the playhouse. Mr. Goodwin
and Mr. Plowman were associated in
tee theatrical business for many years,
the latter having designed 20 theatres
and owned several.
When Mr. Goodwin died Mr. Plow
man acted as executor of the estate.
As he declined to accept compensa
tion for his service, Mrs. Goodwin
gave Mr. Plowman the deringer. It
bears a plate inscribed with this
name: "J. Wilkes Booth." The spring
of the trigger has lost much of its
strength and the portion which sets off
the cap is chipped. Otherwise the
historic weapon is in good condition.
Col. Deringer, a member of the fam
ily which for many years manufac
tured the famous weapons bearing
the family name, says that he once
before had occasion to look into the
matter, and that when the Plowman
claim was put forth again he decided
to get official data to back his state
He has just received this letter from
assistant secretary of war;
"Answering your letters of 17th ulti
mo, and 2d instant, in which you re
quest certain information concerning
the pistol with which President Lin
coln was assassinated, I beg to in
form you that the weapon in question
Is in the- office of the judge-advocate
general of the army and has been in
the custody of the war department
since the proceedings of the military
commission which tried the conspir
ators were received for file, the pistol
having been found, just after the
assassination, on the floor' of the box
occupied by the president.
"It does not have the name of
Booth on any part of it, but has the
letter 'P' on the left side of the bar
rel, the words 'Deringer, Philadel.' in
front of the rear sight, and the same
words in the rear of the hammer on
the lock plate."
Speaking of the matter, Col. Derin
ger said: :
"I propose now effectually to settle
this claimant's ambition by my state
ment and the letter which I hand you
for publication from the assistant sec
retary of war to me, which I just re
ceived from him. This full and ex
plicit letter; I presume, will put a
quietous on this claim.
"The facts are that the spurious pis
tol may have been made, as claimed,
at Kreider's gun shop, Second and
Walnut streets, but not the genuine
deringer which shot the president, for
tLat was made at the old factory in
tae Northern Liberties, where all the
Deringer firearrms were made for the
Indian and war departments and indli
viduals, from the year 1806 down to
the death of the ingenious inventor
of the world-renowned rifles and pis
tols familiarly called the deringer.
"The gun barrels are always
stamped 'Deringer, Phila.' on the
breech of the barrel, and on the side
of the lock-plate, as stated by the as
s:stant secretary of war to be on the
pistol in his department. The letter
'P' referred to on the barrel means
'proved,' and was always stamped on
each barrel after they were tested and
proved. There is a little cap box in
the butt of the pistol. When I exam
ined it there were only percussion
caps in it, left there by Booth, that
had not been used."-Philadelphisa
North American.
Fire From the Modern Pulpit.
In equipping that house of worship
in Portsmouth, O., with a telephone,
and hanging a fire alarm card on the
pulpit, the pastor hqs shown that he
is prepared for one of the leading
emergencies in a country town. In
places where fires are not frequent the
ringing of an alarm arouses general
attention and a gooddeal of incidental
excitement, and this is apt to prove
a serious interruption to Sunday ser
vices. The pastor in questi,:n is now
prepared to relieve the anhiety of his
hearers in short order, and In mo.t
instances the services can proceed
without the loss of a single listener.
The matter will be managed in a
very simple manner. When the alarm
bell is heard the pastor at once asus
pends the service and reaches for his
card. "Did you catch it, Brother
Brown?" he inquires of some sharp
eared liatener. "Yes, thank you, 2-5-.
That's what I made It. One moment,
please. It's at the corner of Darwt
street and Tyndall avenue. Now I'll
call up the Bfire exchange. Hello. Fire
exchange, please. Yes. Is this the fire
exchange? What does that box 2-52-5
amount to? Farm? Oh, barn. Small
fire, eh? All out? What's that? Ten
dollars' loss? Thank you. Ooodby."
Then the pastor briefly conveys this
information to the congregation and
the services proceed--Clevelaad Plain
Maims'. Steopied Teseameut Woeso.
There is a unique tenement house in
Guilflord. Years a the old Univer
salist church in that place was aban
doned as a place of worship and it
tell into the &ands of several owners
who converted it into a large dwelling
house by the alterationa simply of the
interior. Stairways were Llaced oa the
outside, leading to the uptair tone
meats, but beyond these exterfor ad
ditions the church retaiaed all Its
former appearances of a "meetlng
sese" ad is known locay as "the
charch." The high steeple and its
weather vae added little ornamenat
and so usefulnes to this rather odd
dwellng hoase, but they contined to
occqpy this exalted iaconurume pa
staon until a weei Is, whe the ear
Peate tee daown hs ad this
old sadnesrk r"Plmwhta" but, a
vera i ets p ,- wtstem (Ue, Jewr
State G oernmt of Loilia.il
Governor-W. WV. Hirard,
Liuntenant-Oovernor-Albert Eato
Secretary of State-John Michel.
Superintendent of Educastion--Jobs
V. OCalhoun.
Auditor-W. 8. Frazee.
Treasurer--Ledonx E. Smith.
Don Caffirey and 8. D. McEnery.
1 Dimtrict-It. C. Davey.
t Distrie--Adolph Joyer.
8 District-R. F. lrosuard.
4 District-P. l:razojlsM.
5 Distriot-.. E. 1 enw,,I.l1.
6 District-. . M. ltohin.on.
41 re,,, sud aalsuel
an n over the
S atkow we
-~ e eal ommey. and they ksm
Ra oWiAIn & I Iill,
eosGsaecthgat his with
re tr nof the o .Ge
tral fsulrsad for
Cairo, St. Louis, Chicgo, Cmn
oinnati, Louilvills,
aking diract ona.oottoa with through
traine for all poisto
aoleading Buralo, Pittmburg, Oleve
land, Bostoa, New York, Philadelphia.
Baltimore, Riihamond, St. Psan, Kin.
aspoli, Omaha, lanma City, Hot
Bpzmg, Ark., mad Denver. Oloso
- tDaw l for
seasseties :t 0h0g :th Cotrl
and the Wet. fPar of ag
at the t. & L V. d esmestia ine s
Wn. xMnamr, Div. Pv. Agt.,
New Orleena
mino. A. Sodi, Div. Pit. Agt.,
BA. i. lansm, o. P. A..
W-. Arkdn Den. Pe. A. ,
*eoooo**ooo* *eeee******e
* *
* 1s imsead atl about itCientr
STimles Democrat
Covering every item of news a
furnished the New York *
* World, New York, ,Joslal,
* Aisocated Prao and Statf *
Br dealer~,pts or D rect to
W. . IMaEp*DEn, e ol i APT. *
North aud South.f
t hla kh, i nTigas 4-ta l, s
or. Y... aD: . lt.,
Jam 0k7,let, Ws erni
l lo eSstel h ans- e
sese asa · e
· Wwd, carrYor Jowio *

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