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FACTORS IN ROAD BUILDING Necessity Emphasized in Giving Great, est Consideration to AU Local Conditions. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) Theory is simply the sign post that points the way in road building, while judgment is the vehicle on which the journey is dependent, says a pub lication on "The Design of Public Roads" by the United States depart ment of agriculture. The publication emphasizes the necessity of giving the greatest con sideration to all local factors in road construction. In order to furnish the kind of roads that a community wants and to furnish them with the least possible drain on the public treasury, the person who designs them must be thoroughly familiar with local condi tions and must possess the Judgment necessary to weigh the importance of all considerations. The publication makes no attempt to state definite and exact rules for designing roads to suit every locality but takes up sep arately the important features of the problem with a view to showing the variations in current practice and the Influence of some special conditions with regard to each feature. In order to select the type of sur face best adapted to the need of a particular road, it is necessary to con sider first, the class of traffic to which the road will be subjected, and second, to compare the estimated ulti mate cost of the different surface types which would be capable of sat isfactorily caring for that particular class of traffic. The number of roads for which accurate traffic and effi ciency records have been kept is said to be insufficient to warrant definite conclusioris as to the best type for any particular class of traffic, but the following summary is said to contain about as definite information on this point ns can be drawn from available records. (a) Earth roads, when properly maintained, are satisfactory in dry weather for a light Tolume of all kinds of highway traffic. (b) Sand-clay roads are the same as earth roads, except that the sur facing material has been selected care fully with a view to increasing the stability of the surface in both wet and dry weather. They are satisfac tory for a moderate traffic of horse drawn vehicles and a light traffic of automobiles. They seldom are satis factpry for even a light traffic of heavy trucks unless the roadbed ma terial is very stable. (c) Gravel roads, when well built, are satisfactory for a heavy traffic of P? ? : : V riW&V&i ■< >•>■•' M Brick or Concrete Roads Are Econom ical if There is Considerable Heavy Traffic. horse-drawn vehicles, n light traffic of automobiles, and n light traffic of heavy trucks. (d) Water-bound macadam roads are adapted to the same general char acter of traffic as gravel roads. (e) Surface-treated macadam roads are adapted especially for a heavy traffic of automobiles. They also are satisfactory for a light traffic of horse-drawn vehicles and heavy trucks. In all cases they require con stant maintenance. (f) Bituminous roads are suitable for a heavy traffic of both automobiles and horse-drawn vehicles and a mod erate traffic of heavy trucks. (g) 'Concrete roads are adapted to the same general class of traffic as bituminous roads, and generally are capable of withstanding the traffic of somewhat heavier vehicles without in jury. (h) Brick roads are adapted to the «nrae general class of traffic as con crete roads. Either brick or concrete roads, however, may be economical for only moderate traffic where other road-building materials are scarce. COSTS LITTLE TO FIX ROADS Expense of Beautifying Highway in Front of Farm Buildings Is Com paratively Small. If costs comparatively little to fix op. or even beantify the road in front of the farm buildings—and how much ' ft helps the. looks and general appear ance of the place! It costs but little more to have the road so far as It bor der* the farm not only free from un sightly weeds and rubbish, but well graded. AMERICAN AMBULANCES READY FOR WORK > - i/f mm v.r. ... American ambulances in France In front of an infirmary ready to leave for the front. ITALIAN FIRMS AIDED GERMANY * Silk, Cotton and Rubber Shipped to Enemy Through Switzerland. LLOYD GEORGE IS BLAMED Contraband Trade Declared to Have Been Foetered by British Tariff— Warnings Go Unheeded by Italian Government Rome.—The scandal resulting from the exposure of the part played by the Milanese Silk company In supply ing great quantities of silk waste to Germany Is spreading. The govern ment la now la possession of Indispu table evidence that not only silk waste but large quantities of cotton and rub ber have found their way into Ger many from Italy since the war, form ing a material aid to the enemy in the manufacturé of war materials. Signor Glretti, the radical deputy, has published an article. In which he points out that not only Italy hut all the allies have been remiss In con trolling exports to neutral countries. He urged the Italian government in July, 1915, to prevent the export of silk to Germany, but it was not pro hibited until August, 1916, while the prohibition of silk exports to Switzer land did not come into operation until October, 1916. As to the contraband trade in silk. Signor Giretti blames Lloyd George for having, through lack of actual Informa tion on the question, imposed restric tions on the import of Italian silk into England, thus providing the Italian Germanophiles with a splendid anti British argument. It Is now certain that besides silk waste enormous consignments of cot ton have been supplied to Germany from Italy, where trading with the enemy was organized on such a vast scale that it is inconceivable how so much time passed before it was de tected and repressed. Controlled by German«. Judging from the number of silk and cotton merchants arrested in north Italy It Is evident that both the silk and cotton industries were practically under German control and that the greater part of the output of the prin cipal firms was sent to Germany and utilized in war industries there. Before the war about three hundred tons of silk waste were exported from Italy to Switzerland every year. In 1915 Italian silk exports to Switzer land increased to about nine hundred GIRL SCOUT DECORATED Ruth Colman, a sixteen-year-old Washington high school girl, has been decorated*by Mrs. Wilson with a gold en eaglet, the highest honor awarded by the girl scout organization. Miss Colman is the third girl to receive this honor, the aquirement of 22 proficiency badges being necessary to earn ihe coveted golden eaglet j ] j * tons and in the following year to 5,200 tons. Although the Italian silk was exported to a neutral country, still Its ultimate destination was Germany, where It was needed in the manufac ture of charges for artillery, airplane wings and airship envelopes. The trade continued until a few weeks ago. During the first 12 days of February 142 tons of raw silk, cotton and flax were sent to Germany via Switzerland. It has been said that the silk waste spinning companies were enabled to trade with the enemy because nobody suspected that silk waste could be utilized by the Germans In war Indus tries, and in fact silk waste was ex ported to Germany not only from Italy but from France as welL Warnings Unheeded. Strangely enough there were intelli gent people who warned the govern ment and strived to open the eyes of the under secretary of state Of the ministry of finance, Signor Basllni, who presided over the special commit tee that authorized exportations, that silk waste was being Msed in Germany for war industries. Signor Piecaluga, who warned Signor Basllni In April, 1916, was told that "it would be use less to forbid the exportation of silk waste as in any case if the Germans FRENCH PRAISE VALOR OF YANKS * Victory of Pershing Men at Secti eprey May Become Historic. MANY DEEDS OF HEROISM Actions of Soldiers In Fight Fully in Accord With the Finest Ameri can Traditions—One Kills Fifteen Huna. With the American Army in France. —The shell-tom village of Seicheprey appears to be destined to hold a proud place in the story of American partici pation in the world war. As further details of the engagement there be come known there are disclosed deeds which are fully in accord with the finest American traditions. The correspondent is now permitted to tell of a few cases of individual he roism, which will convey an idea as to the mettle of the men. One of them, David Griggs of East Hampton, Conn., passed through the enemy bar i rage at least seven times to carry am munition to his hard-pressed com ! rades. Twice he was partly buried ■ by earth upturned by shells falling all around him, but he kept at his . task. I Griggs, who is nineteen years old. Is ! so modest that he would not tell his ! story, bnt insisted on speaking of the j bravery of others. Finally one of his comrades pointed him out and said : "That is the bravest man in the j regiment." Twice Blown Off Road. Raymond A. Ferris of Bedford, ! Mass., acting ns a courier, was blown I off the road twice by the concussion : of shells. Although stunned and near : ly crazed by the Intensity of the gun fire. when he reached the point in the ; rear of the lines to which he was . sent for ammunition, he carried out j his orders. Then he asked for a re j volver, saying he wanted to go out and fight the Germans, but he faint ed from exhaustion. When he regain ed consciousness his first words were,, inquiry whether his message had been delivered. Charles Sinkler. a Philadelphia law yer. who Is now with the Red Cross, and was In the thick of the fighting, told the correspondent of two Ameri cans who. armed only with automatic pistols, charged an enemy machine gun. killed eight Germans and cap tured the gun. It Is also related that one American sharpshooter killed 15 j Germans. In a village a short distance behind ] the front line Gladys and Irene M«v Intyre, sisters, of Mount Vernon, N. Y., were deprived of it they would dis cover something else to replace it." Signor Baslinl In an interview later disclaimed all responsibility, but ad mitted that he was related by mar* riage to the chairman of the board of directors of the Silk Waste Spinning company, which traded most exten sively with Germany. Signor Bonacassa, a member of par liament, was a prominent shareholder and member of the board of directors of the Silk Waste Spinning company. The Silk Waste Spinning e mpany was one of the most flourishing con cerns in Italy and practically monopo lized the silk waste industry. There Is every reason to believe Unit contraband with Germany could not have been so well organized if it had not been a labor of love or at least of gratitude for previous financial assist ance given by Germany. Nearly every German industrial concern in Italy had an Italian name and often an Italian partner. When war broke out Italo Gennan industrial concerns were transformed into apparently essential ly Italian firms. BROTHERS OVER THERE, GIRL TWINS WANT TO GO New York.—Lucille and Gene vieve Baker, nineteen-year-old twins, of Brooklyn, are not sat isfied with having two brothers "over there." They presented themselves at the barge office with the request that they be enlisted in the coast guard. Lieut. L. C. Fnrwell explained that they were not using women to gnard piers and warehouses Just yet. But the twins refused to consider themselves formally rejected until similar assurances had been given by Captain Car den, commanding officer. They left the office disappointed, but hopeful of going to France as government telephone operators or stenographers. Students Quit German. Martinsburg, \Y. V a—Clean-cut Americanism is preferable to a high school diploma for the seniors and Juniors of the Hedgesville high schooL They flatly refuse to continue the study of German, despite the threats of the school authorities. Hogs Bring Big Price. Charleston, Miss.—Forty-four head of pure-bred Duroc-Jersey hogs were recently sold here for $18,415, an aver age of $419 per head. Salvation Army representatives, dur ing the height of the engagement hand ed out coffee, chocolate, doughnuts, and much good cheer to the soldiers. They went on with their work while the shells were falling all around them and would not leave until at last they were ordered to do so. Now they are called "daughters of the regiment." At another point near the front a middle-aged, motherly woman, also of the Salvation Army, is braving the German shells to dispense comforts to the men. "I had to come to France," she said, "to find out what wonderful boys we raise In America." Unstinted praise for the valor and steadfastness of the American troops during the German attack at Seiche prey Is given by the French troops on the same front. This admiration for the fighting qualities of his transat lantic comrades is demonstrated in a report sent to the general command ing by the colonel of a French Infan try regiment which took port In the Seicheprey engagement. "1 visited Renneres wood after the counter-attack in which the position was recaptured and examined the sit uation in detail," says the report. "Everywhere traces of hand-to-hand fighting show that the American sol diers, despite two hours of heavy bom bardment by large caliber guns, de fended themselves valiantly. "In the vicinity between the front trenches and the communication trench connecting the Judy and Ren neres woods, two American machine gunners died fighting on their weap ons after covering the ground around with German dead. The enemy suf fered great losses, thanks to this he roic resistance. "Everywhere there are signs of Ger man wounded having been carried off. while many German bodies remain be cause the retiring enemy was unable to remove them. Numbers of the dead belong to German storming detach ments." Numerous hand-to-hand combats were fought in the course of this long struggle, from which the Americans found themselves obliged to retire to wurd nightfall, bnt only after destroy . __.._____ _ ™ ^ In Seicheprey a squad of Americans found several cases of grenades, with which, they succeeded in putting up a terrific tight and holding out the entire day on the northern extremity of tho village. They refused to surrender when summoned to do so. At the end of the fighting only nine of the original twenty-three were left An American lieutenant with only six men patrolled 600 yards of the front during the entire day and main tained communication with the bat talions on his right and left HEART OF BRITISH EMPIRE Coed Reasons Why Trafalgar Square, in London, Has Been Given That Appellation. Trafalgar square has been called the heart of the British empire, the most truly English spot in London. It is rot of Leicester square or of Picca dilly that London Tommy dreams, but of Trafalgar square, with the statue of Nelson in the center. The statue on the slender column is England's best-loved hero. The figure of Nelson, three times the natural size, is reared 145 feet in the air, with Landseer's four lions of bronze at the base. Many of the i^ost important build ings of the city are grouped around the square. The National gallery, with its art collection, faces the Nelson col umn. The collection was begun in 1824 and is one of the finest in the world. In the upper part of the square is the church of St. Martins-in-the Ficld, where Nell Gwyn lies buried. This last bit of information is apt to interest the visitor more than the fact that Bacon was christened at the church's altar. The column stands at the crossing of some of the most famous streets in London. Charles the First walked down Whitehall to his execution. The Strand, branching from the square, is the main artery of the city as well as the favorite meeting place of the peo ple. Bustling, noisy, crowded, fond ly believed by Londoners to be bread. It Is the busiest street in the empire. The principal shops and many of tti hotels are on this street BUILT BY ORDER OF CZAR City of Harbin, Railway Center and Military Depot, Has Also Become Great Flour Center. The city of Harbin was built to or der for the one-time czar of all the Russins, who, in constructing the Trans-Siberian railway, found that he needed the little village of Harbin as a railway center and military depot. Only a little diplomatic juggling was required, and the village began to grow up and expand before the puzzled eyes of its peaceful inhabitants. The new Harbin did not absorb the old part, but was built beside it. so that the farmers still continue to raise their millet and wheat untroubled by diplo macy and troop maneuvers. There are few Chinese and almost no foreigners In the city. Russia dis courages alien immigration, and by agreement with China, only Russians and Chinese are allowed to hold land, construct houses or have any perma nent business Interests in Harbin. Russian railroad officials and workers and Russian colonists and troops are the chief residents of the entire neigh borhood. Harbin Is called the "flat city." be cause of its position in the level val ley of the Sungari river, with moun tains protecting it on east and west. It is the flour center of the East. The fields are covered with grain, and down on the Sungari river front Manchu coolies load endless junks with flour ground in the modérn mills of the city. His Use for Bryant's Portrait Actors are reverent souls, and what they do not know about the men that have made our poetry and set down for the rest of us the thoughts that we had Dot the time to utter, is of lit tle moment It is a tale of long ago that the fair-wigged George Rignold, who played Henry the Fifth in 1875, and created a tremendous upheaval among theater-goers all over the coun try, was seated one night in his dress ing room when a caller appeared. A portrait of the patriarchal looking William Cullen Bryant was tacked up over the mirror. "Ab, Iîlgnoîd," sa!d the visitor, 'Tra glad to admire cur poet Bryant." "Bryant? Who's be?" "Why—why—don't you know? That's his portrait you have there." "Is that old file a poet?" Rignold asked. "Gad! I didn't know. I got him for a study in wrinkles." A Raise In Wages. Everybody likes to have his wages raised, and everybody feels a little thrill of pride when he is told he is going to be paid more for his work. Did you ever figure It out that you were being paid wages when you go to school, and can have them raised every month if you want to? Sure. You study, and that's work. You get paid for your work in knowledge. Sup pose this month you bring home a re port card which shows you have been only fair in arithmetic. That's not bad. But you want your wages raised. So you work a little harder and next month the report is good Instead of fair. You've had a salary increase. That's the only way to look at IL— From the American Boy. How Finns Keep W2rm. In many ways the Finns are a very queer people, as is Illustrated by the Christian Herald. It is during the f iribly cold months that the Finns revel in the mighty ovens that fill one corner of every kitchen and often loom up large and vastly impressive in the other rooms of a Finn home as well. The tops of these monster stoves are perfectly flat and steps lead up on one side. When the weather becomes bitter!.' cold and bleak, the entire family wil take quilts and pillows and, mountin' to the top of the Mg heater, sprea down their bedding and sleep ve* comfortably and contentedly on t! hard, hot bricks until morning. ISf a" '$) w AYRSHIRE IS GOOD RUSTLER Animal Is Quite Useful in Sections Where There Is Much Rough Land in Pasture. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) The Ayrshire breed originated In the county of Ayr, in southwestern Scot land. In that region, which borders on tlie Irish 8eu, the surface is rolling and has much rough woodland. Pas tures, therefore, are somewhat sparse and it Is necessary for animals to graze large areas in order to obtain sufficient feed. It is only within the last hundred yeurs that Ayrshire» have had a type well enouga established to be entitled to the designation of breed. This breed is not well known in many sections of the United States— New England. New York and Penn sylvania probably contain the largest number of its representatives. There is a small distribution In the Middle Atlantic States, the Pacific Northwest and other scattered sections. The color of this breed varies from the medium red to very dark mahog any—brown and white. The cattle i ' J m* An Ayrshire Which Won World's Record for Milk Production. have long horns which turn outward, then forward, then upward. Quick, brisk actions are characteristic of the animals which seem always to have an abundant store of energy, and to be exceptionally alert- Ayrshires have a highly nervous disposition, which is useful both for' production and self support. Probably none of the other dairy breeds can compare with the Ayrshires in ability to obtain a liveli hood on scant pastures. Their ability as "rustlers" lias made them very use ful in sections where there is much rough land in pasture. Cows of this breed average 1,000 pounds in weight, and bulls average about 1,600. Another point of which breeders of the Ayrshire are very proud is the uniform, square, level udder with long body attachment which is common among the cows. Milk from Ayrshire cows contains comparatively little color and h»s the fat in uniformly small globules which average smaller in size than for any other breed. The milk stands shipping well without churning, and in (*her respects it is well adapted to the mar ket milk trade. For Ayrshires the average of the 2,598 cows that have completed year ly records for advanced registry is 9,555 pounds of miik testing 3.95 per cent of butterfat. amounting to 377.51 pounds of fat. The ten highest inllk producers of this breed range from 25,329 to 18,745 pounds of milk and the average of these ten highest pro ducer* is 21,588.8 pounds of milk. The ten highest butterfat producers among Ayrshires range from 955.56 to 744.?.'! pounds, with an average, for these ten, of S55.4 pounds of butterfat. INCREASED MILK PRODUCTION Supplies Food Material More Econom ically Than Meat or Eggs— Efficient Dairy Cow, (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) Two facts stand out prominently as reasons for the increased production and use of milk. The first Is that miik as purchased on the market usually supplies food materia! togeth er with the growth producing elements more economically than either meat-or eggs. The second reason Is that the dairy cow is the most economical pro ducer of animnl food. One great law of food conservation is to turn Inedible feeds into edible foods in the cheap est possible manner. The dairy cow will utilize coarse materials. Inedible by humans, such ns grass, cornstalks,' bay. etc., and will turn them Into milk, which is suitable for human food. Other farm animals also »re convert ers of coarse roughage Intn^eJWblo foods, l ut are not so dairy cow. singly COWS GIVEN FEED AND CARE If Prefit Is Net Returned Sïnd Her lo Shambles and Give Feed to One That Will. Give the cows a chance. Feed and care for them properly. If an animal does not have it in her to return a profit or evin pay for the feed given nere st-tid h*r to the *1 iambics and rive the feed to cat* that will.