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The Mary Banner Subscription Prioe, $1.00. THE INTEREST OF THE WHOLE PEOPLE IS UNDIVIDED AND INDIVISIBLE. VOL. XVI. Slng»*> Copies, Five Cent% = ~-=- ^ _________ - « ssa» FRANKLIN, LA., SATURDAY, DECEMBER 17, 190+ NO, +0 RADIUM AND SOLAR HEAT. DISCOVERY THROWS NEW LIGHT UPON EARTH'S AGE. Combustion Cannot Account for the Output of the Heat From the Sun'— Radiative Processes Afford a Bet ter Explanation. Tho discovery oV radio activity makes it necessary to reconsider our estimates cf the time during which the earth can have been fitted fer abode of living beings. Consider first the sun's heat. We kaow that the sun is incandescent— that it is a glowing white lvot body. R has been giving off beat for count less ages. Now, how can this heat •apply be kept up? Why does the •on not cool down, owing to the loss of its primeval heat? The most obvious answer would be fh»t this does net happen, but that •be cooling of so large a body is too glow to be noticeable even in very leng periods of time. That might leem at first sight to be a plausible *>Iution enough. But calculation con clusively proves that it is insufficient. The heat which is stored up in the white hot body would very scon be exhausted if it gave out heat at any IWng like the rate the sun does. •" .The same reason prevents our sup posing that combustion can account . for the output of solar heat. r Until lately the theory advanced by Von Helmhcltz has held the field. He showed that if the sun was as •àmed to be steadily contracting to «nailer dimensions, if, in fact, the ' aster parts were assumed to be fall tag down cn the inner ones, enough heat would be generated in the process to account for the observed output for a considerable period. The contrac tion which it would he necessary to •postulate is too small to be detected even by the most careful observations on the sun's diameter which can be Dade. It will readily be understood that calculations of this kind are affected by considerable sources cf uncertain ty, but when due allowances have been made for these it seems impos sible to admit that this source of heat oan keep up the supply for more than •ay, fifty million years. Indeed, very high authority puts it lower than that. \ Fifty million years is a long time, lodged by human standards. But there are strong reasons for regard tag it as an insufficient allowance. .'These are partly geological, partly * «»logical. ' The earth's surface is composed, in fhe main, of stratified rocks, that is, •t layers of consolidated mud, depos ited one on top of the other. These layers extend to an enormous thick ■«8, as we are able to see when we ine cases where some of the low m ones have been brought to the ce by upheaval. We can ferm ate idea of the gigantic period IPMch the deposition of these layers s**uld take if we examine case where ike process is now in operation. The 'Revalent opinion Is that fifty million jetrg quite an insufficient allow ance of time. Albut the very lowest the stratified rocks (and perhaps «W n the very lowest) contain fossils, |Wtt it is certain that the earth's sur ■fcce was fitted for the abode of ani life at the time they were de ited. In other words, its tempera te cannot have been widely differ from what it now is, and the sun have been shining then with h the same brillancy that it does else that geological evidence ana to require a much older age the sun's heat than it has been Ible to account for. Zoology points in the same direc Consider the extraordinary plexity of structure of the bodies the higher animals, and especially the human body; consider further fact that not the slightest essen alteration of development of that ture has been observed to take during historical periods, and Will be admitted that no small al ee of time Is required Cor the tnian process of natural selec by which the most complicated of life are believed to have developed from the simplest. Now that the development of heat mdic-active change has been re itaed it is possible to understand w the sun's heat can have continu fp fcr much longer periods than were icrly intelligible, for the present ®t of solar heat would be t-clera well accounted for if the sun con '®d as much radium as pitchblende The radium present at any mo would, it i3 true, have only a life; it is necessary to as the constant evolution of ra or of some other radio • element unknown to us, as in blende and other similar miner A thousand million years heat without improbability be thus ac ted for. hypothesis that radioactive pro are at work in the sun is not her without confirmation, we have no direct proof of it, helium is abundant in the sun; helium is, so far as we know, es ly a product of radioactive »^National Review, *" in as tx> for to his led is of MINNESOTA'S WEALTH OF IRON. Unparalleled Source of Supply Estab lishing America's Leadership. The Mesabi range of wooded hills, sixty miles from the norther shore of Lake Superior, contains the de posits of iron ore which have given America supremacy in iron and steel. Twelve years ago, says an interesting account in World's Work, the first shipment cf this ore or "sand" was made. Today the shipments are 13, 000,000 tons in the season of seven months. A sixth of the world's iron ore product and a third of ours ceme« from this place. This is the only place in the world where there are fields of iron ore to be entered on and plowed as a field is for agricultural products. Instead of mines there aro here simply open fields; instead of blocks of black reck there is a soil of red and yellow dust, with here and thera a patch of pebbles. It look« like a rusty bed of sand and gravel; It la high-grade iron ore. A few feet of soil, with growing trees, cover it. These are "cleared" just as the far mer clears a field, and then the soil is plowed up and carried off, and the "mine" is ready. A steam engine on the surface, guided by one man, works a shovel that scoops up five tons at a time and dumps it into a railroad train along side. This takes place ten times in three minutes,, ajid a carload is "mined." Tracks, of course, are laid anywhere temporarily, as in a gravel pit. There is room on the different terraces of an eighty-acre field or "mine" for a hundred steam shovels to work at once. The deposit ranges from seventy-five to two hundred feet in depth, in some cases as deep as 524 feet. Five of the mines here pro duce together 7,000,000 tons a year, which is nearly Spain's annual pro duct and a half more than France's. The cost of getting this ore has been as lew as 12 to 10 cents a ton, and seldom exceeds 30 cents. It is laid down at Lake Erie docks at 75 cents to $1 a ton more than the actual cost of transportation, plus royalty of the fee owner. The business has created at Duluth, Superior and Two Harbors the largest ore docks in the world, one at Su perior being 2,100 feet long, from which as much as 80,000 tons hat« been loaded in twenty-four hours. Last year a steamer got her load of 5,400 tons in thirty minutes and twen ty eeaonds. The iren ore traffic alone through the Sco canal equals the total annual tonnage of the Suez canal. But the field is remarkable not only for what it yields, but for what it has to yield. There is in sight a billion tons of ere, CO per cent, of which is cf Bes semer grade, and it has the greatest volume of reserved ore in the world. The United States Steel Company produces CO per cent, of the output and the Great Northern Railroad controls several hundred millions of tons. And yet our iron and steel in dustry must be "protected" against the pauper product of Europe by a fierce tariff. AN EGG-SHELL GARDEN. Just How to Manage a Novel Easy Experiment. and It is easy to have an egg-shell garden. Carefully cut off the end of the egg for about one-third cf it3 length, treating it with more respect than the cook does, for she breaks it in two in the middle by cracking it on the edge of a cup. Fill the shell with gcod earth, and plant almost any seed that you like. If the plant food supplied in tablets by Nature and Science is used, the shells may be filled with sawdust or with gravel. Plants artificially fed in sawdust do not seem to require so many roots as when they grow in soil. With the limited space in the egg-shell, saw dust and the plant food are therefora preferable to soil. It is not difficult tx> have plants grow in sawdust until they are more than two feet high, al though there is so little space in the shell for her roots. To support these unique, round-bot tomed "flower pot"," it will be found convenient to have a board with holes bored in it just large enough to have the egg-shells, set firmly, one in each hole. Don't get the holes too near together. Punch a small hole down through the shell for drainage.— From "Nature and Science," in St. Nicholas. .A Kerean Custom. In some parts of Korea and among some Korean families it is the custom for bridegrooms to dwell under the roofs of their fathars-in-law until the first son has been born and attained to years of maahood. Should any Ko rean, however, stay in the house ol his bride's people for more than three days after his wedding, he is compel led to stay for an entire year. The Sultan announces that lie it going to pay his "debts with willing ness." We do not know whether thii is any improvement over his old plai of payiaf the» with promises. JAPS' LITTLE BULLETS. WOUNDS ONCE CONSIDERED MORTAL HEAL RAPIDLY. Russian Injured Bless the Little Bul lets of Japanese—Astonishing Re coveries from the Effect of Gunshot Wounds in tha Manchurian Cam paign. The St. Petersburg correspondent of the Ijondon Telegraph gives some astonishing accounts of the effect of the Japanese bullets as shown by the condition of the Russian wounded. The Japanese have merited well of their enemies, he says, for their hu manity in dealing death on the battle field. Their bullets, say the Russian surgeons, are, if not precisely harm less. at least thé next best thing to that—they form the mildest kind of missile that has ever yet been hurled from a rifle. One of the consequences is that a number of wounds which were formerly mortal are now healed and forgotten in a few days. Another is that the number of Russians who quit the hospital for the battlefield is greater than was ever witnessed in any war before. Blessings on the little Japs for their tiny little bullets, say the Cossacks and Caucasians. "In the sanitary train we have as tounding cases of wounds healed." writes a surgeon; "the character of the hurt surprises us, and as for tho rapidity with which the soldier recov ers. well, it is hard to ask any one to believe it who has not actually seen it. '// "Wounds caused by bullets which enter the chest and go out through the back are of frequent occurrence. The patients recover rapidly. Take, for instance. Private Kurtoff, of the Third Fast Siberian Rifles. He was shot a Wafangbow on June 15. The bullets entered his lungs. For less than ten days blood was detected in his saliva, but soon all symptoms had gone, the wounds were cicatriced, and the brave warrior is himself once more and back on the field as active as ever. Private Kules had a hole made in his liver, but he. too. has al ready begun to forget that he ever had a wound there. On the same bat tlefield a private of the Thirty-fourth East Siberian Regiment named Bulga koff received a mild Japanese bul let, which passed through one of his ] lungs and his diaphragm, injured his liver and went out at the spinal col umn. He was picked up. cared for and cured, and now he is on his way to Russia to take a rest. "Vilkovitch is the name of a *ol dier of the Third East Siberian Regi ment who has had a wonderful experi ence to look back upon. His bullet found Its billet when he was lying be hind the intrenchments at Wafang Icow. on June 15. It cut its way through his shoiilderb'ade, passed through his lungs, penetrated the dia phragm and the abdomen, damaged the intestines and went out. The sol dier was a fortnight under treat ment and is now on ttie war path once a more." A medical investigator called upon a captain who had been in the thick of the fight and had lost all his young er officers, non-commissioned officers and 140 privates, between May 31 and July 15, and asked him for informa tion. "I am lost in wonder." he remarked to the captain, "at the miraculous way in which our fellows rise from the dead, as it were. They recover from wounds which are officially mor tal. Now, I want you to tell me. are these exceptional cases that I have been studying, or have you anything like them?" "The Japs fire accurately." was the answer; they often hit our men in the head, but when the bullets pass clean through, many of the men get well." "Curious. Well, and how do they fare when the bullet strikes them in the abdomen? You know a hurt in the peritoneum almost infallibly brings on peritonitis and death. And yet we are transporting men who were wounded in that very region and are now hale and hearty." "I suppose that moans only that they were wounded while they had been long fasting. If a man .gets a bullet in the peritoneum on a full stomach he will probably not live to enjoy many more meals. Anyhow, I can tell you that whoever gets one of our bullets either in the abdomen or the fcead won't worry much in this vale of tears." "How do you account for the dif ference In the results?" "I attribute it to their funny bul lets, which have a different mantle from ours. Theirs is more compact. But if you take it and rub it ever so little on a stone, then it's deadly. But besides the quality of the casting there is the size of the bullet itself. Compared with ours it is tiny, and its velocity is considerably greater. Our magazine rifle (1891 model) takes a bullet of three lines, and imparts to it an initial velocity of 6200 metres; whereas the Jap rifles (model 1897) have a 2.5-line bullet with an initial velocity of 725 metres. The Japanese bullet only penetrates the tissub, but flçea Dot tear It, just as a bullet fired ] from a rifle may make a hole in a window pane without shattering tho glass. When passing through the ab domen it inflicts the minimum of dam age. its chief effect being to expand the muscles of the peritoneum, which quickly contract, closing the oriflco and thus saving the injured man from peritonitis and death." THE WANDERING ALBATROSS. Sometimes Measures Seventeen Feet From Tip to Tip. Of all the strange creatures seen by travelers not the least interesting is the wandering albatross. This great. feathered wanderer sometimes meas tiring seventeen feet from tip to tip of his wings, will follow a ship for days at a time. Some travelers and sailors declare that they have seen a particular bird fly for weeks at a time without ever being seen to alight upon the waves. It not merely follows the ship, but wheels in great circles around it and above it. high in the air, as if to show that, it is not t>'d. Sometimes the bird will he set n to hang in the air with its wings apparently motion less and the sailors say that then it is asleep. Not only 1n pleasant weather will the albatross follow a ship for days and weeks, hut through the most ter rific storms it will continue its un tiring flight. In fact, to find an al batross othmvise than on the wing is like finding a weasel asleep. Once a year the female albatross flies away a few thousand miles to the great lonely island rock of Tris- j tan d'Acunha, which lifts its desolate ! head far in the South Atlantic, or to some equally rtrr.ote place, and there lays one egg in the hollow of a rock. The albatross has always been a bird of mystery, and in ancient times the people believed that these tin- j wearying sea birds were the compan-i ions of the Greek warrior Diomedes, ! who were said to have been changed into birds at the death of their chief. I When America was discovered and ships began to sail abroad to the Pa-1 <Mfic ocean, to double the Cape of Good Hope and to explore the "seven! seas" generally, the old belief about the albatross had been forgotten by; the sailors »nd explorers, but in their long and lonesome voyages over waters which were cut by no keel but their own. and upon whose vast ex panse they saw no other sail but tàeirs, the presence of the albatross following the ship day after day be came a great source of comfort and companionship. So it came to be a belief that ill-luck would follow 'any one who killed one of these birds; and that belief is common among sea faring men to this very day. Coe ricige's famous "Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner" is based upon this belief. Though the superstition about the killing of an albatross bringing bad luck is only a foolish one, it has served as a useful purpose for many years in preventing the slaughter of these beautiful and gallant birds—the sailors' friends and the landsmen's sailors' friends and the landsmen's wonder. Up in dreary Kamchatka, that out lying part of Siberia which cuts into the North Pacific, the natives, never having heard of the superstition about the albatross, catch him and eat him. But his flesh makes such poor food that, after all, the legend may be said to hold good, for he is indeed in bad luck who has to make a meal of it.—Washington Post. Cut Rates. "Some people are mighty hard to suit," says a clerk in a local hotel, "and I had four possible customers tonight about whom my thoughts are not fit for publication. They came from away down south and they ar rived hpre all dusty and hungry. The first thing that the head of the party did was to register and then to dicker for cut rates because there were four in the party. I scaled down the rates for him, but he was not satisfied and said he'd go to an other place. He went and had trou ble there, and finally wound up at a third hotel. "We don't have many of that sort, but there are people from the rural regions who believe that there is no set price for anything anywhere and that it is throwing money away not j to have a man make a special price. I've known men to make the rounds of all the Lohisville hotels in an ef fort to make the clerks shave down rates."—Louisville Herald. Daniel Webster's Advice. Once when Daniel Webster was riding along a New England read in a stage coach, he was annoyed by the jolting and poked his head cut of the window to yell at the driver, says the Detroit News. "Hey, can't you drive a little slow er?" "No," responded the coachman, "the horses are running away, sir." "Run 'em into a fence corner," ad vised Daniel. "Can't, sir," said the driver, re luctantly and despairingly. "They've got the bits between their teeth, sir." "Well, run them into debt, then," thundered Daniel. "That'll fitop any thine!" A'Tie Oldest and tin.« Most Extensive» Albert Hanson Lumber Company, j I j I | ! j ; ! j ! j ! I Successors to Albert Hansoa Limite«. FRANKLIN, LA; Manufacturers and Dealer» I« Rough mû Dressed CYPRESS LUMBER 6aah, Doors. Blind», Monlù'lnga, datera Trimming;«, Sliinglr« Eto, OUR PATRONS get the advantage of the Most Com« Dleto Shipping Facilities by Rail and Water ÇlN O f SUNSET ROUTE. SUNSET ROUTE. M. L. & T. It. R. & S. 8. CO. L W. B. B» Unquestionably the beet route to prinoipal points in Texas, New and Old Mexico, Arizona, California and Pacific Coast. Pullman Standard Sleepers, Tourist Excursion Sleepers, Superior Dining Car Service, Through to California without change. For full information, Ticket«. Sleepers, Reservations, apply to ar » agent qf tho Company, or W. II. MASTERS, Traflio Manager, New Orleans, Lji., R 9. BATTURS, £sst. Gen. Pass. Agt., New Orleans, La., 0. W. OWEN; $|a» , Paso. Agent, New Iberia, La. 'h»?. CUMBERLAND TELEPHONE & TELEGRAPH GO. (iKCOKPOKATBD) Long distance lines and telephones ol this Company onablo you to talk almost anywhere in Southern Indiana, Southern Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Pyil3sisslppl and Louisiana. Wo can put you in quick and satisfactory communication with the people of this great section of tho country. We solicit your patronage. Rates reason able. Equipments and facilities unsur passed. «HfS C. CALDWELL, LffLAHD KU MC. Kar'v & A mt»*t On'I Mf*. T. D. 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