OCR Interpretation

The Rice belt journal. (Welsh, Calcasieu Parish, La.) 1900-19??, November 29, 1907, Image 7

Image and text provided by Louisiana State University; Baton Rouge, LA

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88064402/1907-11-29/ed-1/seq-7/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

S& [ME
K{LAHIOMA, "the Land of
Now," (embracing Okla
homa and Indian Terri
tories), entered the union
as a state on November 15
with a population of about
1,5o0,000. The government
censis (four districts missing) shows a
population of 1,40)S,00 . In addition to
the persons residing in the four niiss
Ing districts, a number of Indians not
reached by the census takers are be
lieved to have been omitted from the
governiol' t: t census total.
The Indian is passing out of the
life of Ok!ahomn into its history. But
he is still as much in evidence in
Oklah:mna as the negro is in a number
of northern states. Records believed
to be ultra-conservative show that the
new state of Oklahoma contains 72,
0W)0 Indians. Only about 10.000 of
these, however, are more than three
quarter blood. The wild Indians of
Oklahoma exist only in history. The
redman of the present is adjusting
himserf to the white man's civiliza
"Oklahoma" is a Comanche Indian
word, sigsilying the "Land of the Fair
God." Surely the fair god could not
select a more comfortable place for a
home. For instance, everything good
to eat which that distinguished per
sonage might desire is obtainable
from Oklahoma soil. Upon a single
Oklahoma farm can be seen growing
simultaneously the products that
grow in all the states from Maine to
California. Corn and cotton thrive
side by side.
Amazing Natural Resources.
Within its borders Oklahoma is
known to have vast stretches of coal
lands; natural gas, also, is abundant,
while the state's resources in salt, as
phalt, oil, granite and marble, building
atone, zinc, lead, copper, gold and tim
ber, place it among the most desirable
sections of the country for investors.
Eighteen years ago this great new
state was a cattle range and Indian
hunting ground.
The first rush into Oklahoma was
on Monday, April 22, 1889. On the
morfing of that day Oklahoma City,
the present metropolis of the state,
then known as Oklahoma Station,
consisted of half a dozen small build
ings, the Santa Fe station, section
President of Constitutional Governor.
house, United States quartermaster's
house, stage office, and a small build
ing used as a hotel. Between noon
and sunset of that day Oklahoma Sta
tion became a town of 6,000 people.
Within a month 1,169 buildings, many
of them ugly, temporary affairs, were
And so Oklahoma City has contin
ued to grow until it now claims a pop
ulation of 45,000, modern schools edu
cating 9,484 children this year, as
against 7,375 last year; buildings (in
cluding ten-story skyscrapers) aggre
gating in value $15,000,000; banks
having an aggregate capital and sur
plus of $1,060,834, and deposits aggre
gating $6,549,000; post office receipts
in 1906 aggregating $141,509, and
freight tonnage into and out of Okla
homa City in 1906, 1,228,246,902 tons.
Factories are springing up. Oklahoma
City this year has 2,347 factory em
pl)oyes, a gain of 531 over last year;
and 1,170 jobbing house enmployes, a
gain of 230 for the year.
State Is Democratic.
Oklahoma will probably be Demo
cratic in politics for some time to
come. The governor-elect. C. M. Has
,kell, of Muskogee, received a majority
of 27,000 votes. The state will cast
approximately 250,000 votes, of which
number from 10,000 to 15,000 are by
negro voters. The majority for pro
hibition was about 20,000. Of the 12
Republict ns in the constitutional con
vention six came from each side of the
new state.
Gov. Haskell is one of the newer
residents of the state, having gone
there from Ohio. Other officers are:
Lieutenant governor, George Bellamy,
of El Reno; secretary of state, "Bill"
Cross, of Oklahoma City, whose
friends say he would not be recog
nized if referred to as "William
Cross;" treasurer, J. B. Menefee, of
Anadarka; attorney general, Charles
West, of Enid, and chairman of the
commissioners of corporations, J. J.
The state in primaries has selected
to reproeent her in the senate the tirst
blind man who has ever sat in that
body. He is '. I.P. Gore, who lost his
sIight when a boy in Mississippi,
where he was born. *IIe has served in
the territorial legislature. Robert
Lee Owen. who will be elected as the
other senator, is a totally different
type. Born in Virginia, he is one
eighth Cherokee Indian, and is looked
upon as an extreme conservative. lie
distingulshed himself as a lawyer by
earning a fee of $150,000 in a single
case. Both these men have been
chosen by the Democratic primaries,
which is equivalent to their election
by the legislature. Of the representa
tives Bird S. McGuire, for some years
territorial delegate from Oklahoma, in
congress, is the only Republican of
the five elected. Others are E. L. Ful
ton, a brother of Senator Fulton, of
Oregon, Second district; James S.
Davenport, Third district; Charles D.
Carter, Fourth district, and Scott
Fairns, Fifth district.
Metropolis of New State.
The largest city on the Oklahoma
side is Oklahoma City, with a popula
tion of 30,000 and 10 miles of asphalt
pavements. Muskogee, in the Indian
Territory has a population of 25,000,
which represents a growth from 3,500
people in 1900. The new state will
have 700 banks, of which 275 are na
tional, the latter with deposits of $50.
000,000; 23 cottonseed oil mills, more
than a hundred flour mills, 50 daily
papers and more than 400 issued
Oklahoma alone had in 1906 86,908
families, of which more than 60,000
owned their homes, and of these 50,
000 were free from mortgages. The
average price for Oklahoma land in
1906 was $18.25 per acre, an increase
of $3.25 from the previous year. The
new state has thousands of acres of
unappropriatsd public domain, coal
lands of wonderful capacity, oil wells.
asphalt beds of great worth, and all
of these 'practically undeveloped, to
say nothing of the vastness of her op
portunities to the tiller of the soil.
The story of the rise of two dozen
other Oklahoma cities with popula
tions exceeding 10,000 is almost
synonymous with that of the rise of
the metropolis. Such cities as Guth
rie (the state capital), with 25,000
population; Tulsa (in the center of
the oil fields), with 20,000 population;
Muskogee, Ardmore, Lawton, Shaw
nee, Enid, South McAlester, Vinita
and El Reno are battling enthusiasti
cally for commercial supremacy, and
present indications are that all these
cities will grow and prosper, each
supported mainly by those farm lands
for which it is the natdlral outlet to
market. The casual reader may won
der how so many large cities can be
supported by mere farms. The fact
is that Oklahoma has 250,000 farms,
most of them worked by their owners,
for hundreds of thousands of Ameri
cans have invested their small sav
ings in Oklahoma land and are getting
rich with the state by tilling the soil.
Six out of every ten farmers in Okla
homa own their own homes. ,Most of
them live upon the land them home
steaded. Landlords are rare in Okla
Drawn from All States.
Probably not more than 200,000 of
Oklahoma's 1,500,000 residents are na
tive Oklahomans. This new state is
not typical of any particular section
of the United States so far as its pop
ulatlon is concerned any more than it
is as far as its agricultural products
are concerned. Northerners, south
erners, easterners and westerners
mingle harmoniously there, all grow
ing prosperous together. Every state
in the union is rel)resented by at least
500 natives.
A substantial evidence of the intel
lectual worth Iof Oklahomans g'enerally
is the number of modern daily news
papers which they suo1p)orl. Further
more, they have good schools, libra
ries and churches.
Oklahoma has a modern public
school system supported. by the in
come from a $35,000,000 public school
fund and local taxation. The "35,000,
000 fund" consists of 3.101i,S75 acres
of land, valued at $30,000,000, the in
conme from the rental of which
amounts to about $600,000 per year;
and $5,000,000 paid into the school
fund by Indian Territory in lieu of
land, all of the 3,100.875 acres being
in the former Oklahoma territory.
The original act opening Oklahoma
territory to settlement reserved in
all that section of the territory then
thrown open sections 16 and ,6 in
every township for the benefit of the
public schools of the future state.
Each successive act providled for simi
lar reservations and the statehood en
abling act made additional grants to
the higher educational institutions, re
sulting in the big total aove(' named.
Tilhe state will decide whether the
school lands shall be sold. All pro
ceeds from sale of the school lands
must be turned into the school fund
and forever remain intact.
Fine State University.
The head of the plublic school sys
tem of Oklahoma is the state univer
sity, located at Norman, open to fe
- •
1/ i/ f
male as well as male students, and
comprising a college of arts and sci
ences, a school of medicine, a school
of applied science, a school of pharm
acy, a school of mines, a school of fine
arts, and a preparatory school. The
campus, consisting of 60 acres, lies at
a slight elevation, overlooking the
South Canadian river. University
hall was built five years ago at d cost
of $70,000. Science ball is a new
building, 63 by 125 feet, of gray
pressed brick. The university is also
provided with a library building given
by Andrew Carnegie, and a gymnasi
um, 55 by 100 feet.' There are four
other buildings, two of wood, devoted
to engineering work, and two devoted
to the anatomical laboratory.
The other advanced public educa
tional institutions of Oklahoma are an
agricultural and mechanical college,
three state normal schools, a univer
sity preparatory school, a colored
agricultural and normal university,
and a school at Chilocco, on a reser
vatiQn containing 8,900 acres of agri
cultural land, for the education of In
dian boys and girls in the higher
branches of learning.
Color Line Drawn.
The supervision of instruction is
vested in a board of education, of
which the state superintendent of pub
lic instruction is president and the
governor, secretary of state and at
torney general are members ex-offlcio.
A color line is drawn on negroes in
Oklahoma, separate schools being pro
vided for negro children, but with the
same accommodations as the schools
for white children. Education is com
The Chilocco Indian school is one
of the most interesting educational in
stitutions in Oklahoma. About 3,000
of its 8,960 acres are in cultivation,
the rest being in meadow or pasture
land. This school has 700 to 800 stu
dents. 70 instructors, more than 40
buildings, and is known as the best
institution in the Indian service for
imparting practical agricultural
knowledge to Indians. In addition to
agriculture, stock raising, dairying,
etc., all other lines of industry are
taught at Chilocco.
Oklahoma has more than 1,200
manufacturing plants, representing in
vestments aggregating $25,000,000,
and giving employment to 10,000 wage
tarners. These plants Include fnlmt
mills, oil mills, cotton gins, broom
factories, brick and tile works, salt
works, cement factories, woodenware
and carriage works.
Oil Fields.Are Rich.
Some of the ri(chest oil fields in
America are in Oklahoma. The (;lenn
iPool :il district, So-)nth of Tulsa, 1h'
I wee'n Red Fork and Mounds, has hbe
weenn 15') and 500 producing oil wells,
with a total capacity of 100,1)00 bar
rels a day. The first of these wells
was sunk in December, 1905. Pipe
lines have been constructed for the
transportation of this oil to the Texas
seaboard and to the refineries at Whit
ing, Ind. More than $10,000,000 has
been invested in tanks, pumping sta
tions, and pipe lines in Tulsa county.
Eastern Oklahoma, which is not so
uniformly even as the western portion
of the state, produces more than
3,000,000 tons of coal a year, for
which its mines receive about $6,000,
000. The coal field extends from the
vicinity of Tulsa on the north to the
Texas line on the south, and is more
than 100 miles broad. The state con
tains about 150 coal mines, employing
about 10,000 operators.
The principal rivers of Oklahomg,
all of which flow toward the south
east, are, naming them from north to
south, Arkansas, Salt Fork, Ciniarron,
North Canadian, South Canadian,
\Vwchita and Red.
The government acquired what is
now Oklahoma more than a centuiry
ago under the termnis of the Louisiana
Purchase. Early in the centcury the
governmenti set this land apart for
the segregation of the various Indian
tribes, then being driven west by the
advance of white settlers. Hence,
while Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Ne
braska, Colorado and other Louisiana
Purchase states were being populated,
Oklahoma remained for 80 years a
wild Indian camping ground.
Passing of the Indian.
As recently as 35 years ago the
American people generally knew of
Oklahoma only as a haunt of Inudians
and a hunting ground for big game.
Early in the eighties white settlers,
who had overrun Kansas and the new
middle west states, began to investi
gate Oklahoma. They found the new
territory rich and appealed to the
government for the opening of it to
settlement. The government did not
readily act upon the request, and
many of these whites, becoming impa
tient, entered the reservation forcibly
and set up their homes. They were
driven out, but repeatedly renewed
their efforts, and many clashes with
soldiers occurred.
But these pioneers, then looked
upon by the government as outuas,
finally persuaded congress to open
Oklahoma to settlement. Hence, the
names of these same "outlaws" have
been immortalized in Oklahoma his
At the time of the opening all of
Oklahoma, except that portion taken
from Texas in the Greer county bound
ary dispute and the narrow strip be
tween Kansas and Texas, extending
to the Colorado and New Mexico lines,
was included in the Indian Territory.
Oklahoma territory, which was held
by the government for the use of the
Indians, but had never been assigned
td any tribe, consequently consisted
in those days of only about'2,000,000
acres. There occurred the first great
rush for homes, which brought into
existence Oklahoma City. From time
to time the government transferred
other portions of land from the Indian
Territory to Oklahoma territory for
settlement by whites, until, when the
Oklahoma-Indian Territory statehood
bill passed, all that remained of In
dian Territory were the reservations
of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Chero
kee, Creek, Seminole and Quapaw
Above Sea Level.
The mean height of land above sea
level, according to the most scientific
geographers, is 2,500 feet. The mean
depth of the ocean is 12,480 feet.
Oklahoma is larger in area than Indiana and Ohio combined.
Oklahoma will be the twenty-third state in the union in polot of
Oklahoma has 5,500 miles of railroads, 700 banks and 50 daily qews
Oklahoma's metropolis, Oklahoma City, has forty miles of asphalt
Oklahoma's constitution is the biggest in the unign, being mrade up
of sixty thousand words.
State wide prohibition is provided in the constitution.
The "initiative and referendum" are in the state constituti li and
extend also to municipalities.
Oklahoma has 24,669 full blooded Indians and 50,670 part 7lans.
Many of them are highly civilized.
Oklahoma is a "corn state," raising 150,000,000 bushels las ear.
Crescent City News Notes.
Ncw Orlim : St. (G'.or,e's ('lhnrth
ulnveiled w\ nlodo s t(1 1.(V. .ohln \1'.
.1o',re', Iisholp Sl.sumlns tJ!i('ilatilw.
Ar('lhd':I(eon Stl'k iof Alaska slpoke
S( oral Y l ;ll ] ,'is el, l chr('] ' h', '.
Is ', ,. t rian ' inh ist(r' ;l',londinl
v 'Alrs 1l ir ,(i'd [h,(';I! cI dIi i ,
.Ijoll T. ilock, i Ioitr I'rio -id'nt of
Ar' y of iNo'ii'ern \i'-irkinia, died.
Steas( 'tllJol ,)osf-ph \anw'.aro c;"lll m lln
Ticted hi wireh'ss over 7o miles away.
..1 ube Lintd.ey left, bit will return
in 1lay to address legislature, lie
spoke to ivboys at Rlayne Mnemorial
melltin , and visitd Waifs" Io11i1n.
(t'" illss of Miss itessi' ('mlltoll of
Alexandria prevenlted allmed rt obber a
success in Ottavia street homie.
ItolUrni backed outl of match with
Adams at St. iernard Athletic ('lub,
and money was r'efunlded toi sl,lecatoirs.
\World TIunlI erane Sunday was oh
sir'.ved by rallies in Protestant Sluilay
Nationatl officer J arritve'd to settle
Palint('-s' t llnio trioliubl .
To Extend Atchafalaya Levee.
.;at it g ltlin, La t.: t o eetilln of Ithe
ilizl'lle s i tllel lest'd ill the e(xtensiA n
of the Ate h;;falaya h º(we was hld hIl'p
the ri.'1o 'l of t1"he iollll itti t has t was
a1;iat ihuted at l Ipr' i(ie s t tati11g, ! it ;ac
collplan>y 111' engineer 1' l con( l littel
from tit,' Achiafalaya Lev'( lioarild tol
n o ell llp t Ilie . ( 1-; till" ' 'lpro los a le
SGreat int,( res. t is l inii manifeste'd in
this lewee, alld the Ine(,iTh was lare
ly atentllded by the taxpayers in the
district, who, will be benefitted and
lprotlrted liy the levee,.
August F. Fisher was called to the
hair and ilonu. ,. V'. La dr) acted as
setr tay pro t eni.
Knights of Columbus.
Lafayette, La.: A fine lodge of Cath
olic Knitihts of Colilumbus was organ
ized here Saturday evening at the Jef
ferson Theatre, over sixty members
being initiated by'State l)Deputy (George
W. Youtng, (if New Orleans. The New
Orleans and Chicago teams arrived
Sunday morning oin their private ucar
and assisted in the em'elloies of inl
itrlitioll. S inday noriing Fath r (ir
irailt of Platolivil!e, Sial t (hapilain,
anization. The visiting knights were
rle lly liv l'rta'nd(' at a h a;;ln et at
Ithlle irown N\ews u hotel, where fllow
4shipt and unod (chtr reig,!iod suprem
i uti i e dep(.artitre of the gu-sts at
a laite hour. Antg those inst irumental
int oranliziuz the Lafayette -Iteam may
lie titnitioned lRev. .1. W. Teurlings,
May'or C. O. Martin. F. G. Martin,
Pierre (Gerae and others.
Frank Sonnler. 17 years old, living
six miles south of Lafayette, in the
Second ward, accidentally shot and
killed himselt with a double-barrel
shotgun Sunday. Sonnier was hunting
with two companions when he began
to play with the weapon. The entire
charge entered the youth's chest, pro
ducing almost instant death. He was
the son of Joseph Sonnier, a farmer.
Sugar Industry Revived.
Crowley, La.: Five cars of cane
were shipped from here to the Segura
Sugar Refinery this week, making the
first shipment to the refinery since the
bounty was removed. At that time thea
industry was beginning to gain a foot
hold in the parish, but was smothered
by the removal of the bounty. The
cropt following the encetment of the
Wilson hill was partially left to rot in
the fields owing to the fact that the
price received from the cane at the
mills was insufficient to even pay the
freight charges of transportation. W.
W. Duson of this city is the first to
argain venture into the cultivation of
cane, and this year lanted eighteen
acres as a test of the os'bilitie.s of
making the raising of cane In this piar
is ha profitable venture..
George Douglas. a negro, wa,r a
tenced Saturday to one year in the
penitentiary for horse setaling, and
Albert Source, a negro, got one year
for shooting with intent to kill.
The mill and property of the Union
Rice Milling Company of this city was
sold at sheriff's sale Saturday to sat
isfy a judgment. The property was
bid in by the Crowley State Bank, hold.
ers of the first-mortgage on the prop
The Parish School Board has re
ceived three publlic -school transfers,
making eight in use.
Ex-Slave Had 44 Children.
Lettsworth, La.: James Hartford,
a negro ex-slave, is dead at his home
here with a record of being the father
of ort-y-four children end 172 gra',dch!l
dren and great-garndchildren. He was
in his seventy-ninth year and wis a
native of Clarksville, Tenn. In 1.50
he moved to hadley coun.y, Ark., aud
after emancipation came to Louisiana.
In 1852 he was given a w!fe by his
owner, and by this union sixteen pick
a nlinnis developed. Wife No. 2, also
a slave gift, became the mother of
eleven, and the third wife, n'w living,
hore seventeen babies. The man's
progeny populates almost an entire
town. In 1874 Hartford was magis
trate in the Second ward of Pointe
('oupee Parish and continued in office
four years. His oldest child is 5(i
years and his youngest8 years. Since
1i55 he had ben a negro preacher.
Released on Bond.
Napoleonvlle, La.: At the prelimin
ary hearing Saturday Judge Leche Burl
Forgey, charged with killing Thomas
H. Holloway, was released on $250
Young Man Bore No Grudge Against
Proposed Father-in-Law.
That the young fllow had grit was
evident Irum the fact that his busi
ness, froll nothinr, had in a few years
begun to bring in a fairish income. lie
nade 1ll his mind to gt llmarrited. The
:iirl-althou.th the dathe ..... of a
I' mpnts coulntry rj. idt, lt- --reed
with hint; but the father did not see
things in the same light.
"\\hat' You?" he yelled, angrily.
"You want to marry my daughter!
Why, it is only a few years since you
were caddying for me."
"That's true!" interrupted the young
man, "but I don't intend to let that
stand in the way. The language you
then used was certainly a trifle-say
blue-tinted; but then you were under
the influence of disapplintment. After
all, you know, a very had golfer may
make a very good father-In-law. Any
how, I'm going to give you a chance."
Face and Neck Covered with Inflamed
Skin-Doctors No Avail-Cured
by Cuticura Remedies.
"My baby's face and neck were cov
ered with itching skin similar to ecze
ma, and she suffered terribly for over
a year. I took her to a number of doc
tors, and also to, diffierent calleges, to
no avail. Then ('uticura Remedies
were reconnell)(ded to ne by Miss G-.
I (lid not use it at first, as I had tried
so many other renmedies without any
favorable results. At last I tried Cuti
cura Soap. ('uticura Gintment and
Cuticura Resolvent Piis, and to my
surprise noticed an improvement.
After using three boxes of the Cuti
cura Ointment, together with the Soap
and Pills, I am pleased to say she is
altogether a different child and the
picture of healtth. Mrs. A. C. Brestlin,
171 N. Lincoln St., Chicago, Ill., Oct.
20 and 30, 1906."
Women Workers of Great Britain.
Women of Great Britain are well rep
resented in the professions and trades.
and about 4,500,000 earn their own
living. There are 124,000 who teach;
10,000 are bookkeepers: over 3,000 are
printers and nearly 500 act as editors
and compilers; 1,300 are engaged in
photography; civil service clerks num
ber nearly 2,300; 3.S00 are engaged In
medical work and nursing and 350
women are blacksmiths.
Beware of Ointments for Catarrb
that Contain Mercury,
as Mereurrv w  iur'ly d&-troy the senle of sDeW
sliod imp,.etly d'rarore the whole system whle
eaterhi.g It throl,:h the I':COus surfaces. Sac
nrt, ll,, b ~o luld never he ured except on presaclp
tliuo'rn recl'Ll -C.e physhe!'l:3. .u the damage hse
illI do I t.ln fold to thle gojd you can pouslbly de
rive frou the:n. 11ll'ti t'atarrb ture. manufactu te
b)y F. J. Cheney & Co.. Tiedo, to.. cuntaina no ma
cury. and Is t,ien Internaily. acting directly usp
the il,od and nmuontls surfaces of the system. I
buyi:g lull' C'ratrrh Cure be sure you set the
geuulne. it Is taken Internally and made If Toldb
Ohblo, Ly F. J Cheney & Cu. Testimonials ftes.
Sold by Irugel ta. I'rPee. c. per bottle.
Take all's Family Ptlls for consutpaetiq.
A Girl'u Giggle.
Samuel Shadwell, a touchy old mals
living In an Indiana village, had a
pane of glass broken in his house onO
night not long ago and next day be
had a ten-year-old girl named
Dayton arrested for it.
When the case was called In woat'
be was asked how he knew it was
Minnie. He admitted that he didb
see her, but heard her giggle.
asked if her giggle was different fraQl
that of any other girl he said It
but be couldn't tell why. Neithe
could he imitate the giggle, sad
lost his case.
We all know what a girl's giggle
but if any of us were asked to give
imitation of it we'd probably faiL
boy may titter, but when it comes
giggling only a girl can do that
Ingenious, But Unavailing. "
Wilton, the five-year-ol son0
Lackaye,.the actor, has inherited
brilliant mind for which his father
Not long ago Mr. and Mrs.
who spent the summer at
Island Heights, were invited to
a card party and the young soon
anxious to accompany them.
His mother Insisted that he
remain at home with Mary, his
erness, but Wilton persisted sad os
final argument he said:
"Mamma,'I think Mary is a
tian Scientist, and I might be
sick in the night."
The argument was not etectiv.
The Woman Feared?
What a comfort to find It is not
awful thing" feared, but only
indigestion, which pl per food as
A woman in Ohio says: b
'"I was troubled for years with
gestlon and chronic consUtlpatio.
times I would have such a
in my stomach that I actutally
I had a-I dislike to write or
think of what I feared.
"Seeing an account of Grape-N
I decided to try it. After a short
I was satisfied the trouble was
the awful thing I feared but was
bad enough. However, I was
of a bad case of dyspepsia by c
ing from improper food to Grape-N
"Since that time my bowels
been as regular as a clock. I bad
noticed before I began to eat
Nuts that I was becoming fo
where I put little things about
house, which was very annoylag.
"'But since the digestive organ
become strong from eating
Nuts, my memory is good U:
mind as clear as when I was
and I am thankful." Name
Postum Co., Battle Creek, M
the Httle booklet. 'The o 0
,me," In packages. -FIieeS~

xml | txt