Newspaper Page Text
.EXPENSE OF GRAVELING ROAD
Problem of Graveling Highways at
Moderate Cost Sc!ved by Commis
sioner Rheinhardt of Idaho.
Evidently (Otto Itheinhardt, commis
-inr r, the N iip:pa higlvay district,
('anyy county, Idaho, lhas solved the
prol)t mi of araveling the highways at
inoderate cost, Vwrites E F. Stephens
in )Denver Fiel-d and Farm. Three
yetr; ago he decided to gravel the dis
trict's share of the boulevard between
Nampa and Caldwell. A half mie
av a:'y. Indiann creek runs parallel with
this boulevard and there an abundant
supply of gravel was procured. Fortu
nately the very heavy traffic incident
to hauling rails and ties for the In
terurban electric line track cut through
the gravel, mixing the underlying soil
with the superimposed gravel in suit
able proportions for cementing a firm,
smooth roadbed. A percentage of clay
smooth or volcanic ash soil mixed with
gravel makes a hard, smooth roadbed
not likely to absorb the rainfall. The
result on the boulevard has been to
secure a very serviceable roadbed
highly commended by local and United
Under the inspiration of this suc
cessful roadbed a neighborhood lying
Fipe Stretch of Road in West.
to the west, called Orchard avenue, de
cided io gravel on the following plan:
The farmers to donate the use of
teams and wagons with dump boards.
The N~npa highway district to provide
gravel usually donated by those who
have i, pay the shovelers and a man
to help dump the loads and also spread
and smooth the gravel on the road
bed, using for this purpose a King
drag. The freshly graveled roadbed
should be smoothed with a King drag
or other implement weekly for two
months or until settled and cemented
with the underlying soil. Four inches
of gravel in the middle of the roadbed
with. two inches on the sides most
readily mixes with the underlying soil
in such proportions as to shed rain
and form a smooth, solid bed. Heavy
traffic cuts through the gravel in wet
weather until enough underlying soil
has been nnixed and cemented with
the gravel to shed rain and create a
A moderate percentage of clay soil
mixed with the gravel as applied will
pack and cement from the beginning.
The clay gravel banks along the re
clamatibn ditches piled by the dredges
supply Ideal material for graveling our
roads. This mixture of clay, sand
and gravel packs from the very first
and does not need underlying soil cut
Sin by heavy traffic. Coarse gravel,
free from clay or soil, will need an ad
mixture of soil from below to secure a
hard, smooth roadbed. Orchard ave
nue has now been graveled two years.
Its success from the start has been
such as to attract the attention of oth
STATE AID FOR GOOD ROADS
One Reason Why Food ,Prices Are
SHigh Ia Because of Cost of Haul
I" Ing Over Bad Highways,.
Nearly every one of the state legis
latures is considering demands for
more help for road building, says St.
Joseph News-Press. Ten years ago
all the states together put up but
$2,000,000 for road building, exclusive
of local funds. In 1914 they spent
$43,000,000. But as four-fifths of this
was dbne by six eastern states and
two Pacific coast states, the problem
is far from solved nationally. Many
of our big problems always come back
to the cost-of-living question.
Plant Nut Trees.
Somp nut or fruit-bearing trees set
out oA country roads 50 feet apart,
wouldiadd much of beauty and com
fort td the highway. It would be nec
essary, of course, to have well-round
ed roadways to drain off the water,
for mud lholes and poor roadbeds
would not dry out quite so fast as
where the sun shines on the road
bed all the time. The better road
beds would be well worth while.
Personal Benefit and Profit.
Go at road improvement with the
same determination you would to dig
ditches or build fences-with the full
realization that it is for your own per
sonal benefit and profit; and not only
merely a "public duty."
Aid for Permanent Roads.
State and national aid for perma
nent roads is sure to come, but it is
not likely to come to any community
that has, by their lack of interest in
good roads shown that they are aUn
worthy of it.
BEST RATION FOR THE PIGS
Economical to Make Use of All Avail.
able Skim Milk-Furnishes
In making up a ration for pigs, it is
economy to make the best use of the
skim milk available. Experiments
have proved conclusively that where
sufficient skim milk is available to
furnish the protein content of the
ration to balance up corn, it is not
necessary for good economy to feed
any kind of high protein concentrates
to growing pigs.
The proper proportion in which to
feed skim milk and corn for the best
results, is from one to three pounds
of the skim milk to one pound of corn
meal, using the larger proportion of
milK when the pigs are young, and
gradually increasing the amount of
corn meal in proportion to milk used.
For young pigs, the ration will be
very materially benefited by the ad
dition of a liberal portion of middlings,
Well Finished Bunch of Hogs.
which is a well-balanced feed for pigs.
It is a difficult matter to estimate the
amount of feed which will be required
by 80 pigs up to August 1, as very
much depends upon the capacity of
the pigs to make rapid gains.
On good rape or alfalfa pasture,
however, no more than 350 to 400
pounds of grain, or its equivalent,
should be required for 100 pounds of
gain. The value of skim milk can be
reduced to a grain basis by figuring
350 pounds of skim milk to equal 100
pounds of grain when fed with corn
in the proportion above advised.
Figuring upon this basis, it will not
be difficult to qstimate approximately
the amount of/feed which will be re
quired for the time mentioned.
TREATING HORSE FOR THRUSH
Hoof Should Be Trimmed Properly,
Diseased Parts Removed and
Strong Disinfedtant Applied,
(By M. H. REYNOLDS, Minnesota Ex
Thrush in horses' feet is frequently
caused by standing in filth. This
changes the texture of the hoof and
infection follows. Continuous stand
ing on very dry doors may also cause
this trouble, while in some cases it is
apparently caused by a contraction
of the hoof.
When the horse is shod with high
heel and toe calks or the wall of the
hoof is allowed to grow very long and
the horse stands on hard floor so that
there is no pressure on the frog of
the foot, the condition of the frog is
impaired and it becomes subject to
infection and disease. Cases of thrush
need a dry, clean stall.
Trim the hoof properly, remove the
diseased parts and apply a strong dis
infectant over the sole of the foot.
Any of the coal tar disinfectants may
be used full strength. Pure carbolic
acid may be used, care being taken
that it does not run down the heel and
burn the skin.
After the first strong disinfectant,
calomel should be dusted over the dis
eased surface and some thick clay ap
plied to the entire sole.
Working Brood Mares.
If mares are kept at light work the
last few weeks they are benefited by
being worked right up to foaling time.
Brood mares are injured by severe
work which requires them to strain or
over-exert. Backing heavy loads is
not a suitable task for mares heavy in
toal. In most years enough mares
will miss getting in foal to take care
of the heaviest work. They are best
off if rested for ten days of a couple
of weeks after foaling.
Whley for PIgs.
Ordinary whey is worth not more
than half as much as skim milk or
buttermilk when fed the pigs. Most
of the. muscle-building material is
taken out of milk by cheese, and the
Sresulting whey is very poor in muscle
builders, as compared with ordinary
; milk. It takes about a gallon and a
half of whey to equal the feeding
,alue of one pound ot corn or barley.
COWPEA IS VALUABLE LEGUMINOU S CROP 1
Cowpea Plant, Showing Ripe Pods.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
Any system of agriculture which
does not include some leguminous
crops will ultimately lessen the pro
ductivity of the soil and make neces
sary the purchase at considerable ex
pense of fertilizers c,ontaining nitro
gen. On the other hand, the proper
use of leguminous crops will maintain
or even increase productivity. At the
present time the cowpea is probably
the most valuable legume for the cot
ton belt. It is to the South what red
clover is to the North and alfalfa to
Not only does the cowpea benefit the
soil by adding nitrogen to it, but it
can be made to supply southern mar
kets with much of the hay which is
now shipped in from the North and
West. Thus it aids in the production
of live stock, without which it is im
possible to secure the maximum re
turns from any farm.
These facts have been familiar to
progressive farmers for years, but the
high price of seed in the past pre
vented as widespread a use of the
crop as was desirable. Improved ma
chinery, however, has now done much
to remove this difficulty and may well
do more in the future. When harvest
ed for seed, the crop should be cut
with a mower or self-rake reaper when
half or more of the pods are ripe.
After it has become thoroughly dry, it
may be thrashed with an ordinary
grain separator, with some modifica
tions, with a two-cylinder cowpea
thrasher, or with a one-cylinder spe
cial machine which a number of in
genious devices make the most satis
factory of all.
Exclusive of the crop's value in im
proving the soil, cowpeas are most
useful as hay. Good cowpea hay has a
high percentage of digestible protein
nearly four times that of timothy hay
-and as a feed is very nearly as
valuable as alfalfa or wheat bran.
When it includes a fair number of
ripe peas it has been found satisfac
tory when fed alone to stock at work,
and can be used very successfully as a
maintenance ration for horses, mules,
cattle, sheep and even hogs. When
corn and cottonseed meal are high
priced, experiments indicate that cow
pea hay can be substituted to ad
vantage. In the production of milk
and butter it appears that one and one
fourth pounds of chopped pea hay is
equivalent to a pound of wheat bran
and three pounds to one of cotton
seed meal. Splendid results are also
obtained from feeding the seed, either
whole or in broken pieces, to poultry,
though at the prices that have hither
to prevailed this is scarcely prac
In the production of cowpea hay
difficulty is sometimes experienced in
curing the large growth of succulent
vines. For this reason cowpeas are
frequently grown in mixtures, a prac
tice which makes the curing much
easier. Sorghum is a favorite crop for
this purpose and its use usually results
in increasing the yield of hay consid
erably. Millet, soy beans and John
son grass are also used.
At present, however, cowpeas are
most frequently grown with corn,
since the farmer secures in this way
a corn crop, sufficient seed for the
next season, and either a hay crop or
a certain amount of grazing for his
stock. On many dairy farms the cow
pea is grown with corn in order to
make ensilage, for which it has proved
excellenJt. Though it is sometimes ad
visable, the use of cowpeas for pas
ture is not, as a rile, the best fat m
practice. Unless care is exercised,
bloating, especially in bad weather,
may result. The small expense in
volved is a powerful inducement, and
when the hay is grown with. corn it
is frequently grazed by hogs.
Detailed information in regard to
the planting and harvesting of the
crop is contained in farmers' bulletin
318, "Cowpeas," of the department of
agriculture, which willf be sent free
on request. The bulletin also dis
cusses the merits of the various va
rieties, and suggests the use of the
crop in some one of the following ro
(a) Cotton, three years; corn and
cowpeas fourth year, and then cotton
again. This is all right on the better
soils of the South, but the cotton
should be planted only two years in
succession on the poorer soils.
(b) Wheat or oats with cowpeas
each season after the removal of the
grain crop, the land being seeded to
grain in the fall, making two crops a
year from the same land.
(c) Cotton, first year; corn and cow
peas, second year; winter oats or
wheat, followed by cowpeas as a catch
crop, third year, and then cotton
FEED COTTONSEED TO HOGS'
Hoard's Dairyman Says No Uniformly
Successful Method of Feeding
Has Yet Been Found.
In response to the query "What ex
perience have you had in feeding
cooked cottonseed to hogs and young
pigs?" Hoard's Dairyman makes the
We have had no experience in feed
ing cooked cottonseed, nor do we re
call any experimentation along this
line. No uniformly successful method
of feeding cottonseed or cottonseed
meal to swine has yet been found. The
poisonous effect of cottonseed meal is
said to be due to its content of pyro
phosphoric acid, which is developed
when the seed is subjected to great
heat. Reasoning along this line we
would be inclined to believe that
cooked cottonseed would not prove a
safe feed for pigs. However, the
Louisiana station states that its ex
periments do not uphold this theory,
and that the poisonous effect of the
cottonseed is due to some other factor
whbse virulence is decreased by heat
ing. The seed is held to be more poil
onous than the meal. It is probably
safe to feed cottonseed meal when it
does not constitute more than one.
fifth to a quarterof the grain ration
and is fed at this rate for not more
than thirty days.
SUBSOILING MAY BE HARMFUL
Increase in Yield Does Not Pay for
Work Done-Bad Practice to
Advocate, Says Expert.
(By O. O. CHURCHILL, Oklahoma Ex
The practice of subsoiling is receiv
ing a good many notices in the press
at this time. It is advocated par
ticularly on tight soils and under
A good many of the stations in dif
ferent parts cf the United States have
conducted many experiments to deter
mine the benefit derived from this
practice. Very seldom, if ever, does
the increase in yield pay for the
work done, and we, therefore, advise
against subsoiling under most condi
tions. In some cases subsoiling may
even be harmful.
We have been unable to find any rec
ords ihdicating that subsoiling will
pay. It seems to us, therefore, to be
a bad practice to advocate, even if
in theory it does sound well.
Subsoiling is usually performed by
an iinplement made of a straight blade
with a shoe on the bottom. This im
plement is run in the bottom of the
furrow and follows immediately after
an ordinary plow. It does not turn
the soil, but merely loosens it. It
takes as much power to pull the
subsoil plow as it does an ordinary
811o Saves Doctor's Bills
Silage makes the very best winter
pasture for live stock and brings
about more nearly than anything else
summet conditions. The farmer with
a good supply of silage will have lit
tle need for the veterinarian. When a
pit silo can be had at a cost of fifteen
to twenty dollars, each farmer should
Menace to Dairy Business.
The breeder who multiplies defects
and perpetuates scrubby pedigreed
stock is a worse menace to the dairy
business than the man who keeps
scrubs under their true colors.
WHEN A MAN MARRIES OOUR aiT DEFN
IS HE SUPPOSED TO ESPOUSE
Consensus of Cases Seems to Show
That He Actually Marries His
Wife and All Her Relatives
How It Works.
"Does a man marry his wife's fam
ily?" lie claims he doesn't. But a
prominent society woman declared not
long ago that he does, no matter what
he thinks about it. and more recently
a prominent college professor made
the same statement.
Looking around among one's ac
quaintances, for evidence, it is a pret
ty general fact that the wife's family
is more in evidence than the hus
band's. One hears more of the wife's
kin, and the children seem to be bet
ter acquainted with relatives on the
When mother's relatives come a-vis
iting they are made much of and giv
en the run of the house. If any of fa
ther's relatives Pave the temerity to
invite themselves for an extended vis
it there is a chill in the home at
mosphere and nobody acts natural
least of all father, who is made to feel
that he is imposing upon the good na
ture of his overworked spouse.
The wife's relatives feel that it is
not only their right but their bounden
duty to butt in, no mattes what the
circumstances. And usually the butt
in is accepted meekly and endured
more or less amiably by the entire
family. Any husband who is a gen
tleman will do his kicking away from
home, or, if he cannot contain himself
at the moment, go down and poke the
furnace and commune with the cat.
And yet, on the whole, the wife's
relatives seldom do the amount of
damage that a husband's relatives can
do, once they determine to make
When a husband's mother decides
that his children are not being
brought up right, or that his wife is
extravagant or a poor housekeeper,
etc., and that her interference is nec
essary, real trouble star'`. not only
for the man's wife but even more so
for the man himself. His mother-in
law would never dare to attempt what
his own mother will do to him.
The wife may have a ne'er-do-well
brother who occasionally comes and
camps upon her hospitality. But if
the husband has such a brother, nine
times in ten the brother has married
and expects his more prosperous rela
tives to support a wife and numerous
As for fathers-in-law on both sides
-they don't Count appreciably. By
the time a man becomes a father-in
law he has been so well trained into
his proper sphere that he wisely re
fuses to mix in any kind of family af
fairs that do not concern his finances.
Anyway, there is usually a chord of
sympathetic understanding between a
man and his father-in-law, while every
wife knows the wiles that will bind
her father-in-law to her for ever and
How Doctor Abbott Prepares Sermon.
My method of preparation for any
sermon or address is to consider,
first, not my subject, but my object
that is, what I want to accomplish.
Next I consider what thoughts and
what organization of those thoughts
will be best fitted to accomplish that
object. And, third, in arranging those
thoughts I endeavor to make of them
not a chain but a river, to make
my argument cumulative, not merely
logical, so that the last thoughts will
be not merely the conclusion but the
climax of the thoughts that have gone
before. This I generally do without
the use of pen or pencil. Usually,
however, I jot down in a notebook or
on a sheet of paper the major points
in the address after I have arranged
them tn my mind, though I never
have this paper before me in speak
ing. It is much more important to
keep my mind in touch with my aud
itors than in touch with my theme.
Lyman Abbt' in the Outlook.
You can wander around Mets (In
diana), and Gibraltar (Pennsylvania),
and Belgrade (Missouri), and Dun
kirk (Maryland) without being shot
as a spy. If more scholarly associa
tions beckon, what say you to London
(Texas), Stratford (Connecticut), Ox
ford (Idaho), Heiflelberg (Mississip
pi) and Cambridge (Maine)? If you
love art and architecture, hie away to
Milan (Tennessee), Florence (Utah),
Vienna (South Dakota), or Versailles
(Kentucky). And if you seek the
antique flavor of Athens, or Pompeii,
or Venice, or any other venerable
But what's the use? We have it all
in America; just run over the map
and take your choice. Geography in
the finest of indoor sporta4hts~year,
anyhow. .. -
Barrels of Booty.
Sol. Sodbuster--Hear about the rob
bery down t' th' 5 an' 10-cent store
Hiram Hayrack-Nope. D'they gft
Sol. Sudbuster-Yep. They was In
there two hours and carried away
nearly a dollar's wuth o' goods.
Guest (in restaurant)-Wafter, you
don't mean to say this is spring
Waiter-Yassah; dat's what it am,
Guest--Um! 8pring of what year?
His First Sweetheart.
Her nanie is Milly. I haven't
anything about marrying her yet
to her or anybody-but I've
her books three or four times and
her in the back of the head
soft snowball, and I guess she
me, too. She threw a snowball
at me when I hit her and then,
washed her face for her with
she just said: "Oh, George, you
thing!" as if she might be
marry me sometime if I got
enough to ask her when we're
up. I wonder how a fellow gets
to ask them. I don't think Ill
have.-Ellis Parker Butler, i
So Paw Says.
Little Lemuel-Say, pay,
the difference between an op
Paw-An optimist, son, is a
is happy when he is miserable,
pessimist is a man who is
when he is happy.
"The Eskimos have a very
"Yes. They know pretty well
kind of weather it is going to be
out waiting for any tips fro
ground hog." *
"What do you think of this
ness of the Germans taking a
"They are apt to find the
in a broil."
80ME HARD KNOCKS
Woman Gets Rid of "Coffee
The injurious action of coffee
hearts of many persons is well
by physicians to be caused by
This is the drug found by ch
coffee and tea.
A woman suffered a long
severe heart trouble and'
doctor told her she must give
fee, as that was the principal
the trouble. She writes:
"My heart was so weak it
do its work properly. My
would sometimes have to
from the table, and it would
I would never breathe again.
"The doctor told me that c
causing the weakness of my h.
said I must stop it, but it
could not give it up until I w1a
In bed with nervous prostratioi
"For eleven weeks. I lay th
suffered. Finally husband
home some Postum and I quit.
and started new and right.
got well. Now I do not have any
aches, nor those spells wit).
heart. We know it is Poetu&;
helped me. The Dr. said the
day;- I. never thought you
mat you are.' I used to
pounds and now I weigh 158.
"Postum has done much for
I would not go back to coffee
for I believe it would killmef
at it. Postum must be pre
cording to directions on pks'
has a rich flavor and with
Name given by Postum CO.,
Creek, Mich. Read "The Road
ville," in pkgs.
Postum comes in two foi
Regular Postum - must
boiled. 15c and 25c packsaef
instant Postum-is a
der. A teaspoonful dissolvr0r
in a cup of hot water and, I
and sugar, makes a delicdoo
Instantly. 30c and 50c tins.
Both kinds are equally d
sost per, cup about the same
*There's a Reason" for
In these mra,! : hea
ment anl sc nI : ... ii e
thought ir sin c.n eoastr
fense. T''h cl ue-i1on : Ir" parede
;hat concierns all 1 "c Alle if
S always the une.i,,, at aclrca sl
o0inut rn- t tion . that.
'his is aI.o true iin r:!; s erts
healt h. Ti:,.t go i, ,M oflta 1
Stomach troul.ie-- !, maof heaI .
ed atltack at no , : is wel, a
prepared by al':ys k,'Tin g a beotll
i[lotetter's Sto ,,c.hL tt tir tin the
It is your lulark in ''e of distress
lie on guard at all !:M,:, and as 11
you notice tihe u'pittO failing, d
becoming impairei , th: liver inactivr
the bowels refu-e to p.f rfrm their
functions, conm.ll.n., taking the Bit Un
Prompt action, tog,,ther with the aid
this medicine, h:ti .. I, n the means of
venting much -:uut rino, from Sick
ache, Nausea, l', or Appetite, Indig
Constipation andl 1iliU:neýs.
Don't trifle with iir hc'ilth, but
help Nature wha n w1, tknes is manif
IHostetter's Stoem ii! Bitters is Na D
ally, and these togeth:er, form a co
lion that is sure to re-ult to your w
Try it today, but be uri-e you get $
A Soluble Antiseptic P
be dissolved in water as
In the local treatment of womsns
ench as leucorrhoea and inflammatti
douches of Paxtine are very effi
No woman who has ever used m
douches will fail to appreciate the el~
healthy condition Paxtine producees
prompt relief from soreness and d
which follows its uso.This is because
possesses superior cleansing,
Ing and healing properties.
For ten years the Lydia E.
Pinkham MIedicino Co. has rec.
ommended Paxtine in their
private correspondence with wo
men, which proves its superi
ority. Women who have been
relieved say it is "worth its
weight in gold." At druggists.
50c. large box or by mail. Sample
The Paxton Toilet Co., Boston,