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L IUNRfl EDS OF DIFFERENT INSECT PESTS
Lace-Wing Fly-A, Eggs; B. Larva; C, Foot; D, Larva Devouwing Pear Tree Psylla; E, Cocoon; G, Head; F a nd H, Adult. A field of red clover in full bloom is "alive with insects. Such a profusion 0f insect visitants, both as regards umber of individuals and number of species at one and the same time is afforded by no other plant that we know of, with the possible exception of alfalfa. In the clover fields of our experimental farm we have taken two hundred species of insects-not all of them injurious, though more than half of them feed on the plant, adding to these the other species that have been listed as feeding on clovers, vetches and alfalfa, it is seen that these plants are food for more than two hundred different kinds of insects. A hundred or more are predaceous or parasitic on these clover insects, or else feed on animal or vegetable mat ter in the soil of the clover field. No part of the plant escapes attack. The roots are eaten by the larvae and the beetles of the root-borer, as well as by those of half a dozen other speciks, and are drained of their sap 'by the mealy bug. The stem is hol 'owed out by the common stem-borer. Clover Root Borer-Beetle, Larva and } Pupa. Both the stems and the leaves are pierced by many hemipterous insects, a especially aphids and jassids, and are -eaten by a great variety of caterpil lars, beetles and grasshoppers, as are also the heads of the flowers. The ovule in destroyed by the maggot of the seed-midge, and the developing p seed is eaten out by the seed-chalcid. Even the hay is the special food of a certain caterpillar, hence called the s clover hay worm. r Some of the insects of the clover field are, of course, beneficial. Such are thn.e that pollinize the flowers 'bumblebees and, to some extent, honey bees, as well as those that act as checks on the injurious insects. 'Most of the clover insects are not limited to clover, but to other food plants as well. The seed-midge and the seed-caterpillar are, however, con. fined to the clovers, and the seed ,halcid to clovers and alfalfa so far as known. The root-borer is said to t peas as well as clover. The hay- Al rm has been found only on hay as - but the moth has been raised hi masses of dead grape leaves th ken In a vineyard. The leaf weevil bu In reported from beans and timothy, ha as well as clover and alfalfa. The to clover louse has been a pest of the "worst kind on peas and has a long CJ list of food plants. Of the less im Portant clover insects, a few have no Es other food plant; but the majority can -easily maintain their existence when Mo clover is at hand. The combined efforts of all the in- (B: sects are sufficient to reduce the hay ,Crop materially every year. Aside 'from the occasional conspicuous in. fo Jury, there is every year a steady fim drain on the plant through the attacks da ,of insects. This annual drain is not be motlced for the very reason that it ca occurs every year. If we could keep pat all the insects out of the clover field, lin fin fin4 mi: COa be shc the Elggs, Larva and Pupa of Cloverseed sho Chalcid. ah we should get more hay. If we could S exclude all except the bumblebees and bro 1h honeybees, we should undoubtedly of 1gt an immense increase in the yield feet ,f ied. ter 'llme who raise clover seed on a exti -commercial scale owe their success to bon methods which operate chiefly against shai the insect enemies of seed-whether don the growers are aware of it or not. fres Under the same conditions of soil and dclimate, one man is able to get a good eop of seed and his nearest neighbor T Es Bet. ver) Many farmers do not attempt to its raise their own clover seed. Those fort -who do, get more or less of a crop nee 3eoolrding to circumstances. In the black soil of the corn belt, one and <me-balt bushels of seed per acre is TI 3haut the average yield for clover; now the sao Is not the best for this crop. weec Prequently too little seed is sown, and the was the seed insects ravage the allr crop unless certain precautions are taken. Many influences combine to is reduce the crop of seed. The worst injuries to the seed are insidious in Io their nature, and are caused by in sects. These injuries are of three se classes: (1) Those of a negative kind, due to lack of pollination. (2) The positive Injuries due to miscellaneous vO insects that eat clover heads in an in If cidental way. (3) The postive injuries caused by insects that feed solely upon g clover seeds or florets. The first two groups are relatively unimportant in comparison with the last. n The importance of the bumblebee in ' the pollination of red clover is so well established as to need no discussion. r That of the honeybee, however, is not t sufficiently recognized. The honeybee pollinizes clover to some extent, even though its tongue is two millimeters shorter than the average coralla tube. SA field of red clover is always thronged with honeybees if any of them are being kept within a mile or - two of the place; and these bees se cure nectar from flowers that are un dersized, especially in times of drought, when most of the flowers are smaller than usual; also from flowers that secr to a copious amount of nec tar. "'he bees, bumblebees especially, should be protected always. They are the best friends of the clover grower. Early pasturing is the secret of a good seed crop, as the growers in New I York, Ohio, Michigan and other states have found. The explanation is sim ple. The fact is that pasturing gives a good seed crop for the reason that it delays the heading of the plant until a time when the seed-midges and seed chalcids are no longer on the wing and laying eggs. When precau tions are not taken against these pests, they can be counted upon every year to destroy most of the clover seed. In some localities these two in sects eat from 50 to 75 per cent of the red clover seed every year without t if Alfalfa and Cloverseed Chalcid, Adult. hindrance. The farmer gets only what the insects leave. If he gets two bushels of seed to the acre, the insects have, perhaps, already eaten from two to six bushels off the same acre. CARE FOR THE LITTLE CHICKS Especial Attention Must be Given During First Ten Days--Essentials for Successful Brooding. (By H. L. KEMPSTER, M!ssourl Experi ment Station.) New hatched chicks require special food and care, especially during the first ten days. After they are ten days old the following mixture should be kept in a trough where the chicks W can run to it at all times. Thirty tal parts cornmeal, 30 parts wheat mid lings, 10 parts pure beef scrap sifted P fine and one part bone meal, and T( finely cut green food. a As the chicks increase in size the 51 mixed chick food can be replaced by ty coarser grains. At this stage it may his be advisable to feed a wet mash once o a day, about 4 p. m. The chicks Se: should be given no more feed than tr they will eat up before going to the roost As they increase in size they ley should have access to dry mash in a hopper, where they can help them selves. Cal Some essentials for successful ro brooding are, clean food, consisting th of both cracked grains and ground act feed: animal food, such as milk, but- of termilk or commercial beef scraps; im extra bone-making material, such as par bonemeal; clear water; plenty of low shade: comfortable dry quarters; free. Can lom from lice, and access to clean, son tresh earth. out European Food Supply, ten This year the entire world will look lng very largely to the United States for ts supply of food. Every possible ef 'ort should be exerted to meet the I leeds that will be thrust upon us. wa go Fight on Weed Crop. teni The entire forces of the farm should t\ak low be ready for an onslaught on the mex reed crop. Have the plows bright, and he harrows and the disks mended and goo 11 ready to us* stax GREAT BENEFIT TO FARMERS Three-Hoar Trip to Town Cut Down to Thirty Minutes by Advent of Gasoline Motor Car. (0 y L. J. ( .).LL lIt.) The prosperity of a state depends larg-ly upon good roads. They mean cheaper translportation, hbtter living conditions, and happier hotmes. Quicii communication ranks as the great fac tor in the universal dissemination of knowledge. Where good roads abound sectionalism cannot exist. The desire for good roads leading to a city that those with automobiles 'ee could have a greater pleasurable tour ing radius first brought the matter prominently to the fore as a good are roads movement with automobile back to lng. rst Gradually the farmer, antagonistic in at first, began to take an interest. in- With good roaids and an automobile ree he could cut down the three hour trip ad, to town to perhaps thirty minutes. he Good roads brought the doctor ius quickly-at a time when minutes were n- precious. Good roads and an automo les bile took the family to town in the on evening, something unheard of before, 6%O or to visit a friend or relative in a distant part of the county. When farmers learned that other farmers in were doing these things, that good ell roads and automobiles made them pos n. sible, then they, too, desired good Ot roads for their own county. ee By means of the telephone and en quick motor truck delivery the farmer r is now able to top the market. He e. can rush his produce to market at the os right moment to command the best of price. But he could not do it were his or roads not well built and in good re e- pair. Consequently the farmer is now n- most active in the agitation for good roads and jealous of any legislative re power delegated to irresponsible au rs thorities. C" While in time every road should be ' a good road, yet all the work cannot e be done at once. Therefore the au r. thorities who are building roads a should see that each one is linked to another to make continuous highways. 1 s The advantage of this lies in the fact i that the main arteries of travel will then first receive the attention of the t good roads builders. It will also fa. t d cilitate touring, in itself a valuable s e asset for any communiy. t It is interesting to note that in 1913 t Ohio had the largest mileage of im- t: proved roads of any state in the Union s with 28.312 miles. Indiana was see- o r Tnd and New York third. Illinois was 1h seventh with 9,000 miles. While New b York can claim the greatest progress o in road building from 1909 to 1913, n having built nearly 10,000 miles in that time, I feel that the work Call- si fornia is now doing probably puts that tl state in the lead. I have just returned a from California and am amazed at the si o tl tin -T pr W( ":i:.;;!;!)i.izii;;;i:i;. ;i inj : . . ·:::'·::::::. ··:·: : i::.;i~: :::: ,;i!: l ! - 'fo l Gravel Road Near Richmond, Ind. c wonderful way in which this state Is t taking hold of good roads work., pe Three years ago California appro. I tu priated $18,000,000 for good roads. th The various counties each appropri. pr ated in addition from $250,000 to $3,- ba 500,000 for the improvement of coun ty roads which are feeders to the main KE highways. Los Angeles county has over 400 miles of improved roads. By Opi September one will be able to drive C from Los Angeles to San Francisco by the coast route and return by the val4 ley route over continuous good roads -a boulevard 1,000 miles in length. knc The same agitation that brought tha California its appropriation for good hor roads is now being waged elsewhere joir throughout the West. In some places actual work is in progress. The state rou of Utah has passed favorably upon an inel improved road that eventually will be part of one all the way from the Yel- I lowstone National park to the Grand canyon of the Colorado river in Ari zona. In the East New York is working out its good roads plan and I am in terested In the efforts Illinoeis is mak ing to improve its ,roads. feet Work for ConvictL. shal If set to work on our public high. Fam ways the convicts in our prisons would cent go out into the world after their sen- post tences are fulfilled better qualfied to sho take their places as self-respecting top, men and stronger mertally, morally hogi and physically. This aspect of the rour good roads' subject is receiving con or c utantly increasing attention. that Ito rds earl MARK THE PURE-BRED LAMBS ing icki Most Popular Label is Metal Band ac- Adopted by Most of Large Breed of ers-Notching is Good. nd Every pure-bred lamb in the flock to should be marked. If possible, they les should be marked the day dropped. ur- Lamb-size labels are sometimes used ter with success, being later replaced with ºod the regular size labels at weaning sea ck- son. It has been said that using the sheep-size labels on young lambs tic causes their ears to droop, but 'some est. experienced men say this is not true. ile The breeder's label is inserted, and rip should have on it the flock number, if more than one flock is kept, and ini ;or tials or name of owner. The most pop !re ular label is a metal band, and it has lo- not only been adopted by most of the he 1 1 re, - i en 14: id a er Choice Lot of Spring Lambs. larger breeders. but also by the lead- I b a Place the tag in the lower part of or e the ear, fairly close to the head, with at the number on the inside. The label should not be too loose or it may be do torn out. Neither should it be too m 3 lartight, or it may damage the ear. Somead f times the ars becomin the loer from in-of serting the labels, especially if the at Sthe number on thoperation is carelessly performed. The labse lamb should be watched for a t may to d be sure that these heal. The principal tu I objection of ear labels is that they su may be torn out. to Notching is also a good way to mark sheep. Notches on certain parts of lot the ears indicate certain numbers. By foe a series of notches any number de.- al sired can be obtained. If on the right see ear tip notch counts 5, middle top 2, top to head 1, lower middle 4, close ke: to head, lower, 3, when on left ear, otl the numbers may be made to count old into the hundreds. en thE TREATING SHEEP FOR WORMS th Lambs Are More Susceptible Than fhE Older Animals--Give Dose of flo Gaseoline and Epsom Salts. The stomach worm is the worbn i pest affecting sheep. Lambs are ing more susceptible than older sheep, litl probably because the older sheep are slgl accustomed to the presence of the worm. In the spring, soon after lamb. t ing, the old sheep should each receive the a dose of one to two ounces gasoline, will followed by a small dose of epsom uit salts. After a day or two they should be placed in a worm-free pasture, if possible. SU In July treat the whole herd, in cluding the lambs, with gasoline, and Aiw turn them into new pasture, and re peat the process in November. Pas ture rotation, combined with drugs that are injurious to the worms, is a practical method of successfully com- i bating this worm. fine, and KEEP SWINE OUT OF FIELDS gray Opening Arranged So That Horses and your Cattle May Come and Go at Will- time Hogs Are Turned Back, YOU - with An Iowa correspondent wants to TakE know of a method for fencing a yard throl that will keep the hogs in, but allow It horses and cattle the run of a8 ad. 44 oi joining field. 100 i Your correspondent should get a kept round post or timber six or sever old c inches in diameter and eight or ten old b DIR; Brini Do; Roller Turns Hogs Back. egg , feet long, writes A. C, Garvin of Mar. moua shall county, Illinois, in Wallace's outk Farmer. Fasten an iron pin in the out b center at each end, to fit in holes in to ea posts at each end of gate. The timber after should be 16 or 18 Inches high at the by m top, with a board under it When the ie hogs or pigs attempt to get over, the IC round timber turns them back. Horses was 3 or cattle will get over and not scratch e their legs. ar TURKEYS PROVE BENEFIT TO THE CROPi `... ~ i~I( i ··.. A Quartette of Fine Gobblers. (IBy MARY E. RHTITIET.OCK.) h It has been said against turkeys - that they are destructivt to crops, but e in the writer's experience they have s instead proved a benefit to growing e crops of hay or grain; they are in search of insects not green food. d As soon as, or before, the hens show if an inclination to seek for nests a suf - ficient number of barrels or large boxes should be placed where they s can find them, preferably on the e ground so that the hen may walk into the nest; if she has to jump down into the barrel or box the chances are that some of the eggs will be broken. Seclude these boxes or barrels by partly covering them with brush or straw. After the hen begins to lay remove the eggs each day, placing one or two hen's eggs in their place. If the hen lays more than 15 eggs, give all over that number to a chicken hen, but when the eggs are hatched, give all to the turkey hen. After the hen has been set, shut her in safely from anything that might harm her, but let her off the nest each morning very early, shutting her in again when she returns. Some claim that the chicken hen makes the best mother, but if those who claim this will notice when feed ing young turkeys with a chicken hen they will see that often the turkeys will, after eatihg a few mouthfuls, go off in search of an insect until called back by their unnatural mother and encouraged to stuff themselves with unnatural food. They do not wish to eat much at one time and when being fed should at the same time be suppled with water; but when allowad to roam they do very well if watered night and morning, but if they come in from the field during the day it is because they want water. Nature has taught them to eat in sects, almost exclusively, when young; while the same teacher instructs the turkey hen to take her brood where such food is abundant, allowing them f to secure it for themselves. The hen scarcely ceases her watch t long enough to secure the necessary d food to sustain herself, fbr she seems o always to have her bead in the air to I see that the coast is clear. They, with their mother, should be o kept in a coop some distance from the tI other poultry until they are a week old, by which time they will be strong t enough to travel and will have learned it their mother's language. The coop should be large'enough so fr that the hen may stand erect, and should be at least six feet square the 11 floor should be of boards, coverd t with litter, so that it may be kept ju dry. By this time they will be so well ti trained that when the hen gives warn ing of danger, almost instantly every ti little turkey will disappear from fe sight, slide under aLrthing that will th furnish covering, or, if they are in gi the open grass, they will squat down po to ground with their heads down and es will remain hidden and Perfectly quiet gil until the mother informs them that ru the danger is ,past, nor will they s out sooner, even if they may be it den on by not doing so. The e meanwhile walks around caly g with a quiet dignity as though s, a not own a young turkey in the They should not be turned q, v the, morning until the sun has the dew from the grass, and e be brought in not later thal y o'clock in the afternoon, for soon e that time the hen will hover 3 when it will not be an easy tt find them. t They should also be broughth any time a storm comes up and shut up until the grass is again even if it should be for a day or In the writer's experience a dog has proved a valuable in bringing the turkeys off the iHe had always been taken along taught to walk slowly behind They seemed to have no fear of but considered him as their k long before the summer was oeve could be sent alone to bring home, which he would do very cessfully, often going half a mile them and of his own accord if had been neglected longer than Neither was there much danger hawks, as he never allowed one Their first feed when they are ty hours old should be stale moistened with new milk, just en so that it will crumb easily when milk is equeezed out. Then teed boiled eggs. crushed up shells and and mixed with dry bread following this with sour milk made by heating the sour milk the curd is crumbly when the mit squeezed out or drained out by ing through a colander. It mnst be their sole diet, but may be once a day with safety. As soon as possible get then eating cracked wheat, then wheat, but even when quite large relish an occasional mash feed curds. This, when given, should be feed and give in the morning. When they are shut up while they should be fed five or six tiere day, but when roaming they only a light feed night and They should always be supplied or have free access to, gravel or of some kind. This is as necesMary their food. As soon as they show an inc to fly upon a perch they should be into a building supplied with perk and plenty of fresh air, but from enemies. A sharp lookout must be kept lice. The hen and nest should thoroughly dusted with insect posid just before the turkeys are and every week or two afterwards til they are six or eight weeks 01 Stretch out the wings and lookW tween the ridges where the feathers start; if any lice are they will be found here, and if give the wings a heavy dose of powder, which will be all that is essary. Watch on the head, neckL gills for the large head lice; it to Mub these parts lightly with DUre~ SUCCESS MADE WITH DUCK, Always Give Water With Feed, a, Fowls Cannot Eat Without Drink. ing--Good Plan Outlined. (By W. HARVEY.) I feed my ducks cornmeal, groun( fine, mixed with four parts cornmea and one part fine white sand, or fine gravel sifted. Stir the sand and gravel up With your, meal and water and feed five times a day. Always give water when you feed therm, as ducks cannot eat without drinking at the same time. Take the water away when they are through eating. I tried this plan last year and raised 44 out of 60. The year before I had 100 hatch, but raised only 13. I also kept the little ducks shut up with the old chicken mother. They were a week old before I let them out. DIRTY EGGS CAUSE OF LOSS Bring From Three to Ten Cents Per Dozen Less in Large Markets- Enormous Quantities Shipped. It is astonishing to go to a large egg receiving depot and see the enor mous quantities of dirty eggs sent to market. These dirty eggs are sorted out by the shippers before being sent to eastern markets and make carload after carload. There are eggs covered by manure, by manure and feathers, and eggs stained yellow like tobacco Juice because the straw in the nests was wet. The dirty eggs bring three to ten cents a dozen less in the large markets than clean eggs. S ROUP CAUSES MUCH TR s Disease Is Now More Wid Than All Other Poultry Allenr~a -Remedy is Being Sougt. Domestic fowls have been. nated against cholera. The egp l these vaccinated fowls have been 1 to vaccinate other fowls, the wl the egg being used. From one tO drams of this sibstance injected rectly under the skin has been to immune birds against this dealing disease. Doctor Kitt, a German doctor, I this discovery; also, that injected birds already taken with the it has been known to cure, not in many cases. Roup is now the cause of mors in the poultry business, and 18 5 widespread than all other poultry eases. It will weaken a flock to fourth generation and more. university, Indiana, through its tensive poultry department, claim to have brought to light organism causing roup. Knowiag cause the next thing was to Bdu antidote, and while experiment= not gone far enough to put out ature relative to the antidote for disease, results have been U showing that progress has been toward finding the way to cut of destructive disease. Bad Things for Chickens. Aspergillosis! Sounds like thing awful, doesn't it? It is as thing for chickens to get, but will not get it if they do not ba:, cess to moldy feed or litter.