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..i " ý t ;yi ýC.~'"~··~~--.~i~ii -y MOM gyp ". yý;. ..:" ..:.· -·pp~- · ~ · ( 4c- · ··*r 4y -'i.- . %~% ~f**) y HANKSGIVING day as it is now celebrated is a composite of the ancient Harvest festival, whose origins go back to the dim pre-historic begin nings of civilization. and of the solemn Puritan religious, ceremony of thanksgiving. The joy ous celebration of the gatherinl of the year's harvest, a day or week of feast lag, song, dance and revel, is found in all ages and among all peoples. Thanksgivlng days are also common to all religions, past aud present, but they were not regular or periodical events-occurring generally after some victory of war. "The Puritans and the Pilgrims brought with them Irom England both the Harvest feti val and the Thanksgiving days, the latter being observed whenever the deeply religious mind of the Puritan ow In their prosperity or good for ten the direct Intervention of Provi des. The Puritan also stripped the aneet Harvest festival of much of its Jtde liese that had grown up around the celebration in agland, and grad ually through the two centuries tol ; ewiag the setlement of New England. - grew up the practie of oMina YTMdvtnIs annual. The religious . leMent has been greatly subordinated as the years passed until at the pre ,t time It is t a majority of AmerL eant y an Inci ddent that by many sto t bserVed tny ia the brach. To the stern old Puritan of almost thre cotre ago, the Thanksgiving py of 1912t would sem little less than Psherse so far as the thinkgiving feature of it Is eoncerned. But he would understand and appreciate the day's feasting and revel as a part of bhe eelebration of the Harvest festi val. The difference is apparent ton the re ds of the mearly settlement of Aamlra. The lst thfaksgiving serv ice held t North America was ob S sMrd with relgiouseeremeonles con ducted by an aglish minister in the yar 157 on the shores of Newfound I an This, eleryman, accompanied the epedition under Frobisher, who settled the first English colony in Ameriem The reopds of this aslgn -l cant day have beew preserved in the uaiat rules and areglatlss of the ex peditis as elaeVs: 'Is psImu: To banish swearing. dese and ar gying, and filthy corn Maestion, ead o serve God twice a day with the edlamr service of the cburmb of Etimaad. On Monday morn ing, May 27, 11.7, aboard the Ayde, .e rc ived all, the communiation by " ,e minister of Gravesend, prepared a Iud Chritelas toward God. and resolte men r all fortunes; . . . and Maiste Wedall made aunto a gooe sermon exherting all esp eialy to be thmkal to God for His t and marvlou deiveaee in The second record of a thanksgiving servi la Ameriae i that o the Pop ham ye whih aSttled at 3Saea hoe a the Mane coast t 1807. It comield of prayer ad sermon as in the ret instance. These were thanks plvilg days pure and stmple, and after the ttleaent di Plymouth many oth era of a similarly solemn religdius a tare oecurred The frst Harvest festival held tin Amee waes upon December 1 1 1. It has ben called, wrongly, the first autamaa thanksgiving held in Amer ea, h It was in reality the observ a:tee of the Harvest fettrival, with whbeh the settlers had been acqualnt ed la ngland. It was not a day set aset o relgious worship and it is ant likely that say religious service Sas held; ea th contrary, it was the 'ginning of a whole week of festiv Ity celebratieo of the successful SURELY EASY TO UNDERSTAND ly of the Sdgf It must have i---------------ae tenit h _,tear nMaea~la to theo Hn d r, their new home. Qaintly doei "Mourt's Relation" chronicle the event: "Our harvest being gotten in, ow Governour sent foure men on fowling that so we might after a more speciall manner rejoyce together, after we had gathered the fruit of our labour;s they foure in one day killed as much fowle, as with a little helpe beside, served the Company almost a weeke at which time amongst other Recrea tions, we exercised our Armes, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and amongst the rest their greatest King Massasoyt, with some ninetie men, whom for three dayes we enter tained and feasted, and they went out and killed Deere, which they brought to the plantation and bestowed upon the Captalne. and others. And al though it be not alwayes so plentiful, as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodnesse of God, we are as faire from want, that we often wish you partakers of our plentie." While the bill of fare of this trst American celebration of the Harvest festival has not been preserved the feast was no doubt a royal one even if some of the food and the methods of preparation would seem strange and outlandish to present day Amer lesas. The provisions must have bees bountiful for there were about 140 persons including the 90 of Mae sasoit's company who were enter tained for three days, and all had their share of supplies. From other sources we know that the foods of the sea were abundant and that the Pilgrims had made the acquaintance of the oyster. Ducks they had in plenty of the choicest species and also geese. Game, from grouse to venti son, was brought in from the forest in abundance, and there was a "great store" of wild turkeys. Barley loaf and cakes of corn meal were highly THANKSGIVING By AMELIA LE. BARR. "Have you cut the wheat in the blowing ields, The barley, the oats, and the rye, The golden corn and the pearly rice? For the winter days are nigh." "We have reaped them all from shore to shore, And the grain Is saie on the threshing foor." "Have you gathered the berries from the vine, And the fruit from the orchard trees? The dew sad the seont from the roses sand thyme, In the hive of the honey bees?" "The peach and the plum and the apple are ours, And the honeycomb from the scented fowers." "The wealth of the snowy cotton field And the itft of the sugar cae, The savory herb and the nourishing root There has nothing been given in vain." "We have gathered the harvest from shore to shore, And the measure Is full and brimming o'er." Then lift up the head with a song! And lift up the hand with a gift! To the ancient Giver of all The spirit in gratitude liftt! For the Joy and the promise of spring, For the hay and the clover sweet, The barley, the rye, and the oats, The rice and the corn and the wheat, The cotton and sugar and fruit, The fowers and the fine honeycomb, The country, so fair and so free, The bleseinas and glory of home. "Gentlemen," he stated, with d mirable lucidity. "murder Is where a man is murderossly killed. The killer in such a case is a murdrer. Now, murder by po'son is Just as much murder as murder with a gun, pistol. or knlfe. It is the simple act of murdering that constitutes murder ia the eye of the law. Don't let the ides af murder and manslaughter os eound ye. Murder s one thing; masiasghter Is quite another. p squestly, if there has bes a mrder., sad it is net mansu then it prized by the colonists and played their part in the feast. For vege tables the Pilgrims had much the, same as they had in England. Gov. Bradford's list naming beans, pease. parsnips, carrots, turnips, onions, melons, cucumbers, radishes. "skir ets," beets, coleworts, and cabbages. in addition to wheat, rye, barley and oats. Besides these they had the indigeous squash and pumpkin, and it may be taken for granted that a care ful Pilgrim housewife had preserved during the summer by crying a quan tity of strawrberries, gooseberries and "raspis." Take it altogether, the food basis of the first Harvest Thanksgiv ing day celebration in America was much the same as today. But if the good housewife of today was obliged to prepare the thanksgiv ing feast with the utensils and incon veniences of the kitchen of three cen tures ago she probably would throw up her hands in hopeless despair. The kitchen with its great glowing fre place was the housewife's domain and thle general living room of the entire family. The walls and the floor were bare and the furniture meager and comfortless, while the kitchen furnish ings were odd and strange. It was in this great cavernous chimney that the Pilgrim wife cooked her thanksgiving dinner. Placed high up in the yawn ing chimney was the heavy backbar, or lug-hole, of green wood, afterwards displaced by the great iron crane. It was beyond reach of the flames, and from it hung a motley collection of hooks of various lengths and weights. They had many different names, such as pot-hooks, pot-hangles, pot-claws, pot-cleps, trammels, crooks, hakes., gallow-balke, words that would puz zle a housewife of today to define. From these were suspended the pots and kettles in which the food was cooked. At both sides of the fire _ _ A_ --' - must be murder. Don't let this point escape you. "8elf-murder has nothing to do with this case. According to Blackstone and other legal writers, one man can net commit felo-dee upon another; and this is my opinlio. "Gentlemen. murder is murder. The murder of brother is called fratricade; the murder of a father is called parr cde, but that dom't eater late this ease. As I have said bore. murder is emphaUealy murder. "Ta will meer yemr eris place were large ovens in which bak Ing and roasting were done. There were no tin utensils in those old days and brass kettles were worth $15 a piece. The utensils were mostly of iron, wood. pewter or lat tern ware. Glassware was practically unknown and bottles were made of leather. Wood played a great part in kitchen and tableware. Wooden trenchers from which two ate were used on the table for a century after the settlement at Plymouth. Wood was also used for pans and bread troughs and a host of other things displaced by tin in the modern kitch en. Of wood were made butter pad dles, salt cellars, noggins. keelers,. rundlets. and many kinds of drinking bowls which were known under the names of mazera, whiskins. piggins. tankards and kannes, words many of which have disappeared from use. The dinlpg table of these old days was the ol Anglo-Saxon board placed on trestles, and the tablecloth was known as the "board cloth." Thus we have the origin of the time-worn phrase: "Gather around the festive board." And the furnishings of the "board" were simple, inventories of that period mentioning only eaps. chafing dishes, chargers, threnchers, salt cellars, knives and spoons. The table fork was an innovation not yet in general use; the fingers of the eater were used to thrust the food into the mouth. The spoons were of wood and pewter mostly. Silver spoons were rare. There was no chinaware on the tables of the early thanksgiving feasts; for no china ware came over on the Mayflower. That and the lack of glassware and silver would make a thanksgiving table of the seventeenth century look impossible to a housewife of today. Complete the picture by imagining large trenchers, square blocks of wood hollowed out by hand. placed around the "board" from each of which two people dig their food out with their fingers, and you have an idea of the manner in which our ancetors cela brated Thanksgiving three centuries ago. But if the kitchen and table furnl' ture would appear strange to a house wife of today some of the dishes served would appear even stranger. How many housekeepers of today can cook "suppawn" and "amp" from corn meal? Or bake manchet, sil mels, eracknels. annacks, cocket bread, cheat loaves, or "wasel" bread? The colonists did not take kindly at first to the pumpkin, 'which in the pie form has bheome a distinctive ar tare of the modern thanksgiving feast. They called them "pomions" then, and this Is awe-nspiring recipe from which the colonial housewife made "pompion" pie: "Take a half pound of Pampins and slice it. a handful of Tyme, a lit tle Rosemary, Parsley and sweet Mar joram slipped off the stalks, then the cinnamon, nutmeg and pepper, and six eloves, and beat them. Then mix them and best them together sad put tn as much sugar you see fit; them try them like a tfrts. After it Is tried let it stand until it be cold. Take sliced apples, thinne rounds ways, and lay a row of the frolse and a layer of apples with currents betwixt the layer while your pie is fitted, and put in a good deal of sweet butter before you close it. When the pie is baked take six yolks of eggs, some white wine or Vergis and make a candle of this, bat not too thick. Cut up the lid and put it in. Stir them well together whilst the eggs and the pomptons be not perceived and serve it up." Thus latth the old cook book, and the modern housewife who faithful ly follows this recipe can have at least a unique concoction, feartfully and wonderfully made, to grace her Thanksgiving table. gentlemen, and make up your minds accordtin to the law and the evidence, not forgetting the explanation I have given you." Giving Compliments. Don't be afraid to give complI ments. Overdelicacy In this respect is a social handicap and a ceamse of mach needless lack of popularlty. larn the ar of compliment giving, but be sure, toe, that thre is at least a grain .1 tAth n evey complieut me i w RNTI-UNI LAW FILS Trial in New York Shows Ordi nance Fallacious. Has Had No Effect on the Criminal Element. While Law-Abiding Citi zens Are Left Without Means of Protecting Themselves. New York.-One year has passed since the "Sullivan law." aimed to prevent the carrying of concealed weapons, became a law, and, as was predicted a year ago, the law proved an utter failure. Crooks and other criminals continued to carry con cealed arms in spite of the law, which fell heavily only upon a number of law-abiding citizens who were the pop sessors of arms for protection and neglected to get rid of them before the law became effective. In other words, the law merely had the effect of depriving the law-abiding citizens of their means of protection. while the criminals, against whom they tried to protect themselves, were left in possession of their weapons According to the annual report of the coroner, just issued, there were 106 homicides by shooting during the last twelve months in Manhattan. only two less than in 1910, when the high water mark in the number of homi cides by shooting was reached. In eighteen of these cases the circum stances did not call for an arrest. while in eighty-eight cases arrests were clearly in order. As a matter of fact, however, arrests were made only in thirty-seven of the cases, leav ing fifty-one cases in which no ar rests were made. Under the Sullivan law it is illegal for any dealer to sell a pistol or other dangerous weapon prescribed by the law to any person not in possession of a license for owning and carrying such weapons. In spite of this fact It is estimated that during the last twelve months more than 6,000 revolv ers were sold by dealers and pawn brokers in this city in violation of the law. John Schrank, the man who shot Colonel Roosevelt, admitted after his arrest that he had bought the revolver j NEVER SICK Grand Old Man of Pennsylvania Town Celebrates Eighty-ninth Birthday. Royersford. Pa.-Wednesday eve marked a red letter occasion Im the career of Reuben Winter, Sr., Royers ford's grand old man. It was then he celebrated his eighty-ninth birthday anniversary, surrpunded by his family and a few intimate friends, at his home on Main street Four genera tions were represented at the affair, Reuben Winter, Sr., his daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth Geissinger; her sea Carl. and his son. Robert. Reuben Winter has been a resident of Royersford since he was 24 years of age. For a quarter of a eantury he was station agent of the Reading Rai way and postmaster of the town, haw ing received his first commission from President James Bachanan. For a half-century Mr. Winter was a dire tor of the National Bank of Phoenix ville. and only resigned last year be cause of the necessity of making the trip of four miles each week on the railroad to attend the meetings of dl rectors. He is stlBl a director in the Royersford Trust Company. SReube Winter is a self-made man, emphatically. He accumulated a com petency by dlant of hard work and strict economy in his younger days and through earetul investmants has provided a very substantial ineoma or 23 years. lace the Orace Lathes an conguregation was ormganised In Roy erfoerd. he has been one of its met aUtive meebbers, a member of the of clal board of the chureh aince its or ganinsation'and a devoted attedant at all the servles, both of the church and the Sunday school and every Sum day Snde him teaching his bible elas He hu never been adek a day tn his itfe and never used either tobaeco or 'stron drink. His hfaculties are bri Iant today, sad barring a sight ten dency toward weskns of sight ha is as bright as eve. He readily recalls incidents in his life aince he was years of age, and is a acknowledged anthority on dates i oecurences of the distant past On his auniversary he was the re etIpient of a handsome chair, the gift of his children, sad •nmerous em blems of flowers, or a handsome bo quet of 89 earentions from his chil dren, and another a bouquet of very large white chrysnthemums, the git of John DisLant, Phoenlvill, aged 14, a close friu SISPENDED ON AN ICEBERG Meet Thrlliag Eaeape in the Histery of Artle Lxploratin Toeld by Explekrer. London.-"This is the most remark a ble escape from imminent danger tin the whole annal of Arctic adventures" said tSir Ciement Markham, the ex plorer, in deeeriblag a thrilling tnci dent to ilstrate a ieture on iebergs before the Royal oeileties' club re Sently. It concerned, he said, their steum I tender, the Intrepid, commanded by -LtUt. J. B. Catoa. A vast See dreove t her against a berg with a frightful crfsh. Destructtion seemed certaln, rwhen the little vesselud was seen to rie FIND VALUABLES IN GARBAGE Small Fortunes Gathered in by Coi lectorn in Leedoe-Rings, Money and Other Thinge Found. London.-'Lndon's ash barres and garbage receptacles contain Ssmall fortunes In valuables every I week." said an octal of the London . county conell's destructor works at Iulbham. "Daris the week-end tn Squiries have been made at the council Ierese about a go penknife, a HURRYING TO DEFEND CONSTANTINO THE photograph shows Turkish soldiers in a cufa (a type of boat that th ancient Babylonians used) crossing the River Tigris lBagdad b the first step of their long Journey across 1.200 miles of desert sand, t ards Constantinople. to help defend the capital of the Turkish em against Christianity in the last stand of the Ottoman in Europe. from which the shot was fired in a shop on Broadway, near Canal street. In this city. Another significant fea ture is that gang fights In which pls tols were used were more frequent during the last twelve months than ever before. This clearly shows that the lawless element paid no attention to the law and evaded the enforce ment of it, while the law-abiding citl zens suffered, just as had been pre dicted. He Has Heart Shifted. Altoona, Pa.-Displacement of his heart threatened to cause the death of George L. Taylor, formerly secre tary of the Altoona Tri-State base ball club, and a prominent young busi ness man, and he submitted to an op ~~-.. -v_--_A IN 89 YEARS from the floating floe running ten feet above the bulwark, then the piled up mass from the floe sank down. leav ing the ship suspended on the side of the berg. her only supports to keep her stationary in this dangerous posi tion being two small wedge pieces. one at the stern and the other at the bow. She was in imminent danger of falling over on her broadside from that height The boats had been got out, but they were smashed to pieces by the ice. Three times the lee floe pressed against the berg and with the boats gone the loss of the ship would have entailed that of all on board. 8d denly the pressure eased off and the Intrepid was launched into the sea from her lofty position, without in jury. Lieutenant Caton and others had walked under her keel while she was suspended on the side of the ice berg. The present Admiral Sir V. Vesey Hamilton is the only survivor of those who were actually on board her at the time. WIFE IS TOO BEAUTIFUL Jersey Man Seid to Have Slashed His Helpmeet's Drees to Keep Her lndoors. Jersey City, N. J.-Becease his wife, buxom, middle-aged and mother of six children, is "so beautiful it is danger ous for her to go out alonae" James J. Fryer is said to have slashed her clothing Into ribbons. Before Judge Butl-r Mrs. Fryer said her hushband had locked her one clothing In a chest havings fve padlocks. The judge put the case over for a week. TOOTH RULES Girl Doubly Cured When Aching Molar Is Pulled by a German Deeter. Berlin.-An extraordinary case of somnambulism, resulting from tooth ache, has been observed by a German doctor. About two hours after going asleep each evening his six-year-old daugh ter would get up crying for her mot er, and talking to herself, wonld walk with open eyes through one or more dark rooms as if seeking something. On being spoken to Ip a loud voice, she either would make no reply or give a confused answer. After return ing to bed she some times would I sleep quietly and at otertimes would continue to moan. Usually she would pass the rest of the night in untrou bled sleep, though occasionally she would walk again. In the morning her face would be very red. Examination showed that this sing lsr condlton was caused by a sensi ' tive tMoth whlch hre been filled. - When the filling was removed an Sabscess was discovered. The tooth I was extracted, and since then there - has been no return of the sleepwalk tas I As the child was otherwise in per Sfeet health the somnambulistic state I t supposed to have been produced by I the eteet of the piosonous matter at - he root of the tooth entering the Sblood and cansng brain trritation. A Smond rlng and a valuable cut giass decanter which are all supposed to .hsve fodhd their way into the ar. bate boxeas of houses tin the Wsest End. "Many of the curios and valuabli a finde are never inquired for and are a only preserved because of the watch y tNl eye of the refuse collector The B sorters come acroes queer finds at t times, although the West End asb a- rakers often appropriate the valua II blee before our colloctors arrlve , " heard somoe time age of ese eration to have the organ returned its normnal position. Taylor tracted pneumonia last springn while he was convalescing, fluid ered in his lungs, crowding his h over on the right side. In this natural position it threatened se complications, so the lungs tapped. the pus removed and heart moved back to its accust place. ' Gives Chickens Cement Diet. Chicago.-Joseph Schubert ad the charge of his landlord that chickens were eating the cement under his store, but he said they hard bhelled eggs because of diet. ENGLISH CLERGY POOR P Only Nineteen Mlnisters of Gleus ter Are Paid Over $2.000 a Yewa Endowment System Faulty. London.-"Only 19 of the clergy the diocese of Gloucester receive - a year, or, in other words, only 10 as valuable as an ordinary membu parliament," said J. D. Birchall al conference of the Church of Men's society at Leeds recently. conference was discussing the neration of clergymen. Another speaker said it was that one man should receive a year for three mouths' duty and house to live in while others reoeiving such poor stlpends. The archbishop of Yard said the endowment system of the of England was full of old Nothing but Parliament and a process of lobbying and atati procure the desired reforms, said. WOMAN GETS $500 FOR WIfe of Essex Bank Cashier Is membered In Will for Belag Pleasant. London.-Among bequests Ib late Miss Alice Johns H Chelmsford, Essex, is one of Mrs. Walker, wife of a cashier d local branch of the Capital and ties bank Mrs. Walker receaigm legacy simply for smiling pl Miss Hodges as they left When told of her good fortunea said she usneed to sit near Miss in church, and as they came eat smiled at her and exchanged a pleasant words. SLEEP W very slight disturbance during is sufclent to excite the brasn then is reposing and strength. RICH BOY WON'T STAY Threatens Suicide If Returned to Paronta-Juvenile Court PuMsiEd. Washington.-Twelve-yearold Bregman for three days has the juvenile court. Although his father to well s Aaron was said to have persidted going about In rags and was with trading on the credulity ed sympathetic theater crowds. His father had punished hIm staying out late, and when for peddling without a license fused to be paroled in the his parents, announcing that be commit suicide before returning Two days in the house of did not alter his attitude, and when his mother falnted In cot would not weaken. Judge DeLacy, fearing that thei in a spirit of braggadocio, mlght tempt to injure hlmself if orders accompany his parents, turned Sover to the Children's Gur They are now seeking a way 5 the situation. p these persons who found a Sbag in which were a set of teeth, a purse with t4n se and a check book. As the lattIr no use he returned It and reward " At the Fulham destractor Sthere is a room set apart for the uable articles found aLog house refuse of London Some men are ambhltios good, some to make good. I difference.