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MAKINGA GOOD ROADS
, DYCONVICT IABO DONALD E DIGGS revolutionary about the working of convicts upon the public roads. For A many years it has been the custom in most of the cities of this country to place vagrants and other minor offenders caught in the police drag net at work upon the streets and in a number of states the inmates of . , the penitentiaries have been employed at various times in ;he construction of highways. But the modern idea of convict road labor is new and it is only just beginning to appear in various parts of the United States. The old idea-where convict labor was employed on the roads-was merely to utilize the labor of the convicts to the best advantage to the state-to make the convict produce as large a revenue as possible. In order to - repay the state for the expense of maintaining its " penal institutions into the new idea, there has .. . .. iri , ..c:..' I entered an element that was unthought of former 1y. his new elegnent has to do with the reclama tion of the convicts, the development of their, moral sensts and their ultimate return to the world as law-abiding citizens, rather than as human derelicts. made unfit, through their prison life, for any fur- " ther attempt to lead an honest existence. The new idea of convict road labor is to aid both the state and the convict; to give the state the benefit of the labor that can be utilized to greater advantage in this way than in any other, . and to give the convict the benefit of the out door life, the freedom from the restraint of prison .. <.::: alls and the different character of discipline that . makes it possible for him to regain his self-respect. ' . In workiag out this new dea, especially with - the view to the reformation of the convicts, old ideas of prison regulations necessarily have disap peared and the whole system of discipline has been ". revoeutioniled. The honor system has taken the .:' "' lae of armed guards, in many Instances, and the "" '::"", road "camp" has replaced the stockades and "bull • . .'.. . "'.. ..,Z... . pens" of the old days of convict road labor. "s "4 O "" • " Colorado was one of the first states to adopt the .. :" new idea. New Jersey began experiments along . , . ,,. ; the same line a short time later. President Wood row Wilson, then governor of New Jersey, is given credit for the inauguration of the convict road Cr ýO7'.a6.A e,.2O work In that state along the new lines. Several ew Jersey the convicts are handled a lit other states have fallen in line, each working without guardsn New Jersey the convicts are handled a lit possibly n a dferent way but toward the same the erently, but the object the same. Her Igeneral end. prison-have created a national reputation for the guards have not thrown away their guns, loyalty. Less than one per cent have violated but the firearms are not in evidence and the Illinois is the latest state to make a begin- their pledges by successful escape. Communi- casual visitor to the convict camp scarcely can suig in this work. A force of nearly om e hun- ties no longer fear to have our convict camps tell which are the keepers and which convicts. te onvic was recently taken from the pent- established near them. We have made manhood Woodrow Wilson, when he was governor of todta. a Joet ad paed at wor nthe as welt as money by this healthy, hearty out- New Jersey. thought he saw a way to solve some roads. Armed guards were dispensed with and door labor. We have built the prisoners up both of the problems presented by the state prisons. othe men were plated upon their honor. The physically and morally. Men discharged from He outlined his idea to the state prison labor convicts pledged themselves to make no effort our road camps do not have the prison pallor, commission and turned over to that body, togeth to escape and the authorities are relying upon the physical weakness and the hesitating. hng- er with the state road commissioner, the task their keeping this promise. dog appearance of the typical discharged con- of working out his ideas. The result of President In this ase a tendency soon developed on the vict. They are bronzed, sturdy, healthy, efficient Wilson's suggestions is "Don't Worry Camp," the part of the people to overdo the idea of givi ng laborers and are in demand as such. About 80 first of the road convict camps to be established the convicts greater liberty and pleasure. A plan to give he convicts an automobile ride per cent. of those we have sent from the camps in New Jersey. peand togetheor its a nrb atomobierde on the completion of their terms have made This is very much like any other summer and t theater party in a nearby city was prion- good. The other 20 per cent. have mostly found camp, except that it It better equipped. One posed to the authorities, but Governor Donne their way back into prison elsewhere." large room holds the convicts' beds, while in a vetoed this program and let ite beunderstood theate Under the Colorado system, the convict is projecting ell there is space for five guards. while it is planned to give the p e nvicts greater allowed ten days off his sentence for each month whose beds are so placed that every square foot freedom tharn they have been aiccustomed to of labor performed on the roads. This is in of the conviets' quarters can be seen through a within the prison walls an theo aid em in get-he addition to the usual reduction made for good glass partition. This is the only suggestion of ing av better view of lifetee the fact that theyor behavior. There are other incentives for the surveillance, except for the locks that are placed have been sentenced te pay a penalty e for in- convicts to so conduct themselves that they will on the doors at night. The convicts' room con tetion of the state's laws must not be forgot be put at work on the roads, according to War- tains a shower-bath and other facilities. The ten and the men must be made to realizeo that den Tynan. "For one thing." he says, "the man ventilation is scientific and the floor, walls, cell punishment awaits such violations of the stat- who is allowed to leave the prison for the road in and beds are spotless. Two former chefs. utes. of o vt po the ra camp practically has seen the last of prison ift now convicts, preside 'in the kitchen and prepare The working of convicts upon the roads in he conducts himself properly. His food is bet- the meals, which include meat twice a day and Colorado was made possible only a few years ter, his clothing is better. He has not constant- plenty of fresh vegetables. lanto by aet of the legislature. The system has ly before his eyes the guns of the asn e camp were construct provement of the highways. The result is seen application, and these things enable him to take needed. After the camp was completed the con in many miles of splendid roads built by the his place among other people and do a man's vita were put to work on the nearby roads. convicts, wye ad ork when he is released from prison." Wr Asphalt roads are to abe laid and culverts and The honor system was adopted simultaneously As to the economic side of the question. War- briodgs constructed, and in this connection i with the placing of the convicts on the roads den Tynan is just as optimistic. He declares seen one of th chief benefits of the new sy in Colorado. All ofo the aconvicts were not that the state has saved a large amount of tem, so far as the conviects are conecerned. The guards, but a certain percentage of the prison- sands of dollars during the next ten years masteries of scientific road-making, a profession ers, including those having the best prison reo- through the use of convict labor on the roads. which is not overcrowded, Those prisoners who ords were taken from the penitentiary first as With treference to the cost of maintaining the show an interest in the work will be promoted to tan experiment. ves to the auc thts the r- conevicts in the road camps, Warden Teynan gives responsible positions and will be in a position to meat seemed evident to the authorities, the num- some statistics, secure well-paid Jobs when their terms expire, bet of "lhonor" men was increased and more "In one of our camps." he says, "we worked the authorities believe than $0 per cent of the convicts were finally 35 men, not including the camp help, one month. While these oew states have been taking the m oved from the prison and placed in the road The maintenance of each of these men cost the lead in the efforts to solve the problem of o eamps, state exactly 25 cents per day. The total cost vict labor, other states have been studying the Warden Tynian and other prison authorities de- of all the work for the month, including salaries, question of how best to diret the labor of the clars the experiment has been even more sute- ee of stock feed for teams and cost of equip- state's ward, both for his own interest and that ceesful than they anticipated. men t was $515.15, or 47W cents per, day per of the state, and rapid progress is predicted "'During the last three years whe ha e bad more inn. Had this number of men been employed at' along these lines during the next few years by than one thousand individual prisoners in the the standard wage rateof !"2 pe day, the te ofamiliar with penal eonditions throughout convict camps." says the warden. "These men, of wages alone would have been $1.612 50.'" the country. BRIDAL ATTIRE COSTLY Brides all over the world like to make the best display possible on their wedding day, and the bridal at - 'e of the various countries is in YgIaly both costly and beautiful. r sher gorgeousness, however, a (e Wide World Magazine. It S heM be r to rival the wedding f e bnles of the Islad of I Th *es is wevam eise 'fjliC~r t C n rtb ly of gold thread, and its weight is so great that the wearer can hardly move; even standing up requires a distinct effort. Apart from this shim meringL golden garment, the bride is loaded down with gold ornaments, rings. bangles, earrings. pendants, girdles and necklaces, and sundry or namental purases of the same metal. The haus eumrmests hainrwa chains around her neck are hollow. but all the smaller charms are of solid native gold, most massively wrought. One might almost think that the natives, having heard some thing about a good wife being "worth her weight in gold." had set out to prove the tact by loading their quaint little brides with the actual equiva lent of their weight in the precious metal. England wants bowlng added to the 1916 Olympie Waes at Berlin. Arrested the Ambassaor. Sir Arthur Hardinge, who has been appointed British ambassador at Madrid. can tell of not a few strange experiences that seldom fall to the lot of the diplomat. While on duty I3 Portugal last year he was arrested by a policeman who believed him to be a conspirator. It was only after much telephoning. telegraphing and explaining that Sir Arthur was able to prove his Ietntity nd thee of erse, apologies were LEGATION FOR THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC if I11 ir . * r u r , ' tative it Washington. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TROUBLES OF A KING Alfonso's Second Daughter Born Deaf and Dumb? Reports Indicate There Is a "Curse" Upon Spanish Royal Family De spite Failure of Many to Assas inate Young Monarch. Madrid.-It may be. as believed by many. that King Alfonso leads a' charmed life, but if reports are to be believed, there is a curse upon the Spatish royal family despite the fail ure of the many attempts to assas sinate the gay, young Spanish nmon .rch. It is said that the king's second daughter, Infanta Marie, like his majesty's second son. Don Jamle, will be deaf and dumb. This has been of ticially dented, but so at first was the deafness and dumbness of the Infanta Don Jamie. i''y poor Alfonso! Forever dodg Ig anarchists and maniacs. Ever un certain of just what moment another ittempt may be made to kill him. Thien, in addition to this, which is ~eough to make the average man's hair turn gray, he has many other bur 4 Alphonso, Crown Prince of Spain. dens and annoyances upon his shoul ders, not to mention the many heavy cares of state. In the face of all this, he somehow manages to remain blithesome and gay, although it is ru mored about Madrid that the gayety is kept on tap by his majesty for pub lic appearances. One of the young king's greatest worries is his mother-in-law, Princess Henry of Battenberg. who distinctly does not lile or approve of Alfonso. She considers him a dissipated youth, and it is said that the princess would even sanction her daughter. Queen Victoria, leaving her royal husband. Alfonso ts t.id to be genuinely afraid of his amo:her-in-law. On a visit to Osborn Cottage. Isle of Wight, several years ago, Alfonso came into close contact with Princess Hlenry. and aet ually fled in terror. There is another load on the king's ENGAGED FIFTY YEARS AGO Romance of Childhood Sweethearts Finally Results Happily for Mimouri Copple. Kansas City, Mo.-R. 8. Hall, seven ty, a retired farmer of Breckenridge. Mo. and Mrs. L H. Carr, sixty-.our, of Hartaville, Ind.. who were engaged to wed 50 years ago. have obtained a marriage licensle here. They were childhood sweethearts mind, in the shape or his aunt. Infanta i Elalia. who is living in Paris. having long since renounced court life. The infanta is a novelist, and has persisted in writing things for publication that the king did not approve of Alfonso has threatened to cut off her allow ance of $5t,uo0o a year. She has done two things that horribly shocked the Spanish court-approved in writing of divicre,' and woman suffrage. Now comes one of the worst shocks of all. It is announced by an Ameri can author, Harvey J. O'Higgins, who is editing and revising Infanta Eula lia's autobiography, that this work "gives royalty an awful wallop." and that the infant's "viewpoint of nobil ity and their capers is pretty nearly the same that a typical American would take." This seems to forecast the worst, and poor King Alfonso is waiting in trepidation to see what terrible breech of royal etiquette his aunt has now committed. Blut the saddest of all of King Al fonso's sad blows is that his little daughter. Infanta Maria. Is to be dear and dumb Maria-Ch rist ina-Teresa Alexandra-Guadalupe-Marian de la Conception, Ilde-fonas y Victorla.Eu genoa, was born December 12. 1912. and was the cause of much rejoicing. Infanta Don Jaime, the second child of the royal couple, was born deaf and has never spoken. lie is now five years old In addition, he has never been in robust health, and has repeat edly been operated on for affections of the nose and throat. In August, 1911. Queen Victoria took him to Friburg to consult a Swiss specialist, but the 'operation at that time failed to be a permanent cure. FIND GOLD IN COFFEE POT Workmens' Picks Strike Nuggets Hidb den by Dead Miners in an Ancient Building. Denver.%m'olo.-The moving of a building fifty years old, in Itrecken ridge, resulted in workmen finding a; rusty coffee pot containing gold oug gets worth more than $1,800. The building was being moved to the rear of the lot on which it stood by Henry Evans. who intends to erect a modern brick structure on the lot. Immediate ly after the report of the find hun dreds of persons rushed to the scene. and, because of their activity with picks and shovels, workmen will not be needed to finish the excavation. The landmark. one of the oldest buildings in Summit county, was built of logs. In the early days it was occu pied by Edward J. Collingwood. who has since moved to Denver. Since then it has been occupied by various individuals and firms as a store. among them being G. B. Watson of BIreckenridge. Evans was advised to tear the an cient structure down, and thus save expenses, but, because of sentimental reasons, he decided to move it to the rear of the lot and to use the space which it hail formerly occupied for his new building. The moving of the building entailed much digging, and a force of laborers was put to work. One of the workmen unearthed the pot, and cast it on a pile of dirt. When it struck, the lid flew off. and yellow gold nuggets rained over the ground The contents were weighed and placed in a local bank. Evans says that unless some one claims the find., the proceeds will be devoted toward building his thew store. Enthusiastic fortune hunters crowded the site all afternoon, and Evans, after watching them for a while,. decided to I dispense with the services of the workmen. I Various theories have been ad vanced to account for the treasure, the most popular one being that of the old-timers, who declare the gold was hidden there by high graders years back in Indiana. Hall was a poor boy When he was sixteen he went bare footed a-courting the girl of his choice. later they were betrothed, but the girl's parents, who were wealthy. broke the engagement Hall came west, married and became owner of several rich Missouri farms Then hbe heard of his former sweetheart's mar f i riage to one of the rich men of Harts , ville. Many years afterward he heard I of this man's death. When Hall's wife died five years ago he received a let Ster of sympathy from Mrs. Carr, and MEDIEVALISM OF THE FRENý Seeking Miraculous Cures at Grave Unorthodox "Saint" at Lit tie Village. Paris.--Fronm the little vllage a Magny-sur-Tille. near Dijon, thew comes a story rteminiscent of the , perstition of the middle ages A few years ago there dlied is tn village an old woman named Franeles Souvestre, who had the reputatioe d being able to effect mniraclous ears Hier reputation survived her and tomb was reputed also to miraculous properties, which led to lit becoming a center of pilgrimage whib the dead woman was uhotficlally ea onized by inhabitants of the surrous ing districts. Eventually the Bis(hop of Dijon compelled to prohibit the cult of unorthodox "saint." but to no purps, and recently the report was pudl about that Francoise Souvestre's b* had resisted decay. This led to tkL fanatical believers In the "saint" di nimanding and obtaining authortsatli for the opening of the grave: Theb. humatlon took place last week in a presence of two doctors, a notary some four thundiPd of the "faithful, the lasts named wearing medals rosa ries. When the coffin was opened the S liever. were at first stupefied to be nothing but a skeleton. But fanaticism immediately revived aad hundreds they descended Into grave, mingling the ashes of the funct with their handkerchiefs, t crosses, their crucifixes and their als in order to convert those Into struments of miraculous Some, with a really macabre f mixed such bodily remains as could find in water and drank the rid mixture in frenzied exaltatisu. ago. who afterward either died were afraid to return for their In the opinion of the old miners, character of the gold indicates it came from Farncomb hill, wbhe the early days produced hundreds thousands of dollars. BEAR WINS WRESTLING MA a Man Claims $1,000 for Broken But Bruin and Showmaa Are Gone. b Springfield, Mass. - When t Wagner, a muscular structural worker, sauntered into a vas t theater the other evening, the Sof a trained grizzly bear knows 1 "Big Jim," was inviting any of o 1,500 spectators to engage in a e ling match with the bear. "Big s has a side partner in the a , whose duty it is to come forward f alacrity when the challenge is and to proceed to try conclusions 1. the bear which is invariably vi e The Invitation to wrestle the 1 is accompanied by the assuranee e $1.000 will be paid tn case the harms any person who wrestles >r him. The bear's side partner was 1e trifle slow in starting for the stage d the night that Wagner attended k. performance, and Wagner an 'e to a friend his purpose to "call a bluff." w Wagner vaulted upon the stab. d Jim" apparently was dee-lighted M id meet him. For several mlnutaes S1 ponderous bear and the hard us structural worker exchanged "tM e 'half-Nelson" and other holds. e. they went down in a heap. "Big td in extricating himself clumsily a sr on Wagner's left leg just above to ankle and broke both bones. Her ie curtain fell. Wagner was rushed M hospital. He says he will call upoS d- management for the $1,000 forfeit. to owner of the bear claims that se guarantee applied only to malicIous as juries. Meantime the bear aed rs showman have gone. away from hBa y subsequent correspondence id t e- meeting here ut Use Bears for Carrnler ty. St. Petersburg -Iears ih5o as dogs are being used for of tion purposes b) I !eutenaat be of the Rlusbian polar expeilds, ts. Undertaker Rescues FamilI rd Long Island '.ty. N. Y.-S: fe were rescued by William Ward. et- undertaker, at a ! re which ad tenement house.