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THE MADISON JOURNAL.
EE BROS., Publishers TALLULAH, MADISON PARISH, LOUISIANA, SATURDAY, MAY 15, 1915 NEW SERIES--VO. LIVES ARE LOST N GERMAN TORPEDO HITS LINER LUSITANIA m FrmiRt, at Q..insto~w, Deported to the Amen iy at Laud.a That the Total Number of -Sri voro Could be Placed at 645. ;PROMINENT AMERICANS MISSING TIVES OF ALFRED OWYNNE VANDERBILT HAVE AR POR A FLEET OF TUG8 TO SEARCH FOR HIS BODY, 0 AGENTS BUSY INVESTIGATING FURTHER. hundred and MY detr lv.es In the Lu st whom 1 "were belles ot Charles Uatrlel ssaer; Dr. at New York and t Chioesge have up as dead are: Vauuerblt. mittumn Its. plawrisht; playwright; Elbert Ers. labbard. m est at Quees. Sth ae Amerela embas SWsttl amnber ot ear be plaed at S4. ta a revyese not - a t t there were n adS en rew, a total ale uli orts n ea .hlst rea'rte at he but IS smved. fe awards at liN bare sieovered. He guss not Ilted byr ame 'almaet to a i" e at the pgmSo as bawl a re bimd lrom t wham the have bees Me Chares 1bmes s Yrsa. Mars IP. L ee, De r .I M , (v be s esta s the a go-n Mkary ast an the Iloerina ashoeu by Iebl tin uehosemrs we Ingi Paus with IS aet elense e of sthek. latd htvo wma be at m ow verl ito urve the Nheek di emal asl to thak ower to ad asewsla the ruth OMesam at the Ca aotl theb . Sa orderel the t Queematowa to adl sev* asmalt anm eran who seed have been sat is thi waur. I Martse St 1e. has ered ever ar his emma to Other vamls are -a the vala s to as snt to yr hithr s ! at Aled Owyme amased or a seet tor his body. whle to viskius every have been taoke . a wS a twlt mss aems at water, Dell o, .e tu. to Meyer Uamia o er et the ha esm1 e to akee e remiared e sao w:thL um s e o wear." wthe - .b site aenuse as a were picked up tlght4ocked Is st a others arms after the sea marssere Between the lines of corpees weeplin women sad grlef-trn men who make no effort to still their sobs. go slowl peering beneath enahrouding s*eea to sad their dead. Utter Confuion Prevails. As an enample of the confuasin which has swept not only the Sm yor. but almo the o ells oR, the. feet, the body of Charles Prhbman the noted New York and London them trlcal magts lay uncovered afn hours among more than 10 other, bdors idetfiatlon was made by an acqualatano Most of the others are still unlented. The werk of compilin a list of sw vivors meesearily is proceeding slow ly because of the confusion. Steam ship and goverament oealals sad the American esosml's oSes are swamped Apparently however. irst eabin p sayrs are ameng those saved. The work oft deastlatcen seaes ry Is slow beeause many of the vie tUse appear to have no riends or r-ale tives ro the rescued. Many et the bodies are tree of babes. At the (unnard wharf lies the body of a moth. er duclasping i e arm her ilve m~ th, old chil Many Entirely Destitute. The otels are lled with halel-t . ed. halfrase men and wome. Many have lst all their valuables ad have no moneyr. Their eles went down wit th ship and may haf str ed themselvs or their but tie with the sea. Relief Is being a. calned as quickly as possble. Soeee have cabled o their hemes for mossy. Many of these i the steerage lost everything and have no Ieape of mettiag ads. Women in mea's g~wt aests. me Ia uniterms laned them by resoers mne In blankets a to be seen n the streets. The bodies e several andsoame young American women are lyng In the market hall undeeihled. The funerals of a lage number of the vists probably will be held WMo day. The etire city d draped in mowumd Pty sodlder have boee requai. uoned to dig graves, there being not adequato htbor n the vicinitr. WATCH PATH OF TORPEDO When lk Made Its First Appear. Wes They Crowded Wn RaIL Leadns. - Row the Iwtainn was snk. the story of the Ight to save the paresmers, the stragle icr ile t the water after the giant lier dila peae-the story of what happened in the gret marine tragedy wasu lated by survvors. Whlte there is muc consflt l their arratives, fum them have been gal form a story whldi stands ety see end ats, whsk, when ase b . and to that of the Ttaane disaster The laitmanr was steaming along on the last leg of her vyage to Iv. erpool, making about 16 knots; it was about 2 o'eloek th the fterneos. The day we cear and calm. The a was shling brightly. It was a beautiful day at sea. In the morning the speed of the vessel had been redueed by Captain Temer when of Istat, probably it fear of scattered mines. The ship was liding along smoothly. Most of the saloon passengers wee at luhan. Some had quit the asoes and wee ao desk. A majority of the second lass and steeragL passagers als were on deek. Psmn gere at Thar Ra. Pasesegers tleisi stemmer shaies r played at quota.. Others M ed the raSlm s, ,peeran aaxnesly ot oev the water. For thee wuas mak nero .me tension due to th everpreseut On the hrg a sharp lus ent w bai kept. nlyr at 2:e t*he e. al wee gtven beenthe bridge * ted a h t. The Tepede Sied. This eeml ens ws the emtr m be gvess There w aI a beetmen , n s, , ase smwatmu ions eyes were turned to the bridge The first flush of the excitement had Just passed when there arose a more ominous cry from the deck, "There's a torpedo coming straight at us." From the point where the submarine eak a great white streak-the track of the torpedo, was traced. It was aimed slightly ahead of the Lusitania. but as the liner plunged forward at side. Suddenly a cry arose from scat tered points of vantage on the star board side, "There's a submarine" About a thousand yards off the star board bow passengers saw treakinr the sun glihted surface the sleek hull of a di aded underwater craft It reeted for I ut a moment ot. the aur face. !hen .s quickly sInmCrged. The liner plunged forward under the thrill of the new impetus. The whole of the ship's company seemed to feel the thrill of the new movement. Passengers on deck Socked to the great speed, the track seemed to veer more and more toward a point amid ships until it struck fair between the first and second funnels. There was a great tearing of metal, followed by a terrific explosion in the stoke holea The ship trembled from stem to stern. The planks seemed to rise under foot. Then the liner set tled as If sorely wounded. A great column of steam and water rose and c'os and wood splinters were hurled high and fell in an avalanche on the upper deck. The liner appeared to falter, then steadied as the helm was swung over and her course was directed for land. Missle Tears Through Bow. But before se she could answer to her helm a second torpedo pierced her bow. About four minutes intervened between the two. Some passengers state that not only a second, but a third torpedo struck the ship. It is generally believed, however, that the explosion of the seconad torpedo was mistaken for the impacet of a third. It was while the ship was making 21 knots with a heavy list to star bdard that the order was given, m mediately afte the second missile struck, to lower the boats. Among the maloon passengers rein the aslm prevailed. It was the gen erally accpted idea that the Last tain would Soat. Cool heads coun aeled calm and the more timorous were qgletd. Many of the Irst' cabin paIsengers went about their depart ure leiarly, some eves remaining at the table ntl luncheon was on eluded. Below the scene enacted was wide. ly dafernt. Women many of thes; with babies in their arms, became paatnetrleken. OQeers and passen. mers did their best to cal them. umes arising from the explosion permeated the ship and many fell ua coscious to the deck. Meanwhile the erw struggled valiantly to lower the boats. But due to the high speed of the veael sad the heavy list the hosts fouled the davits or Could not be swung out to lear the side. Masistrem Soks in Lives. A swirlring maelstrom fhesd In hundreds upon hundreds of lives. A great hole seemed to ope up where the Lusitaala had been and Into it poured thse, who minutes before had been chatting gaily the dei. of the greatest ship n th Atlantise. PFr the abor seen through glasses t the bands of one of the uast guards there appeared to ie a ertain of vapor aad smoke whiL huag low, obscuringa the scene. When the vel lifted the ship was gone. Prom what srrlv s say, it is gae to as some that early every eme ao the we ter withn a radius of i yards of the ship wheon t ank was eaght In the nderdr. May of the beoats hwaileh wr overt tared had been r~hted with sreat dlaealty. To ethers 9t bottom up swimaers a bcln eplessly. Many elant a wreekasc nts ea me about. pieking up the enarvurs The frst of the rese beats to arrive was a trawler. Quiekly the frt boats were emptied and then shoved e with aramen to plek ap ferther survivrs Whea the last o the survvers was take aboard the shipa eed hr lead, most of them to Qussntown. 1rst aiM was ad dasterd aboard but many were b nd help and died I a the way an. hnDly upwards e U beats rw , put tnto the water. Several were swamped, others wee ea elsed i the swell fo the ship ILte belts l watt to equip themamlves with the peeers. Some Jumpd over the Mde ad were drowad, oters leaped with ife belts en sad swmu to eves tuaed beat4s, ther to swait the eam in of other swr ers to rst the Slowly the ZIsla sled fsorwar ad her boew dippe deepelato the wate.I inlly the M iner lowed dows and maed to sttloe s she hau rn hek race and was ant I The witemo appatU s ill sp I t- ias all hr help On th br idgel eed Captman Turer, with bin enes. the eeer bMe haim d(rets the hopem s fikL In the wast men as i beats r e tlanged at the ia sal long. ferwade ustg NMt me thae 3 ml tes 1 elapt d a s the irs grped. gsgu she -t des wt hb l and s. h the bMser sek her Sod s meet at aiie snr s as hothib reige elg ase straA s ap M wa ben ai ases a aA ..... VANDERBILT DIES A HERO'S DEAT0 THOMAS SLIDELL, A LUSITANI; PASSENGER, SAW MILLION AIRE BEFORE LINER SANK. GAVE UFE BELT TO LAD" Was in Smoking Room When the Tor pedo Struck-Was Unable . to Swim. London.-Alfred Owynne Vander bilt died a hero's death, according ta Thomas Slidell of New York, a Lusi tanla passenger, who reached here. Mr. Slidell said that although Mr Vanderbilt could not swim, he remor ed his lifebelt and placed it aroun, a young woman. Then he went it search of another, although he knew that the supply probably was exhaust ed. A few seconds later the ship wend down and Mr. Slidell said he saw Van derblilt standing on deck without a 11it preserver. Mr. Slidell said he and Herber Stone, son of Melville E. Stone. gen eral manager of the Assoclatec Press, were In the smoking rooon alone when the first torpedo struck At once, both exclaimed "Torpedo. They went on deck and that was the last Mr. Slidell saw of Mr. Stone. TWO TORPEDOES HIT MARI Flotsam Smear Marks Grave of CO narder Lusitania. Queenstown. - Twenty-three miles from this port a Irregular smear 01 flotsam an a calm sea marks the grave of the Cunarder Lusitania firs tranAtiante liner sunk by a Germa submarine. One hundred sand forty nine of more than 1,200 souls who per Ished with her lie in Improvised morgues in old buildings bordering o Queenstown harbor. They were plck. ed up dead or died after landing. The 646 survivors are quartered in hotels, reidences and hospitals, some toe badly hurt to be moved. Two groups left, clad in misfit elothing, bound for Dublin by rai and theme by beat to Holy Head. The tinjrleq of some are so serious that additional deaths are expected Nearly all are too dased to understand flly what has happened. T he survivors do not agree as to whether the submarine fired one or two torpedoes. A few may they saw the periseope, though many tell oi seing the wake of foam as a torpe do came towam the veueL The only points in wich all comeur is that the torpedo struck the veesel a vital blow amidships, causing her to list to the starboard. In this careenal tasom she plowed forward some distane, smashin the life boat davits as she did sa, ad making the launchig of boats well nigh Impossible until she stopped. Estimates of the time the Lusitaa remained aloat range from eight to 3 minutes. The list to sta. beard so elevated the lifeboats on the port sie asao to reder them au ke , d omly two on that sie were "aunebed. ROOSEVELT IS BELLIGERIENT WueMd Have United tatm Take A tien i Lusieai Cases. bmracs--T-eere Rooseovelt, as ew lernisl the details of the dikang o the 'dts made thia s state eat: 'ThM rep.emwte not merely piracy bus pirma e a raster scale of mus' der thn amy old time prale e-' prctced. this b the wariane 'hiea detayed lstain and Dlaaut sad hndreds of eea wemem an chbldren" tin elgium. It b wartmre aaitnst In nent men. wMmen and eMh4rea tr ay. elu on to e o~ma and to orr tollow eomutr wmmoen who m e n the suerers It nems ineasselyahle that we can renbtl ftm taklag satlem u thi s mat. tr, tor we owe it nt only to human. iy but to our own matioal slf-re speat" SAYS U. a IS HELPLESS W. . Mlck mbe Seys War WIth ,Ge asany WulM le Fuile CleinstL-Wlliam P. McCombe, chairm of the Demoortce National CosmmittN, who was la this e f-or a tow hours, sad h reatlSy deplore the blowin up o the Lustsnin but he could not -m what this ouatry eld do about it, " s eaountry is hoilpes,' he sai. "apponse that we oud deelare warm aganst Germaary; It wold amount to Vietim of Submarnrle -umdm.-A dispatch to th E. change Telegaph bie m says the W.ime Line stamer Tturo was m-e by the Germana saumrine U -. y sland. No lh were leet. The mew o the mmer was leaei at nothing more than the recall of the ambassadors of each country. We could not fight because there are na German ships on the seas and no onw would consider the insane propositio, of sending an army over there. I a:t. absolutely neutral in this war." Rely on Odenwald. Washlngton.-The State Department has replied to the German ambassa dor's complaint that the German steamer Odenwald was "attack ed" when she attempted to leave San Juan, Porto Rico. without clearance papers. The reply has not been made public, but it is understood to be cos Ltned almost entirely to reports of the military and port authorities, telling how the Odenwald was warned nol to leave port, and when sthe did stagr out was brought to by two blank shot: and finally a solid shot across hey bow. Justified in Sinking Ship. flerlin.-The destruction of the Lu sitania has made a deep Impression here. While the loss of lives of nen. trals is regretted, the sinking of the steamer is Justified, because it is at leged the Lusitania was a fully armed British auxiliary cruiser. It also L assumed here, according to a seahi-o ficial statement, that the vessel's hold was full of munitions of war for use against Germany. Italy is Impressed. Rome.-The sinking of the Lusi" tania has caused a profound impree. sion In Italy. Anxiety is increased by the fact that there were several Ital. Ians among the passengers. The feel. ing in Rome may be described as one of Indignation at the killing or nen. trals. Measures to end such proceed. ngas are being urged on all sides. Was Auxiliary Crulier. Cleveland.-Dr. Bernhard Dernburg. former colonial secretary of Germany, who arrived here, helds the sinking ct the Lusitania to be justifiable because the Lusitania carried contraband of war and also beceam the boat was classified as an auxiliary cruiser at the disposal of the British admiralty. Germans Expelled. Londcn.-Resentment against Ge many over the torpedoinr of the Lust. tanls was so strong on the stock ex change that the British members unit. ed ad turned ll their fellow mem bers of German origin sad also all German clerks bodily out of the house. Behlnd Prident Wiaen. Sacramento.-Resolutions "relative to .he president's request fe an e pr ,Ion of public oplnlo1" on the sL king y f the Lusitania were intro. duced in .be California Senate and Heose and referred to committee. Welsh Choir Was Aboear Seraato-n-Among the passengers on the Lusitanal were all but two of the members of the Royal Owent Welsh Male Choir, which had bees touring this eountry for a year and a hal. Was Vletlm of U-s. Geneva--A dispatch from Munclh, Bavaria, received at Basel, says that the German sanmarne U- sak the Luslitnla Luetmanla Relief Fund. Liverpool.-A Luasitanla ren afend has beesn opsed here. Lord Derby suaseribed $1,2. oLeae' Strain Intenase. Jondoa.-Tho Cunard oeces in Cockapur e keepl g open aU naht sad there Mends or the Lasitaina's Was Net Arme. LAicon,-The British government "The statemet peaurlg in se newspapers that the LealtaaL was armed is whoby hlwe." Insured Per $7S04000. New York.-Insurance on the last. tuns, It was sai, amounted to P,,6e, e. The wvessel was valued at PO., WOO. Her cargo wuas rekched at 372W.* Germany Rejelolng -eneva.-There were grest re . ings ina sothern Gemany, asecording to avices. Chidrea had a halt oll. day in honer of the event. New Yerk 1l Safe. Nfew York.-Ma-y iaquiries were r celeved at the oilee of the Amerleta Line as to the safety at the liaer New Yorh, which saied from this part for Iverpool auni the Amriwisan k Prohlblten In Franee. Pr,.-The Petit Parsles sa iL has been irfrmed the governmemt will ntrodas a bill peibitting abe lately the man cture, sale sad trnasport eo all aleohoie drink dau aga Thirteen of them carry passe sr,, ed one, the Casmeronla. left New TYos Ma 3 for Hal prsun ably to take Canadin troups to. ag land. Enda.-C aptal Turer , a te - __ t his p w , ds*, sad eas enm e s, ahors lr mtea ~. a -- SPn-1. 's 3. A.: " WILSON SAYS U. S. WILL NOT GO TO WAI DENOUNCES THOSE WHO WOUL MAKE CAPITAL OUT OF THE SITUATION. SHOULD NOT SEEK DISCORI Tells 4,000 Naturalized American They Can Not Be Americans if They Belong to Any National Group. Philadelphia. - President Wilso gave to a gathering of 4,000 naturalhw ed Americans and 11,000 others the first intimation of the course th, T'nited States will pursue in the ll nation resultlng from the loss of mor, than a hundred American lives on the British liner Lusitanla. His hearers interpreted his remark as meaning that while the Unites States will remain at peace, it wil seek to convince Germany of the in Justice to mankind of the tragedy. "Amerie," said the president "must have the conseloesness that of all sides it touches elbows and touched herts with all nations of mankind The example of America must be i special example, and must be an e ample not merely of pesace because Ii will not fight, but because pease is a healing and elevating nfluence of the world and strife is not. "There is such a thing as a mas being too proud to fight There is such a thing as being so right that it does not need to convince others by forc that it is right" These remarks precipitated a to malt of applause and enthusiasm, at tended by a waving of thousands oc small American flags The president made no direct reference to the Last tanls tragedy. Introduced by Mayor Blankenabur who spoke in a distinctly German ae eMt, a welcome and an appeal fr a single allegiance to the United States, the president carried forward the Idea of the weldinga of foreign blood to make up Americales by pointing out the true goal of Ameriae eitizeaship to be loyal not to the country of one'a birth bt to the leand of one's adop tb. "While you bringt" he said, "all countries with yeau you come with a purpose of leavingl all 'her countries behind yea--bringia what is best cc their spirit but nat looikng over your shboulder or seking to perpetuate what yu leave is them. I would eertainly not be one who weuld susest that a man cease to love the place of his art. gin. It s one thing to love the place of your birth and another thing to dedicate yourself to the place where you go You ean't be an American If you think of yourself in gwres. America does noat consist of groups. A ma who considers himselft as belong ig to a national group s not yet as Amerian. "My advice to you Is to think first et of America, but htumanity, and you do not love humanity If you seek to divide humanity nto jealous camps." The president was constantly late rapted by spontaneous outbursts at applause He spoke clarly and so q-uit was his audience of 15. that he could be heard distinetly uto parts a the reat hall Soes of the passaes tn has speech, whitch the rowd applaaded mot loudly were thee: "I am serry br the ma who seeks to make paeresal capital t of the pasaone ofr his elwuan. He has lest thi teuch and ieal of America hr America was ceated to unite man kia by the paslu that ulift ead unite and met by th pasioes tat separate ad debase mankian. * * "I wasu brs. Amea ou dream. So wha t Amrica was ta be and I he you rougst dreams with yes. We ma who das not *e vimeas wil ev realise ay high bhes r u ae take any gat entaprrie" The IredMet eawsed muc eath) sas- who be said he felt he eaght not to be away from Wuashlnston and after comlatig he Mad that Mte 8gab erin meawe Idh "spirit as a Amerlesi." "In Wasinga," he ai, a"mea tell yea so many thans every daby that are not so and I Ifke to come nad stnad la the preseen of my bllMow etisena amd drink out of the ommon fouatain with them, tfellar ie sres O thir mtuppoet" Thee was a tramedams ation as the Mpresidet nished his spech. A tOwardu he retuarnd to the statmn and entered Mhis private car. Beause of the prMoeant statu of -.. termational aitra etradhiary prs cautioUs had been take to guard thke presMdeat duir Ms stay Phadldel. pDh. Cambet Meet Washnton. - President WH~ao's views as to the positio thl gover. meat should take on the skang of te Lsitanl, muatsted after two fre te eakneL Thren Tpedoe h ed. Iandoa-Three t~poe were bel at the Iaaala, aeorls to t boe. IMr. Gusa, r *o Chae - --, . KA4 "% KAISER WILHELM CHARGED OF MURDER EMPEROR AND SUBMARINE OFFI. CERS ARE HELD RESPONSIBLE BY CORONER'S JURY. ONLY ONE TORPEDO HIT MARK Captain Turner Declared the Second Explosion Warn An Internal One. London.-The Lusitania was struck by only one torpedo, according to the testimony of Captain Turner of the steamer at the coroner's inquest at Kinsale. But this deadly missile found a vital spot and sent the liner with more than a thousand souls to the bottom in less than 20 minutes. The evidence of Captain Turner and that of other members of the crew led the jury to bring a verdict of "wholesale murder" against the GOer man emperor and his government and the officers of the submarine that sunk the Lusitania. It was disclosed by Captain Turner and by Winston Spencer Churehill, first lord of the Admiralty, in a state. ment in the House of Commons, that the captain had received wireless ad vies from the Admiralty warning of submarines in the liner's course. Cap tafn Turner testified he had followed this advice "to the best of my ability." Captain Turner in declaring that one torpedo did all the damage, said the second explosion the passengers heard was an internal one and that the engines having been put out at commission it was impossible to stop the Lusitania and permit her basis being lowered properly. This idea of an internal exploseios Is supported by naval experts who sr if the torpedo had exploded oe eor tact the steamer would have been oe. ly disabled or had one or two of her eompartments Sooded. However, they say, that if the torpedo peetrated the hull and the charge of 43 posmds of explosive was detonated. it would have created an effect similar to the esple toan of a magazine within a sip. There is little wonder theretse tht " the Ldsitanm s sank so rapIdly, or that so many persas were kille b the fumes of the explosive As to why no naval erseo meesm. panted the LeTalMa Mr. Churchill a. plaaned that the policy of the Adbmia. tr is that merehantmea must leek if. ter themselves. This is de to ti tact that the Admiralty has net sal ciet destroyers to escort all mertsat shitp The destroyers ae ned to i guard the eoatlnaou stream t troe-s ports from Egland to Framne and i prote- the Eaalish rast B1m German ralds. Naval observers believe Germeawt trylin to boroes ngsad to se do stroyes to protect bup t tat at they will not suceed. All this. howeve has n. t umm the sager of the people at the MsUsa of Germany. In some towas wi - the German population is Mlrs, lmi. tag has ocanrred. Basimess ma b decided to exclude all aof em 3ag countries gad naturaiisd Brltihers of German desoenwt bum theo ewmn o of the country. Another elect t the sdakl o at ba Lnsitamta has been to Imruse reerui ins. Every rserl edwee repes ad that more men bad ursomsti . themselves than for weeks past. Thin also was helped by a Grms air r d. o South nd and vitoattr. Theo ap mean dpped 1N boms, but only two deaths .'eslted. An old woman .a kiled ta ber bed ad her Itw who haSd attempted to ruas her, dg o. rom injouries reeslvg l jumul Bum' Swrndrw. The damsge eed IP, ale started b the bombs is estimated at No Move Moade Yet. Washinto--The Stale Depar ment has not decided to take ay aetis, o far as could be learned ever the Ore man embassy advertisemet i a , merou newspapers warming traveles of the rtsk they ran t ttravaslg te war so mein lmerehnt vesels beteng. l1g to OGermany's eeaies. Naval Aide to Preildemt. Washllntol. - LUeutensat om. mnder Robert L Rerry, commarmg the presidMetial ysebht Maylower, ws lesigated as nwaval ·Me to Preeldat Wisonra, to place of IIateat Go. _der Joaes, who is on slck ave Dilspues Wsr Pie. Moatlmaery.-Col . .1J. Hubbud, etig adjutant general, has annoue ed that the state military departme~t will dispease the old Spanish *ur and to all persons eatitled to it. Ves on Suragt e October t. Tremto. - When the le~gtu met la special ssion the BSeste s. awmmly p-sed the bM fixn Oe0 er 1, for the special eoeties to su. mt the woman serrse consttUtion. lt mendmet to the votersr New York. - Typhus frevr ha reaehed Ameriean sbore Theo art emaseseastothe port aboear th oLreek steamer Chriustees w Lek sit M sl.les , Awn l Tb v ,ese lI the thirLd eameri a Nt. j. " + _ + ,