Newspaper Page Text
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tg l Uethol Ia based on the chnracteristic lI0
h' bits of the fresh-water mw-selse
which Ie habitually half Imbedded in
Sh e am ··t n .*. ·mash shn
method is based on the characteristic
habits of the fresh-water muusels.
which lie habitually half imbedded in
the bottom of a stream, with the
binder end of the shell directed against f
the current and slightly gapº g. If a I
stick or book be Inserted into the open- b
at of the shell. the tlmosel at once
l'tsie tightly and will hold for a long
time, even while being dragged over
the bottom and hauled up to the boat. C
The more elaborate apparatus now tl
used was first brought to the notice of i
the river men of the upper lississippl C
In 1807. The crhwfoot apparatus con
sstS essentially of a bar to which many
short lines, bearing four-pronged wire
hooks, are arranged at Intervals. By o
means of a towing line the bar is o
dragged above the bottom, while the c
books trail on the mussel bed with
the current Whben a hbook enters a r
shell opening, the mussel closes upon r
the hook, and in consequence is
draed from the bottom. When the b
er i raisted after a suitable time, h
meromus mussels may be banging
iam the books,
.It Is mas l to e ulp bareg wf
er of them barsm that the bdl
* stream may be dragged thorohrb
h e most satisfactory boat lass
been found to be the ordinary johb
beot. Its lsagth Is from 14 to ) feet.
ith a. width at the center of from 8 P
to a ·s, bet it always has narrower
ds, gd Is ususUy of light draft. r it
work n a much larger scale, heavy i
rl, approximately 10 by 40 feet,
are used. b
After the mussels are.brought ashore
Ma wit parts must be removed. Where
Sarlbtag is the exclusive object each t
amet may be opened with a knife it
laMted between the valves of the
shells, so as to sever the adductor to
musle;: the meat is then cut out and bi
eamined for pearls. Such a process,
however, Is entirely too slow and ted!.
Of for preparlng shells for market.
so the cooklng-out process is exelsive.
y emnplyed is the shell shery. Thei
maIsees are cooked in a vat 5 feet long
by 2 leet wide and from 12 to 18
lthes deep. This usually takes about
a half hbar. .
After reaching the button factory i
the hea' a rst soaked in tasks
or vats for a week or more. The soak
'Iag press is bntended to soften the
mateal, which would otherwlse be too
bawd M the Saw, as well as o brittle
Sto chip and field bladks with rough t
*s1 The maeblae used is cutting
iebo~ sally aI.atheSttld with a taba
Sw o the necessry diameter to a
ebii the rseired slne @o butta and A
a weds pIla m a mdrI th handle or C
n ewr sMrad y foread the rough d
shell the a iust t Mrotating aw.
smhhls t ls po istes ahmer
r by the hand protected with
eieaet , se h uO as theyI
f t0 esee enued thrugh the tsub- e
lar asU to 0 ts a e piaclse be. ti
wir. she dlam at the httes are de- a
imM. b u ti alM s the bV" htiM
.on . b ii sttimPt $eout Walla 1
tle shit m . oa lse ia I t e is
Tei D i s ea t te e a t sw1 .
th ast. lta mewi ems mbe m we W
e @.·n mhe aelr s
t imn Isrl Iron it mh is
m m *lnos wre u hn of as
b 1s- lis an e ter
e s i
cutting end of the saw, and they ran__
front about one-third of an inch to one
inch in diameter. In novelty works
buttons an inch and a half or larger
Before going to the finishing ma
chines the blanks are usually passed
through four intermediate processes.
First they are passed through a blank
classifier, where, b$ falling between
rollers they are separated into differ
ent lots according to thickness. Next
they are placed in tumblers, consisting
of heavy and slowly revolving barrels
of iron or wood, in which they *re
charned with water and pumice stone
to clean them and remove any possible
rtugh edges. The blanks are then
ready for the grinder, a machine fit
ted with an emery wheel which grinds
away the horny backs and reduces the
blanks to a uniform" thickness. Final
ly the blanks are again soaked in wa
ter to be softened for the finishing ma
chine. They are then ready for the
essential processes of button making,
which are accomplished by an auto
matic machine of comparatively recent
invention and of very ingenlous deign.
The blanks are fed by hand into de
pressious in the tops of vertical chucks,
which are arranged in series constitut
ing an endless chain. As the chucks
In the endless chain pass around the
cireumference of the machine each
blank is automatically operated upon
by various tools, and each tool is an
tomatically sharpened and prepared for
the succeeding blank. The prgcesses
accomplished in the machine consist
in rounding the edges and carving out
the center in the desired pattern. Af
ter the first hole the drill rises, the
button makes a turn through a fourth
or half of one revolutlen (accordling to
whether it is to be a four-hole or two
hole-button), when the drill again de
scends to make a new hole. After the
last hole is drilled the chuck opens
jutomatically to release the buttoa,
which Is sucked Into a tube coobected
with the blower system to be dropped
into a bucket through a rounting tabe.
From the cutting machine the but
tons atte takpl to the churns, where
they are tumbled, or hebrned, with wa
ter and pumice stone to elean them,
take off the rough edges, and make
them ready for receiving the fnal pos
lah. The polishing is also a tumbl~n
proces, In which, however, salphuric
aied Is used 16 conjunction with steam.
After the butte.s are dried In shak
ers with awdust, they are placed with
dry sawdust and washing powder in
a eeobbied tmlaer and shaker. This
preees removes ay tMace of bUy de
posit and gives the fml luster. Inala
ly the buttes are conveyed in back
ea or boes to the seting room where
they ame sad aeerding to qumaUties
and ades amd mtwed to smltable cards
a t ied I be' ready to be sld.
beaems sa kas MnMetthe-val
is, twalb s s ed mr e desedls and
mir N s b Le m Smar avoided,
i whr'lles sles -the henAte
w-& et t as mmem o msers,
Ju teh.einm sees uer soaee
spsed esas" is maSly as seer them
a at wh has sense enot to keep
! ah lab . list a *a be
.a ' A *a je meem
al- se amte w04
To a Lifeboatbe
_in a Lifeboat
Three Norwegians Plan Interest
ing Trip That Will Take About h
Year and a Half. h
ALL ARE TRAINED SEAMEN
Boat Will Have No Covering Except :
Canvas Awning to Spread Over H
the Bunks When It Rains- f
Boat to Be Sloop Rigged. o
New York.-Norwegians are no long- sI
er the leading sea rovers they once 15
were, but their adventurous spirit Is T
not yet extinguished. There is a a
round tower ut Newport, built of rude h
stones, a lasting monulmest to some d
forgotten visitors to these shores. Who w
built it no one can tell, but surely not
aboriginal Americans for it embodies
principles of architecture unknown to /
them. Anthropologists believe it was
built by the Norsemen, who, there is
evidence to show, found America long
before Columbus, as early as the
Tenth century. Indeed there is a
Norse tradition to that effect.
These considerations are revived
by the fact that three young Norwe- I
gians now In this city are planning
to cross the Atlantic ocean in an open
bout and eventually to circumnavi
gate the globe. They are Capt. Mimer
Tonning and Mates Otthar Petterson
and Helge Westerling. Tonning was
at work on the Panama canal in 1915,
but going home was impressed into the
Norwegian navy. Petterson was petty
ollfficer on another ship In the same
service. Westerling has also seen
much sea service. They are pray
tlcally stranded here now, and are
laid up at the club of the Norwegian
Master and Mates' association. No. 565
Henry street, Brooklyn, where are- h
porter was told their plans. Ton- p
ning acted as spokesman while the C
other two listened and gave assent. tl
Their plans are nearly complete. a
They have secured a 20-foot life- a
It boat, built by the Atlantic Life Boat
1e company of South Brooklya. It is a of
Queen Mary a Doctor of Law
Queen Mary of England was honored recently by Oxford university when
the degree of Doctor of Common Law was conferred upon her. It yas the
first time that this degree had been conferred .pon a woman. In the photo
graph Queen Mary, in robes. is shown walking through the streets of Oxford
with Earl Curzon, the chancellor of Oxford.
EARTH RUBE OF SOLAR SYSTEM
360 Quintilion Miles Off the Sky
Selentist Dicvers That the Universe
Is On Thousand Times Greater
Than It Has Been Thought.
Cambridge, Mass.-Dr. Barlow Shap
les7 the astronomer who recently came
to Harvard from Mount Wllson ob
ervatory In California, announces
that be has made discoveries that
revear the universe to be a thousand
times greater than scelntists have
By so doing be has relegated the
earth to a plane one thousand times
less Important than it has heretofore
occupied. And Instead of being In the
',center of thlnas," as has been under
stood betofore, he estimates It to
he something like 3,O000.00.00.,
O00.tN miles from the center o .the
Bachelors n Angora
Save Their "Angoras
Angerm, Aa Minmer-The Mu
lftreduced In the mnatlealist as.
sashy which would Zeraeln all
me to marry unless preveted
by health reases has been re
Under the mesure bachelors
woued have been very heavly
tased, whre married res would
have eoyed peelal prieges
it tamatln and eurtafled rsi.
Malf Deler nl seos Threat.
etelisvu .-Dr. . Ihetem Watkins
aeelsty smvend a halst4elar whIch,
,. sak5 n O
gift from the company, and while it
does not differ from the ordinary life
houat built for ship use. certain changes
have been made to adapt it for the
specific purposes for which it will be
Will Be Sloop Rigged.
It will he sloop rigged, having a
20-foot mainmast and a 12-foot top.
mast, three feet of which ill be
above the hiunds, thus affordling a
32-foot sail hoist. Two sets of sails
will be carried, one of light canvas In ti
for light and moderate weather, and Atlh
one of heavy canvas for stormy weath- TI
er. However, they hope to escape near
stormy weather, except an occasional or
• squall, by sailing in summer time. they
The boat will have no covering except Phi'l
a canvas awning to spread over the mn.
hunks when It rains. Cooking will he up
done on an oil stove. They will start Tlhe
º with a stock for 14 seeks' provisions l fron
Historic Building and Grounds
Seized" by France During
War Is Demanded.
ROYAL HOME TWO CENTURIES
Louis XV Gave It to Marshal Saxe
and Napoleon Presented It to Mar.
shal Berthler--Became Posses
sion of Dukes of Parma.
Paris.-Efforts by two princes of the
house of Bourbon-Parma to recover
possession of the celebrated Chateau
Chambord, which was sequestrated by
the French government during the
war, is one of the most interesting
aftermaths of the great conflict
The chategu is more than 400 years
old and is one of the tst striking
Doctor Shapley Is a comparatively
young astronomer, yet heihas won an
authoritative place in the science. He
Is a graduate of the Missouri State
I'niversity and of Princeton. He was
Identified with the Mount Wilson ob- an
servatory seven years. to
By triangulation, takin; the distance tio
between sun and earth as a base for
measurements, scientists have record- d
ed vast distances, until such lines havq to
been extended hundreds of light years,
even to the border line of measure
ment, the Plelades.
The iame Pleiades are scarcely ino
the front yard of Doctor Shapley's ,
galaxy. which he has measured and a
found to be about O00.000 light years
from end to end. It is a super-Milky a
I A light year, the distance a beam ph
of light will travel in aoe year, is tic
6,000.000,000,000 miles. It takes but a
eight minutes for light to come to the Wi
I earth from the sun, 000,000, mles lni
Catrpiflar Lamcesr Itfeboat
AL l~rr eatwpw furbl~l: Iawblmg flftb.SD ce
bhmL ~ml ,Iy
Bear and Rattlesnakes
Upset Train Schcdule
tral train ewrens on the ie that
runs south frotm 'orningi irto Fl
the coal lields of Peite ylvanean
Illlek Iearls and rlattlesl kell s
are, interfering with the tilut
A speal l coal-lnden freight (P
train slowed uip when a huil
Iblack hear posed ot tile Itrack in
lhait', fiormaticoni. It re'fuite' to t knt
move nit ii thle cewilatchelr inosed bri
it molre' or let'ss gently s. it
In the- hlople f bleinlg able, to crosl' the A.
Atlantic within tlhat titme.
Tlhey will leave Sandy Ilik In the a
near futlure iiandl steer for thie Silly
or Azore islands. 'From I ibralari
they will gfi to Suez. Siltltltra. the
Phililpplnes. Hawall. Californiaii lena
inn. pass hroulgh tlie canil tinil co llit
up the Atlantic co.ast to New Yocrk.
TIhe entire voy-aIe, is expected to take
I from 16 to 1S months. I
. ... . .. • . .. .. ..________________ _________ I
and interesting of all the famous fen
dal establishments of ancient Franca.
It was once one of the most Inagniti
cent of these great estates and lies
in the valley of the Loire close to tbs
town of Blols and has about 15,0t0j
acres, part of which is Inclosed by
walls extending for 20 miles. The
buUding is about 200 feet square with
famous circular towers at the corners
and a double spiral staircase lefding
to the double lantern, which dominates
the center tower. Hal
It was built about 1526 and for two
centuries was a royal residence. Louis and
XV gave it to Marshal Saxe and Na
poleon presented it to Marshal Ber
thier. Eventually it fell into, the pos
session of the duke of Parma.
At the beginning of the war it was
owned by Prince Elias of Bourbon
Partan and was sequestrated because Ida,
he was serving in the Austrian army Ida
as an attache of the Austrian general Ind
staff. Prince Elias is a brother of
Zita, wife of the former Emperor
Charles of Austria, who lately at- sti
tempted to regain hts.throne as king t
of Hungary. gun
After the war Prince Elias at
tempted to recover possession of the son
estate. but the French courts have just 0)
disallowed his claim. This, however. L'
does not settle the question of its (
ownership, for Prince Sixtus. also of aIe:
Bourbon-Parma. brother of Prince an
Elias, has put in a claim to the own- (Mill
ership of the chateau. Ohi
Princes' Services Refused. - 000
Prince Sixtus 'does not suffer the van
disability of Prince Elias, as Sixtus 700
and his brother, Xavier, both offered ,4't
their services to the French govern- $10
ment in the war and being refused on $6"a
the ground that descendants of the old gini
royal houses could not he permitted 000
to fight for France, they both enlisted Wit
In the Belgian army, where they 000,
served as titretcherbearers. Their brav
ery In this service was afterward rec- D11
ognized in a French citation.
Americans will Identify Prince Six- Unl
tus as the man who recelved, while the
war was stlU in progress. the Zamous
letter from Emperor Charles of Aus
tria in which he stated that he ym- .
pathised with Prance's aspirations to a cl
recover Alsace-Lorraine and that in
his opinion Belgium should he restored test
by Germany. ro
Prince Sixtus turned the lette her
to President Poincaire and its bhll- wit
cation by Premier Clemenceau created wal
consternation in Germany. Emperor dra
Charles denied its authenticity.
$14,000 FOR "POT OF GOLD" ae
"Spirits" Wouldn't Work, However, Wl
So Aged St. Louis Swindler of
Goes to Prison. loo
Chester, Ill.-Joseph Pellinskl. six- A
ty-one years old., of t. Louis started velt
an indeterminate sentnce of from one we
to ten years in the southern IllinoLs tie
penitentiary here, following his convic
tion at Alton of swindling Weert Ban
er, a retired farmer, out of $14,00o un
der the pretense he was sidil IL.uer
to locate a "pot of gold" valued at Me
$70.000 burled on Bauer's farm.
The gold, it was claimed, was to be
located through spiritualistie seances
conducted by the defendant's wife. It '
was supposed to have been hidden by go
a relative of Bauer. age
Sale of War Materials apins Blion. to
Wahhlngton.-Domestic sales of anr- ties
plus war materials since tim armis bec
tice have amounted to approximately pro
a billion dollars. Assistant Secretary nee
Walnwright of the War department ion
Informed the senate military commit- the
FUNDS FOR BUILDirJG ROADS
Sum of $622.000.000 Aaiable fog
Highway and Bridge Construction
(Prepared by tl+e 1" S. I1.; :r;.-nnt of
A*g IU'11: i ýt . )
Atll lro xin lteliý .i c as,:,,I I iniow
known lt e Ih h : ; ilab: . " I aInd
blrie c I'tl.nll'nll II h, . ;t .
foIhnl ti l.on se tl"t ii .:I , lii pt gll
Sr o ri . ll lli illl Stl l I :l e Ii. i llAit ofl
Agric lt ulture by 11ll .l, hih.
way eta ten s. ! ,ii, 1 ','- ling
lte is.l:iltims e lit, .-.d. I .. .. an
aI(IsitiIiil : f1p '4idti , t i .Ith forFu d
and f ederal souril i for rnd hi n
'rl aSe+ i I." hle :rnllli lunll oif flat' f"",heral
ridge eprnltl iture are: Alablma. 19,.
S 0; Colorado, n.7,00 ; ('octic1
SliTl e ,appr 0.xi te; Illinoit, : $, . :t()i.able
to eala, of the statel frin , state,
1 ,(S); KYneas, $2,)00,EMJ; Kentuc6y,
gnnr . $2t1,I EKIi.+ ; . !.ln• it a. $2. ,15..
Hard Surface Road Built b Federal
and State Funds.
and federal sources for road and.
bridge expenditure are: Alahama. $,..
000,000; Arizona, $,ONr~ A.MM); Arkana
sas, $12,000,000; California. $2,000,.
0N0; Colorado, $7,(0l0,4 ; (olinnectlte,
$8,000,000; Deort laware, olnt,50)tMi; PlO.
Ida, $7,725,000; Georgia, $10.000,000;
hiho, $43,500.000; Illinois, $t,(MX)00,;
000; ndi regana, $9,5).IM; owu, $37,000.
( vana; Kansas, $0000; ,0he00; KPentucky,
S.$80,000; S outh Ciana, $,(.(),000;
Mainth, SIot.I,(M.); MarylanTd. n.4.00,
(; Massachu; Tetts, t S,I(KNI.Eii; MiUthl
gnn, $2'0,O0001.0; Minnesitta. $20,M),U.
O(1M); Mississippil, $11,ilMl.ltt(; Mit
Ssouri, $15,00 ,1); Montana, $),:00; ,
t (10); Nebraska, $G,IMto0.(M); Nevada,
$•..,00.)00; New hiaipshire. $2,.SAil
()io; New Jersey, $1G.tlMINUil; New, "
SMexicnlao, $ ,000,000; New York, 49J."
0, <11000; North Carolina; $3 )6.30t, ..
O( 11; North Dakota, $7,MM),000;
Ohio, $35,000,00; Oklanhoa, $90000`.
000; Oregon. $10.14J0.00 ; P'enl t
vania, $0,000,000; Rhode Island, l,*
700,000; South Carolina., $0,0W omi,11 .
$6,000,000.; Vermont, $2.(0),001; VIle
Sginla. $10,000.000; Washington, $14,r
I 000.000; I West Vlrgrinia. $&0(000;'O
I Wisconsin, $19,500,000; Wyoming, $3,
DIRT HIGHWAYS ARE EASIEST
Unpaved Country Roead Cause Leat!
S Wear n Tires, While Slag I i
The much maligned dirt road fads
a champion In a Denver tire manufaes
turer, who asserts that exhausthil
tests show that the unpaved countrl -
road causes the least tire wear. Bt ,
r the road must be in good condltldu4,
Swith no rats to wear against the sid. "
walls of the tire. When properti?
Sdragged, the unpaved country road I 8
found to generate less heat in the tile
Sthan any other type of road. "
S Slag roads were found to be moet
destructive to tires, the sharp poln ,.
soon pitting the tread with my holeds
SWith the test ear's wheels a frletilel
of an inch out of alignment, the til "
looked as iW their tread had been aru -"
papered after only a few hours' travel.
Asphalt pavement was found to d.'
d velop much heat, but little exterind
wear. Macadam roads in good eoml ,
a tion were found to be better than stag
SADVANTAGES OF GOOD ROADI S.
l Means Releasel to Farmer and CIl
Man From Bondage of Rail
' To both city man and farmer the -
y good road means release from baid
age-bondage to electric, steam ce
schedules and dlscomforts--bondg -
. to distanee--bondage to time. 0au +
r- ties and states where good roads have
I become a steady part of a progremsi
Il program of legislation have seem 4 .
7 ues shoot up In most surprising fh*
It lon, and this again has brought baho
t- the fact that good roads pay for I..
DEMAND FOR O011H IGHWAYS-.
Iethirlg So Vital to Transportlte .
System and Future of Autorae
"Let'- Preach It. Teach It and De .
mannd Good Roads." says Orville ".
Coppoet,. alts manager of the Co'w
merce M.otor Car comlpany. DetP:
"Nothing It so vital to the trrnqS"+=
tation system of our country, and tha
ftture of the automotive industry *.
Bar Tractor From Road .
Because of its tendency to dmlrag
roads, the tractor is barred from n
state, county and private ,liihmltWI 5
Ia spite of being thuns in disepl'l
however, It Is considhrcl indisPp1 ,'
able In many communities for Ib i
inLg, rparinl and mnaintining rl. .
Many a fline dirt road owe, its sm ui;
maess and state of good relpair to·'
qaest se of the drag or grader, J,
Sby a buLsky tractor.
l Resp oat aS wegds before thoF,
., " -tt . It ealer ad
1,- , . "- .- .t . . .. .