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0"=' b f.fh, bi ..*hitulM..af h iLha n .* 1 * **.* II tg l Uethol Ia based on the chnracteristic lI0 h' bits of the fresh-water mw-selse which Ie habitually half Imbedded in Sh e am ··t n .*. ·mash shn *1 " M. Y . 4t sip -a, *Wb rF Ih toe method is based on the characteristic habits of the fresh-water muusels. which lie habitually half imbedded in the bottom of a stream, with the binder end of the shell directed against f the current and slightly gapº g. If a I stick or book be Inserted into the open- b at of the shell. the tlmosel at once l'tsie tightly and will hold for a long time, even while being dragged over the bottom and hauled up to the boat. C The more elaborate apparatus now tl used was first brought to the notice of i the river men of the upper lississippl C In 1807. The crhwfoot apparatus con sstS essentially of a bar to which many short lines, bearing four-pronged wire hooks, are arranged at Intervals. By o means of a towing line the bar is o dragged above the bottom, while the c books trail on the mussel bed with the current Whben a hbook enters a r shell opening, the mussel closes upon r the hook, and in consequence is draed from the bottom. When the b er i raisted after a suitable time, h meromus mussels may be banging iam the books, .It Is mas l to e ulp bareg wf er of them barsm that the bdl * stream may be dragged thorohrb h e most satisfactory boat lass been found to be the ordinary johb beot. Its lsagth Is from 14 to ) feet. ith a. width at the center of from 8 P to a ·s, bet it always has narrower ds, gd Is ususUy of light draft. r it work n a much larger scale, heavy i rl, approximately 10 by 40 feet, are used. b After the mussels are.brought ashore Ma wit parts must be removed. Where Sarlbtag is the exclusive object each t amet may be opened with a knife it laMted between the valves of the shells, so as to sever the adductor to musle;: the meat is then cut out and bi eamined for pearls. Such a process, however, Is entirely too slow and ted!. Of for preparlng shells for market. so the cooklng-out process is exelsive. y emnplyed is the shell shery. Thei maIsees are cooked in a vat 5 feet long by 2 leet wide and from 12 to 18 lthes deep. This usually takes about a half hbar. . After reaching the button factory i the hea' a rst soaked in tasks or vats for a week or more. The soak 'Iag press is bntended to soften the mateal, which would otherwlse be too bawd M the Saw, as well as o brittle Sto chip and field bladks with rough t *s1 The maeblae used is cutting iebo~ sally aI.atheSttld with a taba Sw o the necessry diameter to a ebii the rseired slne @o butta and A a weds pIla m a mdrI th handle or C n ewr sMrad y foread the rough d shell the a iust t Mrotating aw. smhhls t ls po istes ahmer r by the hand protected with eieaet , se h uO as theyI f t0 esee enued thrugh the tsub- e lar asU to 0 ts a e piaclse be. ti wir. she dlam at the httes are de- a imM. b u ti alM s the bV" htiM .on . b ii sttimPt $eout Walla 1 tle shit m . oa lse ia I t e is Tei D i s ea t te e a t sw1 . th ast. lta mewi ems mbe m we W e @.·n mhe aelr s t imn Isrl Iron it mh is m m *lnos wre u hn of as b 1s- lis an e ter e s i cutting end of the saw, and they ran__ front about one-third of an inch to one inch in diameter. In novelty works buttons an inch and a half or larger are made. Before going to the finishing ma chines the blanks are usually passed through four intermediate processes. First they are passed through a blank classifier, where, b$ falling between rollers they are separated into differ ent lots according to thickness. Next they are placed in tumblers, consisting of heavy and slowly revolving barrels of iron or wood, in which they *re charned with water and pumice stone to clean them and remove any possible rtugh edges. The blanks are then ready for the grinder, a machine fit ted with an emery wheel which grinds away the horny backs and reduces the blanks to a uniform" thickness. Final ly the blanks are again soaked in wa ter to be softened for the finishing ma chine. They are then ready for the essential processes of button making, which are accomplished by an auto matic machine of comparatively recent invention and of very ingenlous deign. The blanks are fed by hand into de pressious in the tops of vertical chucks, which are arranged in series constitut ing an endless chain. As the chucks In the endless chain pass around the cireumference of the machine each blank is automatically operated upon by various tools, and each tool is an tomatically sharpened and prepared for the succeeding blank. The prgcesses accomplished in the machine consist in rounding the edges and carving out the center in the desired pattern. Af ter the first hole the drill rises, the button makes a turn through a fourth or half of one revolutlen (accordling to whether it is to be a four-hole or two hole-button), when the drill again de scends to make a new hole. After the last hole is drilled the chuck opens jutomatically to release the buttoa, which Is sucked Into a tube coobected with the blower system to be dropped into a bucket through a rounting tabe. From the cutting machine the but tons atte takpl to the churns, where they are tumbled, or hebrned, with wa ter and pumice stone to elean them, take off the rough edges, and make them ready for receiving the fnal pos lah. The polishing is also a tumbl~n proces, In which, however, salphuric aied Is used 16 conjunction with steam. After the butte.s are dried In shak ers with awdust, they are placed with dry sawdust and washing powder in a eeobbied tmlaer and shaker. This preees removes ay tMace of bUy de posit and gives the fml luster. Inala ly the buttes are conveyed in back ea or boes to the seting room where they ame sad aeerding to qumaUties and ades amd mtwed to smltable cards a t ied I be' ready to be sld. beaems sa kas MnMetthe-val is, twalb s s ed mr e desedls and mir N s b Le m Smar avoided, i whr'lles sles -the henAte w-& et t as mmem o msers, Ju teh.einm sees uer soaee spsed esas" is maSly as seer them a at wh has sense enot to keep ! ah lab . list a *a be .a ' A *a je meem al- se amte w04 agrtl To a Lifeboatbe _in a Lifeboat Three Norwegians Plan Interest ing Trip That Will Take About h Year and a Half. h ALL ARE TRAINED SEAMEN Boat Will Have No Covering Except : Canvas Awning to Spread Over H the Bunks When It Rains- f Boat to Be Sloop Rigged. o New York.-Norwegians are no long- sI er the leading sea rovers they once 15 were, but their adventurous spirit Is T not yet extinguished. There is a a round tower ut Newport, built of rude h stones, a lasting monulmest to some d forgotten visitors to these shores. Who w built it no one can tell, but surely not aboriginal Americans for it embodies principles of architecture unknown to / them. Anthropologists believe it was built by the Norsemen, who, there is evidence to show, found America long before Columbus, as early as the Tenth century. Indeed there is a Norse tradition to that effect. Adventurous Norwegians. These considerations are revived by the fact that three young Norwe- I gians now In this city are planning to cross the Atlantic ocean in an open bout and eventually to circumnavi gate the globe. They are Capt. Mimer Tonning and Mates Otthar Petterson and Helge Westerling. Tonning was at work on the Panama canal in 1915, but going home was impressed into the Norwegian navy. Petterson was petty ollfficer on another ship In the same service. Westerling has also seen much sea service. They are pray tlcally stranded here now, and are laid up at the club of the Norwegian Master and Mates' association. No. 565 Henry street, Brooklyn, where are- h porter was told their plans. Ton- p ning acted as spokesman while the C other two listened and gave assent. tl Their plans are nearly complete. a They have secured a 20-foot life- a It boat, built by the Atlantic Life Boat 1e company of South Brooklya. It is a of as Queen Mary a Doctor of Law O - Queen Mary of England was honored recently by Oxford university when the degree of Doctor of Common Law was conferred upon her. It yas the first time that this degree had been conferred .pon a woman. In the photo graph Queen Mary, in robes. is shown walking through the streets of Oxford with Earl Curzon, the chancellor of Oxford. EARTH RUBE OF SOLAR SYSTEM 360 Quintilion Miles Off the Sky Broadway. Selentist Dicvers That the Universe Is On Thousand Times Greater Than It Has Been Thought. Cambridge, Mass.-Dr. Barlow Shap les7 the astronomer who recently came to Harvard from Mount Wllson ob ervatory In California, announces that be has made discoveries that revear the universe to be a thousand times greater than scelntists have thought By so doing be has relegated the earth to a plane one thousand times less Important than it has heretofore occupied. And Instead of being In the ',center of thlnas," as has been under stood betofore, he estimates It to he something like 3,O000.00.00., O00.tN miles from the center o .the unlverse. Bachelors n Angora Save Their "Angoras Angerm, Aa Minmer-The Mu lftreduced In the mnatlealist as. sashy which would Zeraeln all me to marry unless preveted by health reases has been re Under the mesure bachelors woued have been very heavly tased, whre married res would have eoyed peelal prieges it tamatln and eurtafled rsi. 4ay servIe. Malf Deler nl seos Threat. etelisvu .-Dr. . Ihetem Watkins aeelsty smvend a halst4elar whIch, ,. sak5 n O gift from the company, and while it does not differ from the ordinary life houat built for ship use. certain changes have been made to adapt it for the specific purposes for which it will be used. Will Be Sloop Rigged. It will he sloop rigged, having a 20-foot mainmast and a 12-foot top. mast, three feet of which ill be above the hiunds, thus affordling a 32-foot sail hoist. Two sets of sails will be carried, one of light canvas In ti for light and moderate weather, and Atlh one of heavy canvas for stormy weath- TI er. However, they hope to escape near stormy weather, except an occasional or • squall, by sailing in summer time. they The boat will have no covering except Phi'l a canvas awning to spread over the mn. hunks when It rains. Cooking will he up done on an oil stove. They will start Tlhe º with a stock for 14 seeks' provisions l fron Two Princes Claim Chateau Historic Building and Grounds Seized" by France During War Is Demanded. ROYAL HOME TWO CENTURIES Louis XV Gave It to Marshal Saxe and Napoleon Presented It to Mar. shal Berthler--Became Posses sion of Dukes of Parma. Paris.-Efforts by two princes of the house of Bourbon-Parma to recover possession of the celebrated Chateau Chambord, which was sequestrated by the French government during the war, is one of the most interesting aftermaths of the great conflict The chategu is more than 400 years old and is one of the tst striking Doctor Shapley Is a comparatively young astronomer, yet heihas won an authoritative place in the science. He Is a graduate of the Missouri State I'niversity and of Princeton. He was Identified with the Mount Wilson ob- an servatory seven years. to By triangulation, takin; the distance tio between sun and earth as a base for measurements, scientists have record- d ed vast distances, until such lines havq to been extended hundreds of light years, even to the border line of measure ment, the Plelades. The iame Pleiades are scarcely ino the front yard of Doctor Shapley's , galaxy. which he has measured and a found to be about O00.000 light years from end to end. It is a super-Milky a ,Way. I A light year, the distance a beam ph of light will travel in aoe year, is tic 6,000.000,000,000 miles. It takes but a eight minutes for light to come to the Wi I earth from the sun, 000,000, mles lni away. to Catrpiflar Lamcesr Itfeboat AL l~rr eatwpw furbl~l: Iawblmg flftb.SD ce bhmL ~ml ,Iy *qqbYC be Bear and Rattlesnakes Upset Train Schcdule tral train ewrens on the ie that runs south frotm 'orningi irto Fl the coal lields of Peite ylvanean Illlek Iearls and rlattlesl kell s are, interfering with the tilut A speal l coal-lnden freight (P train slowed uip when a huil Iblack hear posed ot tile Itrack in lhait', fiormaticoni. It re'fuite' to t knt move nit ii thle cewilatchelr inosed bri it molre' or let'ss gently s. it Sfoe re: In the- hlople f bleinlg able, to crosl' the A. Atlantic within tlhat titme. Tlhey will leave Sandy Ilik In the a near futlure iiandl steer for thie Silly or Azore islands. 'From I ibralari they will gfi to Suez. Siltltltra. the Phililpplnes. Hawall. Californiaii lena inn. pass hroulgh tlie canil tinil co llit up the Atlantic co.ast to New Yocrk. TIhe entire voy-aIe, is expected to take I from 16 to 1S months. I . ... . .. • . .. .. ..________________ _________ I and interesting of all the famous fen dal establishments of ancient Franca. It was once one of the most Inagniti cent of these great estates and lies in the valley of the Loire close to tbs town of Blols and has about 15,0t0j acres, part of which is Inclosed by walls extending for 20 miles. The buUding is about 200 feet square with famous circular towers at the corners and a double spiral staircase lefding to the double lantern, which dominates the center tower. Hal It was built about 1526 and for two centuries was a royal residence. Louis and XV gave it to Marshal Saxe and Na poleon presented it to Marshal Ber thier. Eventually it fell into, the pos session of the duke of Parma. At the beginning of the war it was owned by Prince Elias of Bourbon Partan and was sequestrated because Ida, he was serving in the Austrian army Ida as an attache of the Austrian general Ind staff. Prince Elias is a brother of Zita, wife of the former Emperor Charles of Austria, who lately at- sti tempted to regain hts.throne as king t of Hungary. gun After the war Prince Elias at tempted to recover possession of the son estate. but the French courts have just 0) disallowed his claim. This, however. L' does not settle the question of its ( ownership, for Prince Sixtus. also of aIe: Bourbon-Parma. brother of Prince an Elias, has put in a claim to the own- (Mill ership of the chateau. Ohi Princes' Services Refused. - 000 Prince Sixtus 'does not suffer the van disability of Prince Elias, as Sixtus 700 and his brother, Xavier, both offered ,4't their services to the French govern- $10 ment in the war and being refused on $6"a the ground that descendants of the old gini royal houses could not he permitted 000 to fight for France, they both enlisted Wit In the Belgian army, where they 000, served as titretcherbearers. Their brav ery In this service was afterward rec- D11 ognized in a French citation. Americans will Identify Prince Six- Unl tus as the man who recelved, while the war was stlU in progress. the Zamous letter from Emperor Charles of Aus tria in which he stated that he ym- . pathised with Prance's aspirations to a cl recover Alsace-Lorraine and that in his opinion Belgium should he restored test by Germany. ro Prince Sixtus turned the lette her to President Poincaire and its bhll- wit cation by Premier Clemenceau created wal consternation in Germany. Emperor dra Charles denied its authenticity. tha $14,000 FOR "POT OF GOLD" ae soo "Spirits" Wouldn't Work, However, Wl So Aged St. Louis Swindler of Goes to Prison. loo par Chester, Ill.-Joseph Pellinskl. six- A ty-one years old., of t. Louis started velt an indeterminate sentnce of from one we to ten years in the southern IllinoLs tie penitentiary here, following his convic tion at Alton of swindling Weert Ban er, a retired farmer, out of $14,00o un der the pretense he was sidil IL.uer to locate a "pot of gold" valued at Me $70.000 burled on Bauer's farm. The gold, it was claimed, was to be located through spiritualistie seances conducted by the defendant's wife. It ' was supposed to have been hidden by go a relative of Bauer. age sch Sale of War Materials apins Blion. to Wahhlngton.-Domestic sales of anr- ties plus war materials since tim armis bec tice have amounted to approximately pro a billion dollars. Assistant Secretary nee Walnwright of the War department ion Informed the senate military commit- the £5, ol SBETTER ROADS FUNDS FOR BUILDirJG ROADS Sum of $622.000.000 Aaiable fog Highway and Bridge Construction and Maintenance. (Prepared by tl+e 1" S. I1.; :r;.-nnt of A*g IU'11: i ýt . ) Atll lro xin lteliý .i c as,:,,I I iniow known lt e Ih h : ; ilab: . " I aInd blrie c I'tl.nll'nll II h, . ;t . foIhnl ti l.on se tl"t ii .:I , lii pt gll Sr o ri . ll lli illl Stl l I :l e Ii. i llAit ofl Agric lt ulture by 11ll .l, hih. way eta ten s. ! ,ii, 1 ','- ling lte is.l:iltims e lit, .-.d. I .. .. an aI(IsitiIiil : f1p '4idti , t i .Ith forFu d and f ederal souril i for rnd hi n 'rl aSe+ i I." hle :rnllli lunll oif flat' f"",heral ridge eprnltl iture are: Alablma. 19,. S 0; Colorado, n.7,00 ; ('octic1 SliTl e ,appr 0.xi te; Illinoit, : $, . :t()i.able to eala, of the statel frin , state, 1 ,(S); KYneas, $2,)00,EMJ; Kentuc6y, gnnr . $2t1,I EKIi.+ ; . !.ln• it a. $2. ,15.. Hard Surface Road Built b Federal and State Funds. and federal sources for road and. bridge expenditure are: Alahama. $,.. 000,000; Arizona, $,ONr~ A.MM); Arkana sas, $12,000,000; California. $2,000,. 0N0; Colorado, $7,(0l0,4 ; (olinnectlte, $8,000,000; Deort laware, olnt,50)tMi; PlO. Ida, $7,725,000; Georgia, $10.000,000; hiho, $43,500.000; Illinois, $t,(MX)00,; 000; ndi regana, $9,5).IM; owu, $37,000. ( vana; Kansas, $0000; ,0he00; KPentucky, S.$80,000; S outh Ciana, $,(.(),000; Mainth, SIot.I,(M.); MarylanTd. n.4.00, (; Massachu; Tetts, t S,I(KNI.Eii; MiUthl gnn, $2'0,O0001.0; Minnesitta. $20,M),U. O(1M); Mississippil, $11,ilMl.ltt(; Mit Ssouri, $15,00 ,1); Montana, $),:00; , t (10); Nebraska, $G,IMto0.(M); Nevada, $•..,00.)00; New hiaipshire. $2,.SAil ()io; New Jersey, $1G.tlMINUil; New, " SMexicnlao, $ ,000,000; New York, 49J." 0, <11000; North Carolina; $3 )6.30t, .. O( 11; North Dakota, $7,MM),000; Ohio, $35,000,00; Oklanhoa, $90000`. 000; Oregon. $10.14J0.00 ; P'enl t vania, $0,000,000; Rhode Island, l,* 700,000; South Carolina., $0,0W omi,11 . $6,000,000.; Vermont, $2.(0),001; VIle Sginla. $10,000.000; Washington, $14,r I 000.000; I West Vlrgrinia. $&0(000;'O I Wisconsin, $19,500,000; Wyoming, $3, 001,000. DIRT HIGHWAYS ARE EASIEST Unpaved Country Roead Cause Leat! S Wear n Tires, While Slag I i Most Destructive. The much maligned dirt road fads a champion In a Denver tire manufaes turer, who asserts that exhausthil tests show that the unpaved countrl - road causes the least tire wear. Bt , r the road must be in good condltldu4, Swith no rats to wear against the sid. " walls of the tire. When properti? Sdragged, the unpaved country road I 8 found to generate less heat in the tile Sthan any other type of road. " S Slag roads were found to be moet destructive to tires, the sharp poln ,. soon pitting the tread with my holeds SWith the test ear's wheels a frletilel of an inch out of alignment, the til " looked as iW their tread had been aru -" papered after only a few hours' travel. Asphalt pavement was found to d.' d velop much heat, but little exterind wear. Macadam roads in good eoml , a tion were found to be better than stag SADVANTAGES OF GOOD ROADI S. l Means Releasel to Farmer and CIl Man From Bondage of Rail Sroad Diecomforit. ' To both city man and farmer the - y good road means release from baid age-bondage to electric, steam ce schedules and dlscomforts--bondg - . to distanee--bondage to time. 0au + r- ties and states where good roads have I become a steady part of a progremsi Il program of legislation have seem 4 . 7 ues shoot up In most surprising fh* It lon, and this again has brought baho t- the fact that good roads pay for I.. selves. DEMAND FOR O011H IGHWAYS-. Iethirlg So Vital to Transportlte . System and Future of Autorae tive Power. "Let'- Preach It. Teach It and De . mannd Good Roads." says Orville ". Coppoet,. alts manager of the Co'w merce M.otor Car comlpany. DetP: "Nothing It so vital to the trrnqS"+= tation system of our country, and tha ftture of the automotive industry *. good roads." Bar Tractor From Road . Because of its tendency to dmlrag roads, the tractor is barred from n state, county and private ,liihmltWI 5 Ia spite of being thuns in disepl'l however, It Is considhrcl indisPp1 ,' able In many communities for Ib i inLg, rparinl and mnaintining rl. . Many a fline dirt road owe, its sm ui; maess and state of good relpair to·' qaest se of the drag or grader, J, Sby a buLsky tractor. l Resp oat aS wegds before thoF, ., " -tt . It ealer ad 1,- , . "- .- .t . . .. .