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FOREST FIRE LANES. h
'Their Construction Very Materially t
Reduces the Danger of Great and ti
General Conaagrations. e
It is generally recognized through- t
out Europe that the construction of o
suitable fire lanes throughout the for- p
est conduces more to the prevention of d
great conflagrations than any other a
institution. These serve as vantage i;
points in the fighting of fire and often c
in themselves are sufficient to prevent t
its spread. By means of fire lanes the t
country is cut into parcels and the s
danger of great conflagrations very t
materially reduced. These fire lanes,
in order to be efficient, must be wide, .
clean and well'cared for; otherwise
they are of little use. a
Fire lanes may be constructed at -
slight expense. After the wood is cut
it is necessary to plow three or four
furrows along the edges and then to
burn over the lane at times when there
is no danger of setting fire to the
n'eighboring woods. A lane 50 feet in
width would be quite efficient. e
The scheme which I have to suggest
is that these fire lanes be constructed
and kept in order in a way similar to
the construction of state roads, which
have been so popular of late. In this
way no terrible burden of expense
rests upon anybody. The individual
FIRE LANE IN A FOREST.
benefited thereby pays part, the coun
ty another part and the state pays the
New Jersey was the first state to
take any radical step toward the im
provement of her public highways.
The state aid law provides that. on pe
tition of the owners of two-thirds of
the lands bordering any public road.
mot less than a mile in length, asking
that the road be improved and agree
ing to pay ten per cent. of the cost. the
county officials shall improve the road,
one-third of the expenses to be borne
by the state, if the road is brought to
the standard fixed by the state com
missioner of public roads, and the bal
ance-66 2-3 per cent.-by the county.
The state's expenditures for such im
provements in any one year are lim
ited to $150,000. while the county is lim
ited to one-fourth of one per cent. of
its assessed valuation. Since 1S95 the
application' for ne t , ý a t- han t lien
far iin ~.xc'.- of :h' h::uit iprescribed by
It scent to m~e t r,,i ! .i' e
s'mp], prot'sS :, ' ,x;, n! thmllL r '
to ihe con-trnction ,,f fi:'. I:oneo r
fooi-'h t, talk of lori-t culture until
fires are reduced in number. For this
purpose fire lanes are essential. and
this is the only scheme I know of
which seems practical and possible.
Once institute a perfect system of fire
lanes under combined state and local
control, and the number and severity
of fires will be reduced to such an ex
tent that the evil will. I am certain,
gradually fade away. and modern sys
tems of silviculture will gradually
creep in as the value of wood and land
increases, said Dr. John Gifford before
the New Jersey Horticultural society.
GOOD MOVABLE FEINCE.
It In a Great Convenience on Any
Farm and Will Pay for Itself
In a Short Time.
When I was a boy my father had a
movable fence, five boards high. a
panel of which is shown in the illus
tration. No posts are needed except
at the start. Two men with team can
more a long string of this fence in a
very short time.
As I remember it, we used a six-inch
board at the bottom and five-inch for
the rest, but they can all be the same
width. We made panels 12, 14 or 16
feet long. The panels are all built alike
and the end of one locks into the end
of the next. When the panels are then
straightened out the fence is locked.
It is a great convenience on any farm.
-C. S. Pinney, in Ohio Farmer.
Importance of Agrleulture.
The basic industry of this country is
agricultural. In 1890 there were 4,564,
641 farms in the country. There are
to-day 5,700,000 and over, showing an
increase in ten years of nearly 1,140,000
farms. This increase has arisen from
two causes-the settlement of govern
ment lands and the division of great
farms. We used to be told ten or fif
cteen years ago that the farms were be
ing consolidated and that the bonanza
farm would be that of the future. On
the contrary, since 1850 there has been
a constant decrease in the average size
of farms; in that year. 203 acres; in
1890 it was 137 acros.-World's Work.
Home Talent, Properly Directed, 'L
Might Reduce the Expenses of
Good Road Building.
All this expense in building im
proved r nads, I claim, can be borne i
mostly by the people living on the I
highways, if a suitable law were ep
acted, with certain rules and regula
tions properly enforced by a compe- I
tent overseer or commissioner of t
every town, who should see that the 1
work to be done is done at a certain 1
time-first, the grading in the fall t
or early spring by the inhabitants,
preparing it for the stone crushed T
during the winter by some man who
owns *a traction engine. This stone 1
is to be delivered at a certain point
convenient for crushing and central,
taken off from the farms and roads,
thus cleaning the roads of all loose
stone and the farms also. When not
to be had from farms, then from
quarries, already crushed, or taken
whole and crushed at a point which
said commissioner may name. Then,
as the time comes for the stone to
be put on the turnpike or grading,
all who are liable for highway tax
are, by teams and me'n. to place a
certain amount on the grading, thus
working out their tax in this way.
The said commissioner shall have
the power to build so many miles
each year, apportioning the amount
of work to the value of land as taken
from the assessment rolls, as well as
demanding from every man who does
not own lands a certain number of
days for highway purposes. You will
see by this means the towns owning
their own crusher and road leveling
machine, the matter of road building
could be done by the inhabitants. As
to matters of stone drawing, every
one should be allowed per perch or
yard a stipulated sum for the same,
it being credited as part of the tax.
Also the crushing should be done by
some man who owns a threshing en
gine, thus helping thresher men in
their maintaining and pay of ma
chines and families.
To aid this idea of building roads
by the people the state may pay out
of an appropriation a certain amount
a mile, which would do much toward
encouraging the people in carrying
out the modified way of accomplish
ing the desired result. This idea
must be in the form of law that has
force in it, making it compulsory to
a certain extent in building a certain
number of miles each year in each
town. It may seem too much to do,
especially to farmers, but when I
know that a district can turnpike
with plows and scrapers a mile (ordi
narily fair to begin with) in three or
four days, I see no reason why vwe
cannot have fair to good roads in a
few years without imposing such
large sums as are now asked, which
are simply enormous, and only a few
roads can be built by the extrava
gant proposals now before the peo
Many a farmer and owner would
readily deliver stone on roads to be
crushed on the grading prepared in
spring, before the ground gets too
dry, if he can see that it is to be cred
ited to him. under the law governing
roads, which must be special. not only
for farmers. but for all living on or
owning property in any district.
c.in v Ilo are only subject to poll tax
caui l build culverts or suice ways
uhi he not too large-this at the dis
cret r :tr of said commissioner. This
is in ply an outline for road building
ii' I,- most economical wvay. and by
puta .ng up a good turnpike and a
!moderate quantity of broken stone
the first year, an added one next, and
so on each year. the roads can be
kept. in fine order if only one
layer or track is put on the first year
and more added the next.
This work should be done on parts
of roads where most needed thh first
year, as saidsomlnissioner may in his
judgment think best. The act should
give the commissioner power to con
struct and buIild or make such grad
ings as vili level up and make such
highways as miams in his power will
admit. In case the commissioner
should unreasonably attempt too
much in any one year and complaint
be entered against extravagance, such
may be adjudged by the supervisors
and one or two of the most reliable
men of the "town. iy this mnode I
I believe roads can be built at an aver
age not over $600 a mile after the
first year, the towns owning their
Sown road mnachines and these beiIng
in charge of said comnmissioner as to
storage and repairs; or hie nmay con
tract for such work with reliable
partites. they owning their own ma
chines, and doing a part of the whole.
As to material, nllcrulshed tone or
gravel must be put iin. All material
must be broken to a consistency.
The roads should not be less than two
feet above thie sidings, and once put
1 up to this height and some stone
(.broken) put on each year, the ex
pense of keeping the dame would be
Svery light. You see, the $600 a mile
is mostly paid by the occupants on
the road, with what state aid might
be given, which would, however, be
light, compared with the proposals
now before the people, which would
require no end of taxation to suppeort
such extravagance, and but few would
get good roads at that.-J. H. O'liara,
Sin Cayuga (N. Y.) Independent.
Remult of Spraying Tests.
At the Vermont experiment station,
D spraying potatoes during ten years, of
Swhich an account was kept, showed a
yield of 296 bushels per acre for the
tsprayed potatoes against 173 bushels
- unsprayed. Spraying potatoes should
- be directed against both disease and in
a sects. The remedies may and for econ
i omy in applying should be combined.
a When Paris green or London purple
a is used separaite from bordeaux mix
Sture a little fresh lime added will pre
vent Injury to tender plants.
FEEDING OF SORGHUM.
There Are Many Arguments For and L
Against Its Use Worthy of Care
- ful Consideration.
Precaution is necessary in the feed
ing of sorghum. From time to time t
reports have been received of cattle f
dying from eating the sorghum in a
certain stages of growth. All at- r
tempts to find the poison have failed f
thus far. However, the losses have c
been so small compared to the num- f
ber of cows being fed that the use of a
this kind of feed has been continued.
A recent communication from Prof. c
D. H. Otis, of the Kansas experiment a
station, says: "During the time the t
Kansas station has been pasturing .
sorghum several reports have been
received of cattle dying in ten or fif
teen minutes from the time they en
tered the sorghum patch, but in every
case where we have been able to get
details, the cattle have eaten the sor
ghum on empty or nearly empty
stomachs. Cattle should have their
stomachs so well filled that they feel f
completely satisfied before touching
the green sorghum, and then allowed
to eat only a few minutes at a time
util they are accustomed to it. If 1
sorghum can be pastured successful
ly, as has been done by the Kansas ex
periment station, it means that the
dairymen and stockmen can get an
immense amount of pasture from
a small area, which is available at a
time when their other pastures are
getting short and dry. Pasturing will
also be the most economical way of
utilizing sorghum. The man that
turns his cattle in a sorghum field,
however, must realize that he may be
taking risks. He must weigh the evi
dence for and against its use and
then decide for himself whether the
benefits will outweigh the risks."
FEEDING AND BREEDING.
The Two Go Hand in Hand in lm
proving the Value and Indi
viduality of Cows.
To what extent does feed affect the
individuality of a cow? This is a
question that oas yet to be answered.
so far as conclusive experiments are
concerned. It is doubtless true that
feed is constantly changing the char
acteristics of animals. but we do not
know how rapidly the changes take
place. nor do we know just the effect
each food has. To a certain extent we
are feeding in the dark. The M aryland
experiment station has been feeding a
herd of common cows for several years
and noting the effect of proper feed
ing on individuality. C. F. l)oantne, who
reports on the results, say-: "No very
material results could be not iced the
first year from the extra feed atd care
the herd received. but throutgh sub
sequent years there seem- to be a
steady improvement. Judging from
the records of the-e cow\. it is a ques
tion if the quality of a dairy cow does
not depend almost as much on the
feeding as on the breeding. It is also
a question if cio'ws that have a more or
less pronounced beer tendencty. or. at
least, would not he called good mate
rial from which to build up at dairy
herd, cannot, with i)roper manaie
mient, he developed into profitable
dairy cow's." This is a view of the mat
ter that will not strike siome f our
investigators very favorably. It has
against it the generally acceptled truth
that we have now sri many god dairy
cows that it will hardly pay to spend
time, feed and effort in an attempt to
reverse a tendency already strongly
developed in a direction opposite to
that of-milk production.-Farmers' Re
FQDDER FEED RACK.
It Can Be Pilled at the Patch and
Wheeled" to the Pasture or
S te Rarnyard.
Therack shown herewith can be
fillled'at. the fodder patch and wheeled
to the pasture or barnyard. There it
IGREEN FODDER FEED RACK.
can tbe hung up against the fence by
the hooks at the back. Make the rack
of three-inch strips uf board and cut
the wheel from a piice of hardwood
board.--Orange Judd Farmer.
utter that is covered with salt
Scrystals is not desirable.
The large udder doesn't always give
assurance of a heavy milker.
If the friction is too violent, the
butter is produced speedily and is de
ficient in quality.
The flow of milk should be main
tained as uniform as possible while
the cow is in milk.
Cream will make better butter
when it rises in cold air than when it
rises in cold water.
No matter how good the cows in the
herd the bull should be good enough
to improve the progeny.
In making good butter quite as
many difficulties lie in the care of the
milk as in the mode of churning.
To rush cows into the stable from
the pasture night or morning, is to
excite them sufficiently physically to
heat their milk to a feverish point,
quickly undermining its quality.
The importance of producing on the
farm butter of the highest excellence,
Sfit to compete with the creamery
product, seems to be often disregard
Sed, or perhaps the undertaking is con
sidered too difHficult of attainment.
, This is largely through lack of knowl
edge of details.
FOR TRAVELERS' USE. I
Laxuares foo the Ocean Voyager, for A
Ynchtlng and Conching
"Flowers are not the only things
that people send to their departing tl
friends aboard ocean steamers." said ft
a dealer in fancy farm products, re- o
ports the New York Sun. "Some i
folks send chickens. We have one C
customer, for instance, who sends to I
friends traveling in this mauner a ti
dozen dainty broilers. ii
"The traveler never sees these, of it
course, until they are served to him, n
as he desires, at the table. When it
they are delivered at the ship they t
are taken in charge by a steward,
who sees that thiey are properly n
stowed in the ciold storage room, n
where they will keep inl good order \
until they are required. The flowers I
are beautiful, no doubt, and their n
fragrance delightful., but they last "
only a day or two: w\hile a dozen v
spring chickens will afford pleasure i
for the entire voyage. n
"\\'e havt a goo mtatny customelrs
wholt. thlietm.lves, twhen going abroad,
order sent aboard shill such a nnm- 11
htier of broiling chickens as they thlink
they twill require on the passage.
Anld we hawve many customers who
take with thenl on ocean voyages
milk or creamnl or bitter or eggs. or
all these things. suppllied by us: the 1
things of this kind they would put t
aboard ship might he as good. ut i
they know what our products are and
they are ace ustonuled to them. WVe
have been putting up these things
in forms especially designed for trav
elers' use for years now. and the
demand for them increases all tile
tilme. They are, of course. ordered
in aLdvance. and they are put up ir
"'Milk. for instance. unless other
wise ordered. is Iput up in pint jars.
and these aire put 24 in a case, each
jar in a colnpartnlent of its own, tn
which it atn he iced separately and
with certainty. ('realm is pit tip in
a similar malnner. Looked after and
cared for properly the ntllk and
rcani tihus put upl keep perfectly
throughlout the voyage. Mlilk and
reanui patckiied thu- for travelers' use
cost tmore thant when delivered at
homlle. It costs store- to put thetn uip
to start wih. and we never pitt back
any ipart of the packages: xvhen the
jars are empty they and the cases
are throw\vn aw\ay.
"\e tput up all these things. now
a!:y., also. for other travelers than
ithose staking trans-Atlanttic voyages;
for ill statince, for use on yachting
tripl-. and on cross country trips,
eoachlilng andt so on0. t'thus provided,
the tlquestion of whether he can find,
in this port or that, suitable suippies
ot thene- things is of no importance
to the vachtsnaut. for he is already
supp]li'ed. A.nid l Ithe same is true as to
landti trips. C('arrying thesle lthings
allong thlie coneching party is assured
of the lihet things that eltn hle had
aherever they may halt. For all
thesie things are so put up that with
suitable i are thiey will keep as long
its Intly e requlired."
DISTRIBUTING THE NEWS.
IBtilnttet Menlt Fr-ery Day Bonlbarid
('isil %%nr letecruns wvith a
Shower of l'tnpers.
At lt' s.,ldiers' home each morning
shortllv after t-eight o'clock a detach
mitent ,f 2-rizzled veterans is subjected
to as wan rml a fire as Imiay of thlem ever
experienieed in "t he god d:L"ay-s of '61,"
sas the Mil lat ukee Sentinel.
.A tached to the isuburban train i which
hrings in hundredst of "commuters"
fromt their suttnler homes to the city
it t he private car of thie Nashotah club,
compos'ed of well-known business men,
traders on 'change and professional
men who spend their nights at their
country hImlte during the warnm
monthsl .\ And, as is tlth eiistl.,,nt of the
suburbanii te-. a a rge s hare of the' -titme
required for the inward trips is de
voted to the perilusal of the morning
papers. All is quiet and peaceful in
the private car of the Nasihotah club
until the whitle b)lows for the sol
'Theitn thel sitene changts. Each gray
haired uecupant of the well-appointed
,nacll gravely anid ileliliralely folds
his inewspaper into a simall and ex
eeedinly hard paeka:ge of a sort cal
ciulatedtl to fly throrgh t1he air with
tlhi least reistanc.. .\s tihe train
whizzes pla-t l ie hnome grntlds a :lon ng
line ,of "''tt" is invairially to bie found
standint g anotg tlh tracks. waiting pa
tiently to lie Iltc'tled undet r fire for the
sake ,f s-ecurinig a new-paliert free of
ih a rge.
The flr- I po is Insed, -illand lthe -hom
hrtrlltnlt begiis. 'I'Through eaciih tpen
windohw fliets a tightly walddld paper.
whose forcet is :acentutated Iby the
speed of tlihe tralin. andt invariably the
earnnnage i.- grint. 1Y'hal amtounition
canitot be li ired throughl tie \windows
is piled into the armts of th, porter,
who takes a few shots on his own ac
cottnt froln the rear P:ltform.
And t thethe merchniants andt traders
on 'change and professional men re
adjust the-ir tllars and prepare for
the serious work of the day.
Why the Curle"w' Nent I. Hidden.
Dr. Rhys, in his "Celtic Folk-lore,
Welsh and Mtanx," tells the following
legend of the curlew: "When St.
BIeuno lived at Celynnog he used to go
regularly to preach at Landwyn, on
the opposite side of the water, which
he always crossed on foot. Bunt one
Sunday he accidentally dropped his
book of sermons into the water, and
when he had failed to rescue it a
'gylfin-hir,' or curlew. came by,
picked it up. and placed it on a stone
out of the reach of the tide. The saint
- prayed for the protection and favor of
the Creator for the 'gylfin-hir;' it was
granted, and nobody ever knows
where that bird makes its nest."
TELLS OF THE MOCKING BIRD.
Andubon, the Naturali st. Was a Great
Lover of the Sweet w
The fact that Audubon's picture of
the mocking bird group is at once le
fascinating and repulsive is perhatps t
one of the best proofs of the great I
naturalist's art, says Edward 1. tl
Clark, in the Chicago Record-lierald.
The coloring of the birds is near
to nature, the beauty of the flower
ing jasmine is unquestioned. but there k
is an offset to the blended natural
nless and beauty in the sight of the
hideous snake which is attempting
the robbery of the nest.
Audubon was the chanmpion of the
mocking bird's note as against the b
notes of all the birds of tlihe world.
When lEuroplean friends pressed upon
hini the surpassing excellence of the
nightingale's nmusic Audubon s id:
"''o colmpare the nightingale's essays
with the finished talent of our mock
intg bird is absurd." But, no cagedit
mocking bird ever sang a note wit Ii
the same sweetness that attaches to
the bird that has the freedom of thei
fields. They add much to the variety
of their utterances when caged, but
the subtle sweetness of the music' is
gone. In captivity the bird will give t
you the creak of a barrow wheel, the
rattle of a tin pan, the squeal of a
pig or the mew of a cat much oftener I
than it will attempt to please with I
its o\wn matchless music. Thousands
of young birds are caught, every t
spring by men andt boys alnd sold to
agents for a few cents. They are
shipped north, where they command
high prices. The sale of mocking
birds in Chicago has been almost en
tirely stopped through the efforts of
the society named for Audubon. w\ho
loved the mocker above all other
The mocking bird is largely insect
ivorous. but it is also a fruit lover,
and at times brings upon itself the
wrath of the berry and grape grow
ers of the south. In the winter, wvhen
insects are scarce except at the ex
treme southern limit of its range,
the mockers live ulpon the berries of
the red cedlar, the myrtle and the
holly. In Texas. Florida and south
ern Louisiana the mocking birds nest
early in M:lrch. The time of house
keeping varies with the latitude. At
its extreme northern limit the bird
builds about. the second week in
,June. Its favorite housekeeping
places are thorn thickets, orange
trees and holly bushes. The eggs are
from four to six in number and in
color are a light greenish blue. near
ly covered with markinqs of yellow
T'he mocking bird has a habit of
singing at night, provided the sky
be clear, and there are times vwheu
its rapturous notes outpoured to the
mnoon become a nuisance.
MUCH MONEY IN STEEPLES.
Nearly $4..000.000 Invested in Orna
mental Church Structures in
A church economni-t of a practical
and somlewhat eccentric turn of nlind
has estimated that nearly $43.000,000
has been invested in nonproductive,
none.-ential and purely ornamental
church bluildilgs in this country, chief
ly in the form of steeples.
The total value of church property
in the United States is set down at
$316.1S7.000. The greater part of this
enormous sumn is represented in splen
did and costly edifices devoted exclu
sively to religious purposes and open
only for a few hours each week. For
the remainder of the time these build
ings stand idle and emplty, monuments
of religious faith and sentiment. cold.
stately and magnificent-all this, but
nothing more. From a practical and
Iusiness point. of view they represent
capital that is tied uil and nonprodue
tive. This state of things is lprejudical
to the cause of religious progress. sayE
Leslie's Weekly. It is repugnant to
common sense and enlightened reason;
it argues wastefulness and cxtrava
gance. and it ought not to, lIe.
It would be more in harmony with
wise and prudent business manage
ment and the utilitarian spirit of the
age if the vast capital now lying almost
dead and useless in ornate and (emtpty
religious edifices isere converted into
business blocks or office buildings.
where adequate romonmight Ie re
served for religious gatherings and
lhe remalnling lspace ultilized for rev
enute-prodnling plurpcosecs. This iden is
ltartially carried oulrt in the Methlodist
l0o(k concern and the i Prestlyteri:n
bluilling, on Fifth avenlie. New York,
and in strnctlres of similar kilid in
inoston and other cities. in each of
whic.h commoodious chapels are pro
vided for religicouls mteetings. Why oct
invest ehul'h funds, generally. in the
Inder this plan a revenue mnight le
Sderived from the ncapital invested siffl
cilent to, enable the denominatlions to
extend their work in many needed di
reet ions, and especially among the neg
lected and churehless masses of our
How It Happened.
Mrs. Wederly-W-hat a lovely even
ing! It reminds me of that night ten
years ago when you proposed to me.
SThe moon was full and
Wederly (intecrrupting)-Yes, and
> it's a dollar to a doughnut I was
Sfull, too.--Chicango Daily News.
Get i Her In Bad Homor.
If anything gets a woman into a
bad humor it is to have some neigh
bor come in to gossip about some
thing so interesting that she forgets
and lets her dinner burn.-Washing
t ton (la.) Democrat.
S Secret of larnornice.
a The secret of ignorance is not tGo
a know your lack of wisdom.-Chicago
No man ever fell in love with a
woman whom 'his folks didn't like.
Hie merely becomes "infatuated'"
with her.-B-oston Transcript.
"She said I was to return all her
letters." "I)id you?" "1 coaxed her
to make it up with me. How could
I let hecr know that I hadn't kept
themm?" -London Tit-Bits.
Hill-"I understand Gayboy is one
of the best known men in your
town." Jill-"WVhy, he's so well
known that he has to go out of town
to borrow mnoney."--Baltimore World.
Mr. \\noolly West--"I am the archi
tect of my fortune." His Wife-"It
was lucky for you that there was no
building inspector around when you
were building it."-Mirror and Farm
A Triflhe Mixed.--Tess-"WVhat is
albsinthe,. do yoi lirnow?'" Jess-"Oh!
I think it's one of those fake love
potions. I read in a hook one time
that 'absinthe makes the heart grow
funder.' "'-l'hiladelphia Press.
"I bled for my country!" exclaimed
the veteran of two wars. proudly.
"Now what did you do at the battle
of (iettysburg?" lie asked, contempt
uoulsly. "I fled for my life." replied
the man who always told the truth.
-Ohio State Journal.
Not long ago a prominent country
lawyer, becoming nettled at the rul
ing of a juildge, picked up his hat and
started to walk out of the court
room. lie was halted by the court
with the inquiry: "Are you trying
to express your contemp)t for the
court?"" "No, your honor," was the
reply; "I am trying to conceal it."
San Francisco Argonaut.
A TWO-MILE SHAFT.
One in the Tamarack Mines That Will
Probably IBe Carried TI-at
It will require a deep shaft to de
velop a mine to the west of the Tam
arack-a shaft of nearly two miles
in depth--lbut in view of the wonder
ful strides made in deep minining in
the past decade it is not beyond the
range of possibilities that such a
shaft may be started soon. Fifteen
years ago the sinking of No. 1 Tam
arack to a vertical depth of 2,270 feel
made a new world's record, and the
mean who sunk it were denounced as
lunatics until the phenomenal suc
cess closed the mouths of their de
tractors, says the Milwaukee Senti
The bottoming of the Red Jacked
shaft only a few years ago, at a aepth
of 4,900 feet. was regarded with won
der, and held by many to be the ulti
mate limit in deep mining, yet to
day the No. 5 shaft of the Tamarach
lacks bhut a month's work of being a
full 5,000 feet in depth. and the hoist
ing plant just installed is built for
service to a deptn of 6.000 feet
nearly three times the depth at which
the original Tamarack shaft cut the
lode, although then denounced as a
crazy undertaking by some of the
best mining men in this district.
If the planned limits of deep min
ing have been extended to almost
three tinmes their original bounds,
within less than two decades, the
jump from 6,000 to 10.000 feet is not
such an impossible one as it now
seems to many. A shaft two miles
in depth could be sunk in ten years
at. a cost, including equipment, of $2,
000.000 or $3,00.0000. In other words.
a two-mile shaft could be sunk and
equipped at about the same cost and
in about the same time as the Red
Jacket shaft, which lacks a little of
a mile in depth.
There is really but one serious
drawback to the sinking of a two
mile shaftf and that is the question
of ventilation. At .such great depth
the heat would be very great. The
developments of the next two years
inNo.3 Tamnarack will settle the ques
tion of whether a two-mile shaft
could be operated to advantage.
'lihat it could be sunk is no longer
open to question. At the deep ver
tical shafts of the Calumet. district
powerful fans are used to reenforce
the natural system of ventilation ob
taining in all deep mines that have
nmore than a single shaft.
In the case of the hypothetical
two-mile shaft the single opening
could he made to serve the purpose
of two shafts by making the different
comnlpartments air-tight and using
one of theim for a down-cast, and an
other for an uip-cast. or chimney, to
witlhdraw the heated air from the
'Thle compressed air from the power
drills is also a powerful factor in
lmine operations at great depths, as
air gives up much of its heat under
conlpression, and when released
quickly robs the surrounding rock
and the free air in the mine of a por
tion of their heat.
Street Car Pleanantrles.
A man who looked from his phys
- 1i proportions as if he could back
up any remark he might care to make
in public boarded an up-town Broad
way car at Thirty-fourth street the
other night. The car was fflled,.buc
the man happenedt to get in a ro
which held only four passenn
None of them made any sig
indication to move up and
a sent. . He hinted repeted
Sceived no encouragement, a
said, gruffly, so as to be hea e*
ery passenger in the car;
"These benches are mnade for five
Shuman beings or four car hogs.
Hiis rebuke caused a general laugL"
which was quickly turned on hin -
Swhen one of the four men arose to
leave the car .As he stepped of heI
"You ~r mistaken. These betteo
o were made for four-three hum~au
beings aid one car hog. Take 0out'
seat.---N. Y. Times.