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STATE ALLIANCE DIRECTOR! If 0 Patty, President, Macon, 1 H McGohee, Vice President. C T Smithson. Secretary, New Port. T L Darden, Treasurer, Fayette. It W Coleman, Lecturer, Aberdeen. Frank Burkitt, Ass't. Lecturer, Okolona. S C Vinson, Chaplain, Oakland. Frank Howel, Doorkeeper, Durant. T E Groorae, Ass't. Doorkeeper. T N Touchstone, Sorgeant-at-Arms. Tî. G. West, State Dus. Ag't, Winona. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. J II Beeman, Chairman, Eley. T .T Millsaps, Crystal Springs. S It. Lamb, Batesville. BOARD OF CONTROL—EXCHANGE. B F Passmore, President, Passonia. J C Hall, Anguilla. T M Miller, Grenada. It C Patty, Macon. J H Beeman, Eley. COVEIÎX M K X T OVV NKIÎSJI !!'. a Kairond President's Remedy for Wlint lie ( alls Kvils. President Blackstone of the Chi cago and Alten road has just given to his stockholders the most sensa tional annual report ever issued from a railroad office. His annual reports are famous for their fear lessness, but this one plainly shows the part the government has had in reducing railway values, and ends with a detailed proposition for the government to buy and operate all t he railroads of the country. His arraignment of legislative action and his proposition for government control of the railroads is, in brief, as follows: "It is idle to say the state srov ernmenis are not responsible for the construction of too many rail roads. They, and they only, have had absolute power to prevent the building of railroads. No railroad ever lias been, or can be, constructed in the United States except by state or federal authority, swer that the object in multiply ing railroads has been to regulate rates or reduce them within reason able limits. not be secured bv multiplyin roads without limit. * * is said we should not complain un less prepared to suggest a remedy. v.iil, therefore, suggest the ownership of railroads by the na tional government and the organi zation off a corps off railroad opera tors, who shall re ni, Hi li in the ser vice during good behavior, and be in no greater degree under the in iiuence of politicians and political parties than the army militant. "The outlines of our suggestion may be stated as follows; The na tional government shall acquire the ownership of all the railroads in the United States which are now used f r interstate traffic; such rail-; roads ■ > be acquired by the exercise j ht o " eminent domain or nder such limitations It is no an Reasonable rates can rail tr It We of its iv by purchase u and rules as to price as congress may determine; payment therefor to be made by the issue of govern ment bunds bearing interest at a ! rate nut exceeding 3 percent, per j aid bonds to be redeemed ! annum, s by the annual application of a sink-j ing fund equal in amount to 1 per ; cent, of the whole amount of bonds issued, the annual interest j and sinking fund to he paid from j the net earnings of the railroads. The rates for transportation from year to year to be reduced so as to provide no more money than shall be needed for such payments." I President Blackstone is thorough ly in earnest. He says: "I mean j all i have said, and more. I have j shown that the government has practical! v confiscated hundreds of millions of railroad property, and that if things keep on as they have, another decade will see every rail road in hopeless bankruptcy." The utterances above will indeed be news to the country. No one will suppose that it is in the interest of the people dent Blackstone makes the sugges tion. With the watered stock that the railroads have, the price to be paid by the government will be double, and in some cases triple, what the roads originally-cost; and the owners of the roads will be making big money to turn loose on the government. Presi tliat To whiten and preserve the teeth take one ounce of borax and put it in three pints of boiling water; be fore it is quite cold add to it a tea spoonful of spirits of camphor; when cold put in a bottle and coi'k tightly. A tablespoonful is to be used daily m the same quantity of tepid water. From rilnds County. To the Editor of The New Farmer: I will try to tell you what we are doing in these parts. The alli ance is plodding along in a sort of slipshod way; it is not doing as much as it might. It is hard to have a full attendance in our sub alliance meetings. There has been some little dis cussion of the Constitutional Con vention, but we are all in the dark. We would like to have some light on the subject. What is it for and what is its object? We cannot un derstand tiie why nor the wherefore of it. It seems to be a political trick of some sort to those that are in the dark, and we want informa tion. It has been sprung on us without warning, and if the pur pose is what I have heard it is, don't want any Constitutional Con vention in ours. Why what are you going to do with the negro if you cut him off from voting? Yon can't tax without representation. If you have property qualifications, what are you going to do with the white man who can not come up to that qualification ? There are thou sands of such, and they are I good citizens too. What is so ur gent for a Constitutional Conven tion? By answering this and giv ing us all the other information, you will confer a great favor upon us all. 1 we a deep rows o feet apart. He puts j down fifty bushels of green cotton |.seed to the acre and covers them lightly. On April 1 6,200 pounds of fertilizer are put down to the measured acre. Seed are dropped hills; if W. .1. Gough. Bolton, Miss. [It is useless to discuss tne pro priety of calling a convention. That question is settled, brethren will read The New Farm er for the next six months they will see that there were abundant reasons for a convention, and such bodies as the State Alliance favored it.-- -En. j If the Tvvcjiity-elS'ht Rales *>!' > Twelve Arik#. Mr. John P. Gray of Hampton county, North Carolina, shows how good farming can he made to pay by the results achieved last season on twelve acres of cotton. He lias otton on printed his process for working, j le breaks the land with a 6 inch turning plow the latter part of l'ebruai It is then laid off m by hand 30 inches apart in a ! the ground is lightly plowed about j May J, and also on May 30, at ! which time the cotton seed meal, , mixed with acid phosphate and k ; nit, is put in. On June 1 cotton is such'chopped out. On June 12 he j "plows shallow" with sweep plow, j No more plowing is allowed after July 30, as the cotton is then large enough to hide a mule. Atfer the to ground is broken all plowing is shallow. ^ The following is the I cost: Work, plowing and hoeing, jÿffô.SO; cotton seed for manure, j 8120.50; guano (600 pounds to the j acre), 876.20; cost of picking, 18100.50; total 8486. Mr. Gray of ! gathed twenty-eight bales, weigh : ing 505 pounds, and including bag ging and ties, averaging net 845— the twenty-eight making 81260, ®nd the net on the twelve acres be '"K ^ Age-Herald. at one be be and be on Tribute ofllespect. Passed away Feb. 10, 1S90, our brother, Ballou, aged 51 years. We feel that the alliance and communi ty haveUost one of its brightest members. He commanded the love and respect of all reasonable per sons whose good fortune it was to know him. He was always cheer ful and respectful, and few men are so universally liked by all who know them. This alliance extends its heart felt sympathy to the bereaved fam it be be of ily. Smuoir Alliance, No. 402. Terry's art gallery is a credit to Winona and his work advertises him wherever it goes. The Sealinp: of I.etters. it it How were letters sealed before the invention of gummed envelopes? The first seals consisted of a ring that was affixed to clay or bole, and later to chalk or creta astatica, a mixture of pitch, wax, and plaster. The use of wiyx did not begin to be come general till the middle ages. Bees-wax, rendered yellow by time, was the first material used. Then came sealing-wax mixed with a white substance. Red wax began with Louis Vl., in 1113, and green wax made itï'appearanee about the year 1163. In the thirteenth cen 1 tury, yellow, brown, rose, black, and blue were, added to the forego ing colors. Black wax is a rarity met with in the seals of the military religious orders. Under the First Empire people began to use wafers, which were brought from Italy by the soldiers and officers of theFrencli Army. These wafers were cut with a punch out of a thin leaf made of flour. Finally, gummed envelopes gradually began to replace sealing wax and wafers nearly everywhere. The Summum ISomiiu. The largest question for every man is to determine what is his highest good; for what he will aim for is that which he considers the highest gootUto himself. If it be, in his mind, to glorify God and do his will, his course of life will be far different from what it would be if to his mind the most desirable thing were to get all the presenten joyment out of life that is attaina ble, without reference to duty to God or fellow man, or any future. Belief lies at the bottom of this question. l£^uie believes in his soul that this life is only a probation, a vestibule existence before the en trance door to a vast eternity, which must be this or that, just ai ouding to the deeds done in the body, he will logically judge that to spend all time and energy upon that which presently pleases, without reference to permanent good results, would not be the highest good to him. If, however, he verily believes that he is like the unthinking, irresponsible horse, that ibL world is all there is of life; or evÄ if he thinks that it makes little imVrence what he does lu* re, that hîBptùre will not be ma terially chafied by it anyhow, in that case he "ill consider that the highest good to himself will be to do nothing that costs an effort, to make the most of pleasure, and let the future take care ol' itself. These are the two courses, one of which, with modifications, every soul will Which Purposely we have left out considerations, that the main question should confront us, without anything to divert atten tion. What is to you the summum bon um of life? Whatever the life is, that the real heart belief, is; for, in the very na ture of the case, each will do what If a is yours, dear take. reader? collateral cour seems to him the best thing, piece of gold and a piece of silver and a piece of stone all lie within reach, and yet only oui-: can possibly be secured, the gold would be taken; so we choose between the two cour ses just as we in our hearts believe is for our best; therefore your life you are now living is the best indi cation of what you really believe. This may be modified by many con siderations; you may be blind, or deceived, or led into a course tem porarily, which is not really accord ing to your judgement upon the all important question as to what is the highest good; but the drift of your life shows your belief. And this lesson needs to be taken home by each of us, What is my highest good? And am I reaching out for it sensibly and successfully? —Censer. is to Tln Buflalo. Those who studied geography some twenty or more years ago will remember the pictures and descrip tions of the immence herds of buf falo that then roamed the plains. The geographer of the present day has to draw entirely on his imagin ation for his buffalo. There are not more than 600 left in the country, half of the number in the Yellow stone Park reservation; and now Senator Plumb and Representative Peters of Kansas want Congress to set aside the district on the North ern border of Texas known as No Man's-Land, for the subsistance of the other 300 buffalo. The scheme will probably fail, as the district is wanted for settlement. Twenty years to come there will not be a buffalo in exister ce outside of a me nagerie.—Memphis Avalanche. to Ilenltli Commandments 1. Thou slialt have no other food except at meal time. 2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any pies or put into pastry the like ness of anything that is in the heav ens above "or in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not fall to eating it or trying to digest it. For the dyspepsia will be visited upon the children to the third and fourth generation of them that eat pie, and I long life and vigor upon those that live prudently and keep the laws of health. 3. Remember thy bread to bake it well; for he will not be kept sound that eateth his bread as dough. 4. Thou shalt not indulge sorrow' or borrow anxiety in vain. 5. Six days shalt thou wash and ' keep thyself clean, and on the sev- ' enth thou shalt take a great bath, : tliou and thy son, and thy daughter, [ and thy man servant, and thy maid servant, and the stranger within thy gates. For in six days man swears and gathers bacteria enough for disease; wherefore the Lord has blessed the bath tub and hallowed ic Remember thy sitting-room and bed chamber to keep them ven- j tilated, that thy days may be longl in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee. 7. Thou shalt net eat hot biscuit, 8. Thou shalt not eat thy meat j fried. 1 0. Thou shalt not swallow thy i food nnchewed, or highly spiced, or 1 just before hard work, or just after 10. Thou shalt not keep late ! honrs in thy neighbor's house, nor | with thy neighbor's wife, nor his : man-servant, nor his maid-servant, | nor his cards, nor his glass, nor j with anything that is tliy neigh bor's.—Ex_ , Mr- Spurgeon »aw on a weather eock what he thought was a strange ! motto, "God is Love!" and asked his friend if he meant to imply that j the Divine love could be as fickle as the wind. what 1 mean: whichever way the I wind blows, God is love, through ; the cold north wind, the biting east j wind, still God is love, as much as whenriiie warfu, genial bVeef.es re-1 fresh our fields and flocks."—The j Messenger. it. it. this is ! said he, "No, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN HARDWARE, STOVES, Steam Engines, Saw Mills, Grist Mills, Sorghum Mills; Gins, Cultivators, Side Harrow, Sash Doors, Blinds, etc Wo Buy Our Good® From Manutactors For Cash ami gets oar Load Parties Ncecling goods in our Line will find us headquarers PE EUES & GO -WTINrOTST ZBIE^L-IlSrCIEff: HOUSE: IMIxse. MISS. J OZbTIES do \7L / -d.TS, Prescriptions Accurately and Carefully Compounded Day and Night. Druggists and Stationers NORTH FRONT ROW. Have the largest and most complete stock of Drugs, Medicines, Paints, Oils, Glass, Stationery, School Books, Fancy Toilet Articles in Winona. Fresh Garden Seed and Onion Sets. American Conservatory Of M WEBER MUSIC HALL CHICAGO. USIC High School for Pianos, Organs, Violin, Singing, Elocution, Dramatic Art, aud all orchestral instruments. Pupils prepared for the operatic aud dramatic stage. The faculty is composed of eminent artists and the courso of study thorough andcomprehen Unrivaled free advantages in the shape of concerts, recitals, lectures, a depart meut for the training of teachers, gold medals, etc. Catalogue mailed free on application. five JOHN J. HATTSTAEDT. Director. Origin of "Mind YourP'sand Cps." In ale-houses, in the olden time, whan chalk-scores were marked up the wall or behind the door of the tap room, it was customary to put the initials "P" and "Q" at the head of every man's account, to show the number of pints and quarts for which he was in arrears; and we may presume many a friend ly rustic to have tapped his neigh the shoulder, when he was on I bor on indulging too freely in his potations, and to have exclaimed as he pointed to the clialk-score, "Mind your P's and <j's, man! Mind your P's and Q's!"—Origin of Things Familiar, "The best husbands I ever met," says the author of "John Halifax," ' "came out of a family where the ' mother, a most heroic and self-de : uying woman, laid down the abso [ lute law, 'Girls first;' not in any authority, but first to be thought of in protection and tenderness. Con sequently the chivalrous care which those lads were taught to show to their sisters naturally extended it self to all women. They grew up true gentlemen—gentlemen gener ous, unexacting, courteous of speech, j and kind of heart." Carefully repeated experiments made by an experienced English j navigator at Santander, on the north 1 coast of Spain, showed the crest of i the sea waves in a prolonged and 1 heavy gale of wind to be 42 feet high; and allowing the same for the depth between the waves, would ! make a height of 84 feet from crest | to base. The length from crest to : crest was found to be 386 feet, | Other estimates of the waves in the j South Atlantic during great storms give a height of 50 feet for thecrest , and 400 for the length. In the North Sea the height of crest sel ! dom exceeds 10 feet, and the length 1150 feet, j I thou hast shut the door, but the ; thief is still in the house.—Boston, j . , Ll1 ^ lmq ol business often proves j superior to gemous and art. — Ci Height of Great Sea Waves. If thou art not born again,all thy ! outward reformation is naught; Constant devotion to one partic cero.