STATE ALLIANCE DIRECTOR!
If 0 Patty, President, Macon,
1 H McGohee, Vice President.
C T Smithson. Secretary, New Port.
T L Darden, Treasurer, Fayette.
It W Coleman, Lecturer, Aberdeen.
Frank Burkitt, Ass't. Lecturer, Okolona.
S C Vinson, Chaplain, Oakland.
Frank Howel, Doorkeeper, Durant.
T E Groorae, Ass't. Doorkeeper.
T N Touchstone, Sorgeant-at-Arms.
Tî. G. West, State Dus. Ag't, Winona.
J II Beeman, Chairman, Eley.
T .T Millsaps, Crystal Springs.
S It. Lamb, Batesville.
BOARD OF CONTROL—EXCHANGE.
B F Passmore, President, Passonia.
J C Hall, Anguilla.
T M Miller, Grenada.
It C Patty, Macon.
J H Beeman, Eley.
COVEIÎX M K X T OVV NKIÎSJI !!'.
a Kairond President's Remedy for
Wlint lie ( alls Kvils.
President Blackstone of the Chi
cago and Alten road has just given
to his stockholders the most sensa
tional annual report ever issued
from a railroad office. His annual
reports are famous for their fear
lessness, but this one plainly shows
the part the government has had in
reducing railway values, and ends
with a detailed proposition for the
government to buy and operate all
t he railroads of the country. His
arraignment of legislative action
and his proposition for government
control of the railroads is, in brief,
"It is idle to say the state srov
ernmenis are not responsible for
the construction of too many rail
roads. They, and they only, have
had absolute power to prevent the
building of railroads. No railroad
ever lias been, or can be, constructed
in the United States except by state
or federal authority,
swer that the object in multiply
ing railroads has been to regulate
rates or reduce them within reason
not be secured bv multiplyin
roads without limit. * *
is said we should not complain un
less prepared to suggest a remedy.
v.iil, therefore, suggest the
ownership of railroads by the na
tional government and the organi
zation off a corps off railroad opera
tors, who shall re ni, Hi li in the ser
vice during good behavior, and be
in no greater degree under the in
iiuence of politicians and political
parties than the army militant.
"The outlines of our suggestion
may be stated as follows; The na
tional government shall acquire the
ownership of all the railroads in
the United States which are now
used f r interstate traffic; such rail-;
roads ■ > be acquired by the exercise j
ht o " eminent domain or
nder such limitations
It is no an
Reasonable rates can
of its iv
by purchase u
and rules as to price as congress
may determine; payment therefor
to be made by the issue of govern
ment bunds bearing interest at a !
rate nut exceeding 3 percent, per j
aid bonds to be redeemed !
by the annual application of a sink-j
ing fund equal in amount to 1 per ;
cent, of the whole amount of
bonds issued, the annual interest j
and sinking fund to he paid from j
the net earnings of the railroads.
The rates for transportation from
year to year to be reduced so as to
provide no more money than shall
be needed for such payments." I
President Blackstone is thorough
ly in earnest. He says: "I mean j
all i have said, and more. I have j
shown that the government has
practical! v confiscated hundreds of
millions of railroad property, and
that if things keep on as they have,
another decade will see every rail
road in hopeless bankruptcy."
The utterances above will indeed
be news to the country. No one
will suppose that it is in the interest
of the people
dent Blackstone makes the sugges
tion. With the watered stock that
the railroads have, the price to be
paid by the government will be
double, and in some cases triple,
what the roads originally-cost; and
the owners of the roads will be
making big money to turn loose on
To whiten and preserve the teeth
take one ounce of borax and put it
in three pints of boiling water; be
fore it is quite cold add to it a tea
spoonful of spirits of camphor;
when cold put in a bottle and coi'k
tightly. A tablespoonful is to be
used daily m the same quantity of
From rilnds County.
To the Editor of The New Farmer:
I will try to tell you what we
are doing in these parts. The alli
ance is plodding along in a sort of
slipshod way; it is not doing as
much as it might. It is hard to
have a full attendance in our sub
There has been some little dis
cussion of the Constitutional Con
vention, but we are all in the dark.
We would like to have some light
on the subject. What is it for and
what is its object? We cannot un
derstand tiie why nor the wherefore
of it. It seems to be a political
trick of some sort to those that are
in the dark, and we want informa
tion. It has been sprung on us
without warning, and if the pur
pose is what I have heard it is,
don't want any Constitutional Con
vention in ours. Why what are
you going to do with the negro if
you cut him off from voting? Yon
can't tax without representation.
If you have property qualifications,
what are you going to do with the
white man who can not come up to
that qualification ? There are thou
sands of such, and they are
I good citizens too. What is so ur
gent for a Constitutional Conven
tion? By answering this and giv
ing us all the other information,
you will confer a great favor upon
deep rows o feet apart. He puts
j down fifty bushels of green cotton
|.seed to the acre and covers them
lightly. On April 1 6,200 pounds
of fertilizer are put down to the
measured acre. Seed are dropped
W. .1. Gough.
[It is useless to discuss tne pro
priety of calling a convention.
That question is settled,
brethren will read The New Farm
er for the next six months they
will see that there were abundant
reasons for a convention, and such
bodies as the State Alliance favored
it.-- -En. j
Tvvcjiity-elS'ht Rales *>!'
> Twelve Arik#.
Mr. John P. Gray of Hampton
county, North Carolina, shows how
good farming can he made to pay
by the results achieved last season
on twelve acres of cotton. He lias
printed his process for working,
j le breaks the land with a 6 inch
turning plow the latter part of
It is then laid off m
by hand 30 inches apart in
a ! the ground is lightly plowed about
j May J, and also on May 30, at
! which time the cotton seed meal,
mixed with acid phosphate and k
; nit, is put in. On June 1 cotton is
such'chopped out. On June 12 he
j "plows shallow" with sweep plow,
j No more plowing is allowed after
July 30, as the cotton is then large
enough to hide a mule. Atfer the
to ground is broken all plowing is
shallow. ^ The following is the
I cost: Work, plowing and hoeing,
jÿffô.SO; cotton seed for manure,
j 8120.50; guano (600 pounds to the
j acre), 876.20; cost of picking,
18100.50; total 8486. Mr. Gray
of ! gathed twenty-eight bales, weigh
: ing 505 pounds, and including bag
ging and ties, averaging net 845—
the twenty-eight making 81260,
®nd the net on the twelve acres be
'"K ^ Age-Herald.
Passed away Feb. 10, 1S90, our
brother, Ballou, aged 51 years. We
feel that the alliance and communi
ty haveUost one of its brightest
members. He commanded the love
and respect of all reasonable per
sons whose good fortune it was to
know him. He was always cheer
ful and respectful, and few men
are so universally liked by all who
This alliance extends its heart
felt sympathy to the bereaved fam
Smuoir Alliance, No. 402.
Terry's art gallery is a credit to
Winona and his work advertises
him wherever it goes.
The Sealinp: of I.etters.
How were letters sealed before the
invention of gummed envelopes?
The first seals consisted of a ring
that was affixed to clay or bole, and
later to chalk or creta astatica, a
mixture of pitch, wax, and plaster.
The use of wiyx did not begin to be
come general till the middle ages.
Bees-wax, rendered yellow by time,
was the first material used. Then
came sealing-wax mixed with a
white substance. Red wax began
with Louis Vl., in 1113, and green
wax made itï'appearanee about the
year 1163. In the thirteenth cen
1 tury, yellow, brown, rose, black,
and blue were, added to the forego
ing colors. Black wax is a rarity
met with in the seals of the military
religious orders. Under the First
Empire people began to use wafers,
which were brought from Italy by
the soldiers and officers of theFrencli
Army. These wafers were cut with
a punch out of a thin leaf made of
flour. Finally, gummed envelopes
gradually began to replace sealing
wax and wafers nearly everywhere.
The Summum ISomiiu.
The largest question for every
man is to determine what is his
highest good; for what he will aim
for is that which he considers the
highest gootUto himself. If it be,
in his mind, to glorify God and do
his will, his course of life will be
far different from what it would be
if to his mind the most desirable
thing were to get all the presenten
joyment out of life that is attaina
ble, without reference to duty to
God or fellow man, or any future.
Belief lies at the bottom of this
question. l£^uie believes in his soul
that this life is only a probation, a
vestibule existence before the en
trance door to a vast eternity, which
must be this or that, just ai ouding
to the deeds done in the body, he
will logically judge that to spend all
time and energy upon that which
presently pleases, without reference
to permanent good results, would
not be the highest good to him. If,
however, he verily believes that he
is like the unthinking, irresponsible
horse, that ibL world is all there is
of life; or evÄ if he thinks that it
makes little imVrence what he does
lu* re, that hîBptùre will not be ma
terially chafied by it anyhow, in
that case he "ill consider that the
highest good to himself will be to
do nothing that costs an effort, to
make the most of pleasure, and let
the future take care ol' itself. These
are the two courses, one of which,
with modifications, every soul will
Purposely we have left out
considerations, that the
main question should confront us,
without anything to divert atten
tion. What is to you the summum
bon um of life?
Whatever the life is, that the real
heart belief, is; for, in the very na
ture of the case, each will do what
is yours, dear
seems to him the best thing,
piece of gold and a piece of silver
and a piece of stone all lie within
reach, and yet only oui-: can possibly
be secured, the gold would be taken;
so we choose between the two cour
ses just as we in our hearts believe
is for our best; therefore your life
you are now living is the best indi
cation of what you really believe.
This may be modified by many con
siderations; you may be blind, or
deceived, or led into a course tem
porarily, which is not really accord
ing to your judgement upon the all
important question as to what is the
highest good; but the drift of your
life shows your belief.
And this lesson needs to be taken
home by each of us, What is my
highest good? And am I reaching
out for it sensibly and successfully?
Those who studied geography
some twenty or more years ago will
remember the pictures and descrip
tions of the immence herds of buf
falo that then roamed the plains.
The geographer of the present day
has to draw entirely on his imagin
ation for his buffalo. There are not
more than 600 left in the country,
half of the number in the Yellow
stone Park reservation; and now
Senator Plumb and Representative
Peters of Kansas want Congress to
set aside the district on the North
ern border of Texas known as No
Man's-Land, for the subsistance of
the other 300 buffalo. The scheme
will probably fail, as the district is
wanted for settlement. Twenty
years to come there will not be a
buffalo in exister ce outside of a me
1. Thou slialt have no other food
except at meal time.
2. Thou shalt not make unto thee
any pies or put into pastry the like
ness of anything that is in the heav
ens above "or in the water under the
earth. Thou shalt not fall to eating
it or trying to digest it. For the
dyspepsia will be visited upon the
children to the third and fourth
generation of them that eat pie, and I
long life and vigor upon those that
live prudently and keep the laws of
3. Remember thy bread to bake
it well; for he will not be kept sound
that eateth his bread as dough.
4. Thou shalt not indulge sorrow'
or borrow anxiety in vain.
5. Six days shalt thou wash and '
keep thyself clean, and on the sev- '
enth thou shalt take a great bath, :
tliou and thy son, and thy daughter, [
and thy man servant, and thy maid
servant, and the stranger within
thy gates. For in six days man
swears and gathers bacteria enough
for disease; wherefore the Lord has
blessed the bath tub and hallowed
ic Remember thy sitting-room
and bed chamber to keep them ven- j
tilated, that thy days may be longl
in the land which the Lord thy God
7. Thou shalt net eat hot biscuit,
8. Thou shalt not eat thy meat j
0. Thou shalt not swallow thy i
food nnchewed, or highly spiced, or 1
just before hard work, or just after
10. Thou shalt not keep late !
honrs in thy neighbor's house, nor |
with thy neighbor's wife, nor his :
man-servant, nor his maid-servant, |
nor his cards, nor his glass, nor j
with anything that is tliy neigh
Mr- Spurgeon »aw on a weather
eock what he thought was a strange !
motto, "God is Love!" and asked his
friend if he meant to imply that j
the Divine love could be as fickle as
what 1 mean: whichever way the I
wind blows, God is love, through ;
the cold north wind, the biting east j
wind, still God is love, as much as
whenriiie warfu, genial bVeef.es re-1
fresh our fields and flocks."—The j
this is !
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN
HARDWARE, STOVES, Steam Engines,
Saw Mills, Grist Mills, Sorghum Mills;
Gins, Cultivators, Side Harrow, Sash
Doors, Blinds, etc
Wo Buy Our Good® From Manutactors For Cash ami gets oar Load
Parties Ncecling goods in our Line will find us headquarers
PE EUES & GO
ZBIE^L-IlSrCIEff: HOUSE: IMIxse.
J OZbTIES do \7L / -d.TS,
Accurately and Carefully
Compounded Day and
Druggists and Stationers
NORTH FRONT ROW.
Have the largest and most complete stock of Drugs, Medicines, Paints, Oils,
Glass, Stationery, School Books, Fancy Toilet Articles in Winona. Fresh Garden
Seed and Onion Sets.
American Conservatory Of M
WEBER MUSIC HALL CHICAGO.
High School for Pianos, Organs, Violin, Singing, Elocution, Dramatic Art, aud
all orchestral instruments. Pupils prepared for the operatic aud dramatic stage. The
faculty is composed of eminent artists and the courso of study thorough andcomprehen
Unrivaled free advantages in the shape of concerts, recitals, lectures, a depart
meut for the training of teachers, gold medals, etc.
Catalogue mailed free on application.
JOHN J. HATTSTAEDT. Director.
Origin of "Mind YourP'sand Cps."
In ale-houses, in the olden time,
whan chalk-scores were marked up
the wall or behind the door of
the tap room, it was customary to
put the initials "P" and "Q" at the
head of every man's account, to
show the number of pints and
quarts for which he was in arrears;
and we may presume many a friend
ly rustic to have tapped his neigh
the shoulder, when he was
I bor on
indulging too freely in his potations,
and to have exclaimed as he pointed
to the clialk-score, "Mind your P's
and <j's, man! Mind your P's and
Q's!"—Origin of Things Familiar,
"The best husbands I ever met,"
says the author of "John Halifax,"
' "came out of a family where the
' mother, a most heroic and self-de
: uying woman, laid down the abso
[ lute law, 'Girls first;' not in any
authority, but first to be thought of
in protection and tenderness. Con
sequently the chivalrous care which
those lads were taught to show to
their sisters naturally extended it
self to all women. They grew up
true gentlemen—gentlemen gener
ous, unexacting, courteous of speech,
j and kind of heart."
Carefully repeated experiments
made by an experienced English
j navigator at Santander, on the north
1 coast of Spain, showed the crest of
i the sea waves in a prolonged and
1 heavy gale of wind to be 42 feet
high; and allowing the same for the
depth between the waves, would
! make a height of 84 feet from crest
| to base. The length from crest to
: crest was found to be 386 feet,
| Other estimates of the waves in the
j South Atlantic during great storms
give a height of 50 feet for thecrest
, and 400 for the length. In the
North Sea the height of crest sel
! dom exceeds 10 feet, and the length
I thou hast shut the door, but the
; thief is still in the house.—Boston,
Ll1 ^ lmq ol business often proves
j superior to gemous and art. — Ci
Height of Great Sea Waves.
If thou art not born again,all thy
! outward reformation is naught;
Constant devotion to one partic
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