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The Cairo daily bulletin. (Cairo, Ill.) 1870-1872, October 20, 1872, SUPPLEMENT, Image 5

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ofpiob, sxTijijmxiasr BTTiXiiaiiTa-, cob. laarn stebbt A.isriD -wsiiiasTa-aroiT avbitttb.
The life and misfortunes of this man
tuny nt least servo to illustrate tho
homely old faying, tlmt a fool and his
money nru soon parted. He was the
younger con of uu ancient and some
what wealthy lrih family, of the
county of Kerry , though ho himself
was horn in England, while his parents
were visiting a friend in that eountry,
in liUi). Alter attending tho usual
period of Westminister tchool in Lou
don, and at Trinity College, Dublin, he
wan put to the study ot tiie law, and in
1709, when ho was twenty-five years of
age, ho was admitted to the Irish bar
as a barrister.
He never practiced his profession ;
for lie had no Hooner completed Iiih le
gal studies than the death of his elder
brother made him the heir ot the lam-
ily estates. Instead, thcieforc, of set
tling down to a lifetime of honorable
labor, he put money m his purse, and
starlet! to make the tour of Europe.
He happened to arrive in Paris about
tho time when the French people were
in the early delirium ol their revolution,
and ho was present at the first annual
celebration of the destruction of the
Bastilc, when live hundred thousand
Frenchman, assembled in one vast am
pitheatrc, took the oath of fidelity to
the nation, to the constitution and to
tho king. He returned to Ireland full
of those dicams and fancies which
cahractcrizcd the light-headed liberal of
the period. Jle was a republican, and,
seeing no prospect of the emancipation
of his native land, lie determined to
fell off his estates, and remove to the
republic on the other side of the Atlan
tic, over which General Washington
was presiding with so much eclat and
dignity. His Irish property yielded
him twenty thousand pounds, which,
small as it sounds to our ears, was, for
that, day, a really handsome fortune.
It was probably equivalent, in purchas
ing power, and in the importance it
gave to its possessor, to more than a
quarter of a millou of our present dol
lars. While making his arrangements to
remove, he fell in love witti a young
lady named Miss Agncw, the child of a
distinguished military family. She
was of a romantic turn of mind, and
thought it delightful to marry an Irish
republican, whose sister was an Irish
peeress, and to emigrate with him to
the wilderness of America. On the
first day of August, 1700., when Bleu
nerhassett was thirty-oi. years of age,
they landed in New York ; where, it
seems, the mosquitoes attacked them
with such unrelenting pertinacity, that
they were glad to go into the country
for a few weeks until the hot weather
was over.
His first letter from New York gives
a curious account of the furious specu
lation then prevailing among business
men , which he thought was the cau-e
of the extravagant prices of everything
and the high rate of wages. Men ser
vants, he said, received twelve dollars a
mouth, mechanics sixteen shillings a
day, and a goud house was two hundred
pounds a year. There was a perfect
mania for speculation in real estate
fortunes made and lost every day in
buying and selling lots and lauds, lie
saw almost everything in a favorable
light. Witness his description of
Newark, nine miles from th'j city of
New York :
"Newaik is perhaps the handsomest
village in the world. Of extent,
nearly three miles ; it is seated in n
plain, clear and level as a pat lor floor,
on tho banks of the Passaic, in an am-,
pitheatrc environed by gently swelling
hills. Its academy, couit-house, and
two neat buildiugs lor public worship,
added to nine stages, which beside an
infinity of wagons, every day pass
through it between New York and
Philadelphia, give an air of business
and gaiety to the place. It is also the
residence of many private families of
It is only very old inhabitants of
Newark, which is now grown to a
great manufacturing city of oue huu
drcd thousand inhabitants, who will re
alize the truth of Uleuuerhassctt's pic
ture. Our romantic adventurers wero
hound westward fo tho fur west
which was then tho shores of the Ohio
river, between Pittsburg and the ito ol
Cincinnati. The next whit r found
thorn in Marietta in Ohio, whence ho
made excursions into tho universal wil
derness in quest of suitable hind upon
which to estiblish himself. Near tho
villago is an eminence of somo clova
tion, from tho summit of which an ex
tensive veiw is afforded of tho river and
surrounding country. No sight could
havo been more inconvenient ; but, as
in tho old world, many a pieturcquo
height was '.'rowncd by a picturoquo
castle, tho relict of harbarious times,
the Bleuncrhassetts thought it would bo
a grand thing to placo upon this height
tho maiinion thoy intended to build.
Near Marietta, thero is a low- island
in the Ohio river, about three miles
long and perhaps one hundred yards
wido. It lies flat upon tho surfaco of
tho water, bonding with tho boud of
tho stream liko a long green snako,
tho lofty banks of tho Ohio hemming
it in on ovory side, liko two ranges of
wood covered mountains, Tho river is
so narrow thero, that a man standing
upon tho main land, can couvcrso to
rzether without any inconvenience. It
wa upoD'.tbie island that BleanerbasMtt
bought a farm of one hundred and sev
enty acres, for four thousand five nun
drcd dollars, and took up his abode
upon it in a small block-house, with
his prttty and romantic young wife
He proceeded forthwith to erect a curi.
ous and remarkably ugly house, with
barns, out houses, and various other
structures at n cost of thirty thousand
dollars; so that at the time tho house
was finished and furnished, he had ex
pended about half his capital. From
tho picture of this house which is now
before me, I should suppose it a nnra
ele of inconvenience and absurdity ;
and, so fur from having an elegant an
pcarancc, it resembles nothing so much
as those temporary wooden liarn.cks
which arc sometimes erected, in time
of poice, outside of fortified places.
What next? It this house was un
comfortable and inelegant, his estah
lishmeut was largo and expensive ; and
he was no more capable of extracting
a livelihood from his farm than a child
A eh Id indeed ho was in cv rythhit
but years. He tried to cxperimci t in
chemistry; he played the violin; he
bought an electrical apparatus; he col
looted books , and he even tried, short
sighted as he was, to shoot game. In
this last amusement he was assisted by
his wife, who aimed the gun at the bird
and told him when to fire. He was so
afraid of lightning that when a thun
der storm was coming up he would
shut the doors and windows and get
into lied. In short, he was one of the
most foolish, incompetent, unpractical
men that ever squandered a fortune
and brought a family to beggary. And
his wife, in her way, was not much
wi-cr than himself, although abun
dantly competent, if she had remained
at home, to shine m the sphere in
which she was bom.
So passed eight years. In 180",
Aaron Burr set on foot his famous ex
pedition for the conquest of Mexico,
and on his way west to make prepara
tions and to set up recruits, iio became
acquainted with the Blcnnerhansetts.
Already they were very much embar
assed for money, and were very much
embarrassed fur money, and were far
more anxious to sell their estate than
they were to acquire it. Burr of
fcrrcd him a share in his dazzling en
terprise; and probably conveyed, in
some way, to the eager and credulous
Irishman, that when the prise had been
won, it was 1 e who should represent
tho empire of Aaron I at t! o Court of
St. James. So far as we know, Uurr
practiced no deception upon him ; for
ifthere was a man in the world who
more entirely belcived in the feasibility
of his Mexican enterprise than any
other man, it was Aaron Uurr himself
Befoie the scheme was well organ
ized, as all the world knows, President
Jefferson shattered it to pieces with a
bolt no more formidable than a procla
ination. liurr was arresU'd and taken
o Richmond for trial. Blennerhassott,
charged with complicity with him, was
a'so conveyed to Richmond a prisoner.
His island was overrun with wild Ohio
militia ; his gardens trampled into
ruin ; his out-houses destroyed, and
his mansion defaced. After a detention
in Richmond ot many tedious and ex
pensive mouths, he was discharged, and
rejoined his family at Natchez.
He then gathered the remains of his
property, and bought a cotton planta
tion of a thousand acres in Mississippi;
and upon it he placed a few slaves.
An able man could have made a for
tune upon that virgin soil, in that
early day of the cotton culture ; as, in
deed many of his neighbors did, who
had never seen an electrical machine
and knew not a note of music. It
was Mrs. Blcnucrhassett who managed
the plantation, so far as it was managed.
It was she who, at the dawn, mounted
her horse and saw that tho labors of
the day wero begun. Her exertions,
however, were not adequate to the sit
uation, and the struggle was unsuccess
ful. His creditors being clamarous, ho
offered his plantation and twenty-two
negroes tor sale, after he had held
them seven years, they realized enough
to pay his debts and leave a small sum
over for investment.
In 1819, being fifty-four years of age,
but moro worn by 'misfortunes than
years, ho moved to Montreal, took a
partner, and tried to get into the pruc
tico of the law. Tho attempt not suc
ceeding, he sailed for Ireland, where
he made a little attempt to rccovor
sonic estates to which ho faucio i ho
had a legal title. Then ho directed
his energies to getting a place under
government. Some of his old West
minister school. fellows, wero now min
isters, generals, lords and duke, and to
them he addressed letters asking them
to interest themselves in promoting his
object, to which they uniformly sent
polite replies ot refusal. In lb-i ho
returned to Canada, but only to closo
up his affairs iu America, and taking,
with his wile and children, lcne for
ever of a continent in which ho had ex
perienced little but unhappiiiess, A
maiden sister who lived in England
had offered him a sharo of her cottage,
which was not very largo. In this last
refuge ho lived six years, and thero he
died, in 18111, iu his sixty-third year.
In after years, Mrs. Blcnnorhassctt,
with an invalid son, and herself almost
oxhaustcd with anxiety and toil, camo
to Now York and asked Cougress to
muko good to her tho dnmago dono to
her island ahodo by troops iu tho em
ployment of the United States in 180G.
Mr. Clay forwarded her memorial to
tho Senate
"Mrs. Blenncrhnssett," howroto, "is
now iu Now York, residing iu very
humble circumstances, bestowing her
cares on a son, who, by long poverty
and sickness, ia reduced to utter imbe
cility, both of body and mind ; unable
to assist her, or provide for his own
wants. In her present destituto situa
tion, the smallest amount of relief
would bo thankfully icccivcd by her.
Her condition is one ot abtolutc mint,
and she has but a short time left to en
joy any better fortune in this world."
It is sunnoscd that an annronriation
for her relief would have been made if
she had lived long enough for the
tardy action of congress. She died in
18-1!), in a mean abode in tho city of
New York, attended in her last mo
menta by sisters of charity. Her son
survived her jeors during which he
was utterly unable to help himself, and
would have starved to death but for tho
charity of a lew persons who knew his
situation, and knew, too, the melan
choly talc of his family's ruin. Occa
sionally a paragraph in a newspaper
would make known his wants to tho
public, when small sums would be sent
in for his benefit. I was myself a
bearer to him of one of the newspaper
collections, amounting to twenty-five
dollars, a few months before his death
n 1851. He Bat silent in a miserable
room in St. John's Square an elderly
gentleman iu an extremely shabby suit
of black, with a pallid expressionless
face. I explained to him the object of
my visit, and handed him the money.
Ho gazed vacantly at it, but did not
hold out his hand to take it, and evi
dently had not understood a word that
I had said. I therefore laid the money
upon an old chest, and went in search
of some oue who could bo suppo cd to
have charg of hitn. I believe I found
tome such person "at length, aud suc
ceeded in leaving the money so that it
would be extended for his benefit.
Wood' Household Magazine.
We published in our May number
(page 118)aletter from a correspondent,
who says it is "a fact that the ocean
was salt three millions of ages before
there was any laud at all " Admitting
for argument's sake that there was a
period when the ocean covered all the
surface of the earth, it must be ac
knowledged that the bottom of tho
ocean was land, out of which those ma
terials which were soluble in
water would be extracted to a consider
able extent.
Hut it is not certain that the prime
val ocean was salt, iu the usual sense of
the word. Quite possibly it contained
predominately sulphates, instead of
chlorides. These sulphates, as many
suppose, have been precipitated in insol
uble tonus. At the present day, all
rivers carry salt and other soluble ma
terial to the ocean ; and, as the sole out
let of the sea is evaporation, which car
ries pure water ouly upward, aud
leaves the different soluble salts behind,
we are even driven to the conciuaiou
that the saltiicss ot the ocean is contin
ually in reasing. The Rhine, for in
stance, carries every year to the ocean
.50 million million gallons ot water,
every gallon ol water contains ten
grains ot salts iu solution. This river
alone, therefore, increases the salts iu
the ocean by the amount of twenty
million tons per year, (see page 40 of
this volume.) Rut the Rhine is com
paratively aj,small river, carrying not
the two hundreth part of the water
which tho ocean receives from other
rivers : moreover, its water is comnari-
tively pure, as most rivers carry more
thau 10 grains pergallou. We may safely
say, therelore, that all the rivers of the
earth carry every year more thaa 200
times twenty millions, or -l,uuu mil-
iou tons of dissolved salts into the
It is equally undeniable that rivers
have been flowing iu this way for ages.
Consequently we have ouly to suppose
that circuuistauccs have been, duriug a
ufficient portion of the past, what wo
know they arc now, and the saltncss of
tho present ocean is a necessary result,
even if it cotnmcuced by being fresh.
Let us see now what geology lias ro-
vcalcd to us in this respect. Our cor
respondent acknowledges that the ocean
existed ages ago. Thisagrces with tho
teachings of geology , but wo may con
clude, also, that ages before the exist
ence of the liquid oceau, tho whole of it
enveloped the hot nucleus of the earth
us au inuneuso otmosphcro of vapor or
steam, and containing, under heat and
pressure, tho constituents of many
ocks. Wo now know to how great an
extent the chemical activity and solvent
power of water, or its vapor, is in
creased by heat and pressure.
When tho earth hud cooled so much
as to diminish gradually tho solvent
power of hot water and steam, those
substances which required tho higher
temperature and presssurc to bo kept
iu solution wero slowly deposited, in
tho order of their different degrees of
solubility, whilo only thoso remained
in solution which wero soiuuio at tno
lower temperatures ; a portion of tho
salts contained in tho oceau aro possi
bly, therefore, tho remnants of a much
moro concentrated solution, existing iu
tho early geological periods.
There were inland lakes at that timo,
as well as now, forming deposits of
solid salt, crystallized out ot their sat
urated wuters, which had received tho
washings from tho surrouuding couutry,
u process which wo may still obsorvo in
tho Great Salt lake, tho Caspiati Sea,
tho Dead Sea, aud scores of others,, Ily
slow upheavals of depressions, tho
water-supply of thoso lakes ceased ;
thoy dried up, and loft tho salt doposits
in Kngland, Prussia, Poland, oto., from
which wo uow derive our so-called rook
salt, or through which wator runs, and
by it exit forms the different kiuds of
cuse. Now York, where the unit do
nosits atmcar distributed in tho strata
called by geologists tho upper silurian,
accessible to tnc natural suotcrranean
water-courses, which aro pierced with
wells aud tapped by pumping moro
easily than the solid salt could bo
reached. No doubt many miles of
caves have been formed thero by tho
washing out of the salt deposits, now
filled by water.
We have said that the saltncss of the
ocean is still increasing. This is
strictly true ; yet the present increase
is very small when compared with the
enormous amount of marine brine.
Let us illustrate this by a brief calcula
tion. The surface of the earth is, say, 200
million square miles ; the area of the
ocean, say, three-fourths, or 120 mil
lions, and its uvenigc depth, say, two
miles. We have, then : Total amount
of water, IJOO.OOO.OOO cubic miles ;
cubic feet iu oue cubic mile, about 117,
000,000,000 ; weight of brine per cubic
foot, say 01 pounds. Hence,' weight of
oue cubic mile, 9,108,000,000,000
pounds, equal to 4,701,000,000 tons,
llencc, weight of the whole ocean,
1,411,200,000,000,000,000 or more
than ono scxtillion of tons. As about
oue thirtieth of this weight is salt-, we
have for the salts iu the ocean about
.47,010,000,000,000,000 ton, of which
the 4,000,000,000, tons earried annu
ally to the sea by our present rivers
would form but one ten millionth part.
At this rate, it would take ten million
years to make the ocean as salt as it is
now. But wo need not suppose so
long a Period, for nianv reasons. In
the first place it is not likely that the
ocean ever was without saline matter
in solution. In the second nlace. the
activity of rivers and springs in this re
gard must have been much greater for
merly than now, when the land is pretty
thoroughly washed out. In the third
place, we have taken no account of tho
enormous action of the ocean itself on
its sides und bottom. Ex.
The following is from a sketch of
the life of Edgar A. Poe, in 'Harper's'
for September :
Ho started from Richmond on the
2d or 3d of October. What happened
in the next two or three days is in
volved iu considerable obscurity, but
the facts as far as can be ascertained,
appear to be these : Ho arrived at Bal
timore safely, but between trains, un
fortunately took a drink with a friend,
the cou-cqueuce of which was that he
was brought back from Havre de
Grace, by the conductor of the Phila
delphia train, iu a state of delirium.
It was the eve of an exciting municipal
election, aud as he wandered up and
down the streets of Baltimore he was
seized by the lawless agents of some
political club aud shut up all night in
a cellar. The next day he was taken
out iu a state of frenzy, drugged, and
made to vote in eleven different wards.
The following day ho was found iu a
back room of a "headquarters," and re
moved to a hospital on Broadway,
north of Baltimore street. He was in
sensible when found, and remained so
until Sunday, October 7. A doctor
and nurse were with him when he first
showed consciousness. "Where am 1?"
he asked. The doctor answered, "You
are cared for by your best Iricnds."
After a pause, in which he appeared to
recall what had occurred, and, to real
ize his situation, Poo replied, "My best
friend would bo the man that would
blow out my brains." Within tcu
minutes ho was dead.
'Oh let him pa's! ho hate him
That would upon the rack of this rough
Stretch him out longer."
Ho was buried on tho 8th of Octobor
in tho burial ground of tho Westminis
ter church, at the corner of Fayette
and Greeuo streets. Tho funeral was
attended by a cousin, a member of tho
Baltimore bar, a classmate, who was
afterward Judge of tho Balti
more Superior Court, and a Methodist
preacher, a relative by marriage. The
spot selected for his gravo was near tho
grave of his grand-father, Gen. Davis
Poe. Thero was a vacant place left,
but it was filled several months ago by
the body of Mrs. Clcmui, who died, up
wards of eighty years old, in tho hos
pital whero her "dear Eddie" expired
somo twenty-two years beforo, and was
buried at her own request, by his side.
"Out ore tho UJtliti out all !
And over each quivering form
Tho curtail) a funeral pall
Comes down with the ruh of a storm.
And tho iiugoN, all palld and wan,
Uprising, unveiling, iilllrin
That tho play Is the tradgedy 'Man,'
And the hero the conqueror Worm."
" Tho inauufacturo of perfumes, with
ono or two exceptions, is a thing en
tirely of tho present century. Of old
wo went to Franca for all these refine
mcuts of tho toilet, and to-day, tho
best known among them go by French
Tho flower-farms for tho mcro deli
cato blooms such as jasmino, roso,
tuberose, and oruugo-flowers arc situ
ated iu tho south of Franco, at Cauucs,
Grasse, and Nice. Tho hill-sides of
theso neighborhoods, in tho proper sea
sons, aro ono muss of flowers, exhaling
a most delicate perfume.
Tho manufacture of perfumery ma
terials forms a principal branch
of industry in this district, giving
employment to upward of ten thousand
people, including many women and
children, for whom the work of culling
flowers and picking off tho stocks is
particularly .suitable.
The prices of flowers vary considera
bly. The average is about eight to
sixteen cents por pound in our money
for roses, which scorn to be about tho
cheapest ; while the moro expensive
flowers, such as tuberoses, violets, and
cassic, range as high as seventy-five
Some idea of tie immerse quantity
used for perfumery purposes in this lo
cality alone, can bo gained from tho
knowledge of tho fact that upward of
2,000,000 pounds of oraugc-flowcrs,
worth 82.")0,000, arc consumed, whilo
of tho other flowers the amount varies
from 40,000 to (50,000 pounds yearly.
The odors and essential oils arc
gathered from flowers aud fruits by
many different methods. For instance,
orange, lemon, and citron-pccl arc
placed in a press, and by mere median
ical action, made to yield up the es
sential oil which resides iu tho small
pellicle iu the rind.
Many of the more delicate odors are
so volatile that the uc of heat, ns in
distillation or maceration, spoils them;
it is, therefore, necessary to conduct
the process cold. Possibly, tho gross
est material matter of which
wo have any notion is fat, and the most
spiritual, tho dclicato odors of flowers.
That two such very different matters,
if we may use tho word, should have
any affinity to each other docs not at
first appear natural ; but when wo re
member tho large proportion of carbon
in fat, and that carbon has an cpecial
power ofabsorbing all gases and essences,
we get at the rationale, of tho ah-
sorption or cuflowerago process. Tho
odors so liable to escape on the applica
tion of heat aro very effectually
trapped and secured in the following
manner : Squaro wooden frames about
three iuehes deep are filled with glass
bottoms, about two feet wide uud a yard
long. Over the glass a thin layer of
fat is spread with a spatula. Upon
this bed the flowers, the odors of which
are to be absorbed, are spread thickly
aud are allowed to roiuaiu from twelve
to seventy two hours. These chasses
oi vcr, as they are called, are made to
fit oue upou the other, aud in somo
large houses thousands may bo seen
thus piled, silently at work securing
the odors. The flowers are continually
changed throughout the season, and iu
the end the fat is completely saturated
with their perfume. Thus the finer
scented pomatums are made; but when
it is required to secure the perfume as
ticcd in its sale than in that of any
other extract. The Turks aud Jews of
Smyrna and Constantinople aro adepts
in imitating tho real material, and
many a traveller, returning with what
ho fondly believed to bo tho true attar
of roses, finds himself the possessor of
a quantity of common oil, impregnated
with ii few drops of the genuino sub
stance. It may almost be stated as a
fact that over one-half of the attar sold
in the bazars of the nbove-iiicntioned
cities is made iu this way ; and so
.close is its resemblance to tho real ar
ticle, both iu color and smell, that only
an expert can detect tho difference by
inspection. Time, of course, proves
the fraud, ns a handkerchief perfumed
with the genuine material will retain
tho odor after several washings, whilo
it the spurious substangc be used, it
rarely survives ono visit to tho laundry.
Roses arc cultivated in England for
the purpose of making rose-water. In
June and July, thoy" arc gathered iu
sacks and sent to London, where thoy
arc pickled, or rubbed in with salt,
which absorbs the water and reduces
the whole to a pasty mass, which is then
stowed away, and will keep for any
length of time.
Musk, a strong odor procured from
tho musk-deer, is very largely used in
the manufacture of bonnets. It is ono
of the most powerful perfumes known,
aud articles on which it is used retain
their odor for years. One of the most
striking examples of this is illustrated
iu tho Mosquo of St. Sophia, in Con
stantinople, the mortar used in this
building was impregnated with this
substance ; and although centuries
havo elapsed siuce the building was
erected, the scent of the musk is yet
plainly discernible.
The best niu-k comes from Tonquin
and Thibet, but the deer is found
throughout the whole length of the
Himalayan chain. The scent is found
beneath the skin, and near the navel of
the animal, which is not bigger than a
greyhound, and is often caught in
snares, though it is generally hunted
as wo do hares.
The art of the perfumer is shown in
delicately combining different scents.
Whcti we walk iu a garden, the deli
ious odors that greet us aro by no
means the emanations of one flower.
All the blooms of the garden, more or
less, add to the general harmony that
strikes so gratefully uprn the olfactory
nerves; they reach us in such infinitely
small particles that no.one sceut over
powers the other. lien art attempts
his favorito dishes are just done, and
arranging his dinner hour accordingly,
he may dine almost aa well aa he naa
breakfasted. This, howovcr, ia possi
ble ouly when the cook is good, which
is far from being always the case,
Cooking, indeed, is like love not
quite unpurchasable, yet bard to buy.
so noble is the art, so noble, in fact,
aro both arts. To state it mildly,
about half the cooks, male and female,
are bad, and if yours of the hotel ia
ono of them, your dinner will bo the
usual culinary miscegenation, and even
your breakfast will have the peculiar
Americanism of cookery, which ia
grease. Lipincott'$ Magazine for
The year grows splendid; on the mountain
Now lingers long tho warm and gorgeous
. . " . ...
njiiig ity mow degrees in me deep,
to imitate the diluting effect of the
brcozc, she has to be morn circumspect.
only odors ot a similar octave, as a re
n essence, the fat thus saturated with '.cent writer has pointed out, will agree
penuiiic is cut into small culies anC
placed iu spirit, which speedily steals
back, by its greater attraction, the odor
from the hydro-carbon.
now to M.uci: POMADE.
The author of au amusing and in
structive work ou perfumery asks why
ladies should not cultivate llowers for
their scent as well as for their color,
and he suggests a means of obtaining
heliotrope pomado which any person
may put in practice. Anordiuary glue
pot, uiade thoroughly clean, is in fact a
buiit Marie ou a small scale. Place in
the pot a pound of fine lard, and when
tho heliotrope flowers are iu season,
inrow them into the clarified fat. Place
the glue pot near the fire of the green
house, so as just tq liquify the lard.
Let the llowers remain iu tho liquid for
twenty four hours, strain the fat from
the spent flowers, aud go ou repeating
the operatiou for a week ; tho result
will be a pomade la heliotrope. This
pomade can ho made into an extract by
stooping the odorous fat iu highly rec
tified spirits. Iu this manner a young
lady may make her own perfumes, and
so get them pure, which is far from be
ing the case at present. Let us tako
extract of heliotrope, for iustance, as
it is sold in the shops. There is not
ono particle of tho flower iu it ; vanilla,
French roso, orange flowers, ambergris,
and the esscutial oil of almonds, mixed
together in certain proportions, make
the imitation known by tho namo of
extract of heliotrope. Other perfumes
aro counterfeited iu tho samo manner.
Sweet -pea is imitated by a mixturo of
ro.-o and orange-flowers ; magnolia
with tube-rose, orange-flower, and a
dash of lemon, etc. Indeed, some of
tho odors iu use are mado from tho
most repulsive-smelling substances.
For instance, theio is tho artificial uttar
of almonds, which is made from ben
zole, or tar-oil. Extracts of myrtle,
narcissus, lily of tho valley, and several
others, aro all innocent of contuiniii"
tho odor of tho perfume, thoy arc mado
to represent.
'J he number ot llowers used for per
fumery purposes has hitherto beou lim
ited to seven, namely, rose, jasmine,
orange, violet, jonquil, tuberose, and
cassie. uut ot these llowers lour only
arc distilled and yield essential uifs
rose, jasmine, orange, and cassio.
Orango flowers produce what is called
ncroly, a name derived from nero olio,
dark oil, ou nceount of its becoming
dark by exposure to light.
Attar of rosea is mado by distilling
tho roses with water Farms of this
flower of a largo sizo exist at Adriano-
plo, at liorussiu, and alsontGhazepuro,
in India. Very largo numbers of
roses uro used to mako tho attar as
many us two thousand blossoms to
mako oue druhm, Diffcront districts
vary much in tho naturo of tho attar
thoy produce ; it depends, in fact, upon
tho naturo ot the tlowor.
Owing to tho strong porftune of this
substance, and tho fact of its beiug ex
pensive, probably more fraud ii prao
with each other. Another authority.
indeed, has elaborated this idea, and
has composed a perfect gamut of odors,
beginning with civet, verbena, and cit
rouella iu the treble ele I', and ending
with wall-flower, vanilla, aud patcliouly
in the bass clef.
Dealers, on tho strength of tho olfac
tory nerves, often make purchase
amounting to thousands. The tea mcrs
chant, the tobacco dealer, or tho hop
merchant takes one sniff at the com
modity in which he deals, and makes
his purchase without fault. An expe
rienced perfumer will have two hundred
odors iu his laboratory, and can distin
guish every ono by namo. Could a
musician, with an instrument of two
hundred notes, distinguish and namo
every note struck without his cciug
tho instrument? Every person, from
his own experience, can testify to au
other quality which scent in common
with sound possesses ; wo allude to tho
power it h a of recalling to the mind's
oyc the teencs of long past years. Tho
mere breath of a perfume will ol'toti call
up a picturo of an event with all its
miuutiio, which had long lain dormant
iu our memory. English Paper.
It is n blessed thing that tho frying
pan is fleeing beforo tho march of civ
ilization, even if iu its flight it leaves
many a Parthian sting iu the stomach
of middle ago. Now-a-days only the
country-tavern braeakfast, let us hope,
fries things corned beef, it is said,
with tho rest aud cud itself, and per
haps tho delicate traveler, with pickles
and pie. Tho frying- pan has mado
many martyrs, but of tho two utensils,
so far us wo know, it is only the grid
iron that has over mado a bona jhlc
saint ; altough moro thau ono dyspep
tic, I fear, canonized solely by the frying-pan,
has mistaken n change of
stomach for a chuugo of heart. So tho
hotel breakfast is frequently good;
not so much because it takes an unu
sual degrco of perverse talent to spoil a
chop or a boiled egg, as because tho
breakfast is cooked to order, seldom
fried, and eaten generally with its first
natural flush upou it. The misfortune
to tho urban beefsteak of our day, it
would seem, is that iu too many kitch
ens it has jumped from tho frying-pan
into tho tire. And to burn in broiling
is tho unuardoimhlo sin of cookery.
But with breakfast, unlortunatoly, tho
CHmnc of tho great hotel is too apt to
end its success, since wo tako for
grautcd that on tho tables of men or
women truly wiso tbcro's no such thing
as supper, or at least that thoso with
whom erring custom has linked the twi
light of sadness of tea and preserves
tuko littlo thought to themselves as to
tho tea wherowith thoy shall bo druged
or of tho preserves wherewithal they
shall ho depressed. Tho acuto observ
er who has boarded long at a hotel
may, through many experiments und
by a scries of huugry iuouctious, learu
with aona degree of exaetuisa when
Delicious night.
Tho fatal triumph of tho perfect year,
KIo. tho woods' magnificent array ;
Ucyond the purple mountain lights appear
And slop away.
The elm, with mu-lcat, slow motion, laves
I ll-t long,- lithe branchut on the tender air,
While from his top of gray, Sjonlcllo waves
Hiii scarlet lialr.
Where Spring first hid her violets 'neath tho
Where Summer's lingers opened, fold, on
Tho odorous, wild, rod roso head, now bum
The leaves of gold.
The loftiest hill the lowliest flowering
The fairest frost of season and of clime
All wear alike the mood of the nuperb
Autumnal clinic.
Now naturo pours her lat and noblest wins
Like some llacchuiitc ; beside the ' .ug
Iteellues enchanted day. wrapped in divine,
Impassioned dreams.
Hut where the painted leave arc falling fast,
Among the vales, beyond the farthest hill,
There it a hadow dim, and sail, and vat,
And lingers still.
And still wc hear a voice among the hill,
A olco that moans among the haunted
And with tho inytery or sorrow fills
The solitudes.
For while gay Autumn gilds the fruit and
And doth her fairest festal garments wear,
Lol Time, all noiseless, in Ids mighty iheaf
Kinds up the year.
Tho mighty sheaf which never is unbound
The reaper whom your souls beseech in
The loved, last year, which never may be
Or loved again.
A species of oak querctn tuber),
which is a native of the south of Europo
or north of Africa, especially Spain and
Portugal aud Algeria, has a peculiar
habit of producing an outer bark of a
fungous appearance, which cracks, and
is thrown oil in great flakes. This is
cork, aud the tree from which it conies
is called tho cork oak or cork tree. It
is strictly an oak, not of great size,
generally twenty to forty feet high,
much branched, with evergreen leaves,
which arc eatable, and which resemble
chesnuts in taste. The cork material
is the spongy cellular tissue forming
the outer bark, which has ceased to
have any vitality, and has become an
incumbrance to the tree, even before it
is ready to flake off of itself. It can
bo peeled off thercforo a year or two
before distention would burst it off, and
this is done whero cork is regularly
gathered for the market. Longitudinal
and transverse incisions are made to
the proper depth, each piece is then
cut awav from the tree with a curved
knife with two haudlcs. The operation
when performed with proper care, so
far from being iujurious, promotes the
health of tho tree, which may be thus
peeled, at intervals of six or eight years,
for a hundred to ono hundred and fifty
years. In Spain and Portugal, which
chiefly supply tho world with cork, for
ests of tho cork oak aro frequently
planted for tho production ot csrk.
Tho tree is occasionally planted in the
south of England, but tho climate is
not sufficiently warm to be favorable to
its growth.
Tho pieces of cork, as they come in
sheets of bark from the tree, aro
soaked iu water, pressed flat, dried, and
superficially charred, to remove super
ficial imperfections aud conceal bloin
ishes, aud are then packed in bales for
tho market. Before cutting, if it is
found that simple pressure has uot suf
ficiently flattened it, it is heated on the
convex side, aud the contraction thus
produced straightens it. It is then cut
into slips, aud these slips into sqares,
according to tho required sizo of the
Chamber's Eucyclopredia gives tho
following description of cork-cutting:
"The corks aro rounded by tho cork
cutter by means of a broad sharp knife ;
tho cork is held in tho left baud, and
rested against a block of wood, and the
knife pushed forward, and at the same
timo its edge is made to describe a cir
cular curve by a skilful turn 6f the
wrist. The knife requires continual
sharpening ; the workman has a board
beforo him, ou which tho knife is
rubbed on caoh sido after every eut.
Many attempts to cut cork by
machinery have been made, but all
have failed, owing to the necessity of
continually sharponiug tho cuttera;
for it is a curious fact, that so so'.t a
substance as cork blunts the tools ufed
in cutting it far more rapidly than do
tho hardest or toughest of metals the
tools used for cutting them. A cork
outtcr's knifo requires sharpening every
second ; whilo the tool that ia used for
planing, turning, or boriag etaal will
work continually for hora witfuMt

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