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The Cairo evening bulletin. (Cairo, Ill.) 1868-1870, April 22, 1869, DAILY EDITION, Image 1

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OffrFIOF.- ISTo.'lS 'Totftfi Sroot, Thornton's Building.
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Address of
I)r. liny,
Ihe Chicago
Omprelicimlve and I.tarncd Eirurt,
and m forcible Appeal for
Kadlcnl Keforiim.
The following address, delivered by
Dr. Kay, of the Chicago Tost,' before tbo
Illinois titnto Press Association, tins af
ternoon, In eminently uuio, in some res
pects exhuuHti vo, mid, generally, instruc
tlvo and entertaining. Wo do not In
done all the Doctor' utterances, but
Hud much in IiIh address that is soundly
democratic, and commands our hearty
approbation. At Homo other timo we
shall Hubmitour criticisms.
Dr. llay said :
If, gentlemen, r should go out of the
truck which bus been beaten for mo by
tho many prede censors who liuvo spoken
ror mo rtuts, ami consider our i'rofes
sion and Dulles In their morn serious re
Jations to thoso upon whom we depend
for bread, and whom we, in turn, some
times but poorly repay, you will pardon
.1... .-.,ti . .r ...V,T.i."r , . .in..
i lie iiMiiuunucn.KJi which i iiiuy ue guiuy.
it seems to be my duty, on tins occasion,
to nay to nnd for you n few earnest
words that shall havo such thoughtful
iicss and nltf iiKlcnuco that neither you
nor the nubile can believe that wu havo
met here wholly for naught.
Of the province of Journalism in the
economy of modern civilization, the
public has latterly heard a great deal;
but I doubt it In all that has been said,
any one has arrived at a proper estimate
of the power lor good and evil of the
Newspaper Press. In this country of
our, where, within certain lll-dcllucd
ami variable limits, thought and the ex
prctslon thereof are iree, the Press ha
a Held opened to It that Is far wider and
more Important thun uuy that the Press
of the old world enjoys; and say what
we win oi tno character or the average
American newspaper, there Is ample
luuiiuuuoii ior 4110 oei let mat the pro
gress of that paper toward tho standard
demanded by the vast Importance of tho
complex anil almost lifnumcrablo prob-
ivius wiiii which 11 ocais. is neiuiersiow
nor unsatisfactory, and finally that that
held will be well filled. It Is my atrreo
able task, to-duy, to thank you, usutle-
men, for your contributions of the last
year, to tho growth In ability, In courte
sy, in fairness, dignity and usefulness,
by which the current history of the Press
of Illinois Is marked. Unfortunately it
Is true that In city and country, the ne
cessity for a higher purpose, steadier In
dustry ami greater connCiuiii'Iousncss, is
well shown in every sheet that our ma
chines throw oil'; but to have done much
in tho endeavor for excellence, Is a war
rant for tho belief that we shall be able
to do far more.
You will pardon me if I consume a
half hour of your timo In the ell'ort to
detail to you what I believe to bo both
the duty and policy of the public Jour
nals of this country. The theme Is large,
but I 'will endeavor to bo brief. Let mu
premise that the end to bo finally at
tained Is an Improvement in American
Mociety that shall Justify our boasts that
this is the only free country on the earth.
The timo wu when even Christendom
was oxelUslvejy governed by a partner
ship between princes and priests. ' Tho
atrocious untruth that tho Creator, when
he made t lie world, Introduced two or
ders of men Into Its political and spiritu
al economy, whoso provluco It was, one
to look alter the temporal and tho other
after tho eternal welfaru of tho people,
filled the popular mind. Princes were
tho witnesses who swore to the everlast
ing necessity and the supernatural otllce
of tho priests: and the priests testified
iiulto as loudly ami clearly to tho fact
that they were (old of God to 11 x tho sea
of lils sanction to tho warrants by which
the princes claimed tho property, the
personal mTvIccs, and oven tho lives of
thelrsubJeelH. The abused and deluded
people, with here and there an excep
tional few of them, who saw the nature
atid consequences of the doublo fraud,
were consenting parties to the abasement I
which followed; audsniu the nam u, of
ucllglou anil the .'state, practical Impiety
and rank injustice continued, down to
the Invention of printing, to be the forces
willed governed the political and eccle
siastical relations of mankind Tho er
rors and crimes, wh'lcli in spite, of print
ing still deface the administration of
governments, and defile the holiest sanc
tuaries and shrines, aro tho legacy of the
days In whleh tho Xuwxpaper Press did
not ex I -a. In thli struggle between tho
pretensions of kingcraft and priestcraft
on the one side, and tho now-born usp
ratlou of tho peoplo for greater spiritual
and political freedom on tho other, which
immediately followed thegeueral adop
tlon of tho discovery of Guttenberg, tho
lutluenco of tho art preservative of all
arLs, was largely in behalf of tho Itefor
inutlnu upon whleh Christendom soon
after entered; and in the prolongation
of tho great contest to our times, the
newspaper press has .become, wb,lje
mainly rlglil, the most .formidable and
eflieieut weapon that human ingenuity
over invented for tho odvaucomout of a
righteous or tho defence of an iniquitous
cause, ' "
Jlut tho iri out (hushed result of modern
Journalism Is, as tho earliest broadside
of therororimrs1Jip ftH.gqueral teachings
u protest agalhsipubllo wrong and an in
eeritlvo to higher national ami liidlvidr
ml . . . ' . 1,0 nverago nowspaper of the
world has been and la yot oftou wrong,
often stupid, and not unfreuueutly doT
plorably wicked; but in splto of all
tho sins of, which It Is guilty, it has
dona eorvicu for tho human race farur
jmsslng In Its consequences that which
any other human agency could havo,uo
V'ouiplishcd. If it lias not yot silenced
those 'who, with shamoless assurum-a,
keop up tho imposture of the dl vine right
and tho'pricHtly olllco.It has won the' ear
and tho confidence of tho public In this
country It has freed itself from the dla
blUties implied In Oonsorship; and Us
. -1 - Al . . .
grnnu uuico s a recorder or racw raoro
voluminous than all. the libraries of the
worm, una as an organ of opinion that
names tbo power of statesmen and the
oiorgy, nas out lUBt begun
It is tho fashion of tho parlod to ring
the changes on tbo glory and happiness
ui uur cuumry, auu ino irecuom anti
prosperity of our peoplo. I pay a will
imr inuuie 10 an incso when 1 comparo
our attainments In tho art of good gov-
ernmem wun mo results mat nave been
elsowhere achieved. But even tho care
less inquirer will see that though we havo
dono much there Is stilt much more,
within the limited vision of to-day, to bo
uwiiui AUV UIU tlllUVSli IIBbWt'UU II1UI1UU
pie on the oue side and fraud and force
on the other, Is still, Jn a new phase, as
acuvcas ever eisowncro in mo worm.
Wo havo changed tho agencies by
which men nre.wroiigcd and oppressed;
but tho fact of tho oppression remains in
tho Ignorance, poverty and crlmo to
which unnumbered tens of thousands of
our countrymen are given tin. and which
alternately move our Indignation and
pity, turn whichsoever way wo will. We
have disowned tho claims of kingcraft
in ouruovernmeni. anu inn tiricst as nh.
solver, Intercessor and miracle-worker, Is
ai a (iiHCotint in tho church. JJut for the
weight or tho mulled hand whoso gen
tlest persuasion was military force, and
for tho bra7.cn hypocrisy that let us iuto
or barred us from, blissful enjoyment of
tne Hereafter, wo have substituted mod
ern Inventions which do their work ud-
on tho masses with little less efficiency
thun tho barbarous enginery of tho past.
For brutal force, which, exercised by a
titled robber of licredltnrv riirhr. invent
tho valleys of cattle, of men, and of
maidens, and which leftu trail of blood
vherover It marched in wrath, wo havo
invoked tho hardly less cruel and potent
muchlncrv. which, when wo use tho
right names for thinus. wo call unlust
and unequal law. And oven here, where
it is our honest boast that tho most per
fect human freedom provalU.lt is true
that tho inequalities In tho condition of
men are due more to Ineoualltv and In.
Justice crystallzed in the statutes of tho
country, than to unequal gifts of God.
If poverty, iguoracc, and human mhery,
in all their phases and aggravations, pre
..ii .. . . t . ... . j
uii vAuoiH as mo occasional oiitcc or no
cldent or crime, they are tho creation of
society, not the ordinations of tho Al
mighty. Tho unjust law Is tho un
equal distributor or this world's fruits.
It Is tho root of tho social and nolltlcal
diseases by whi;h ho largo a proportion
of our countrymen aro condemned, either
to lives or hopeless, cheerless, and Illy
rtoulted toll, or to the overlastlmr curse
of a criminal career. Tho efforts of tho
charltablo lo pluck a man from destruc
lion ncru auci mere, anu to save a wo
man or a child yonder, by tho machl
nery of modern philanthrophy, aro hard
ly worth tho name of palliatives. The
radical euro is in tho destruction of the
curse whence theso evils flow. I hear
you asft what Is this unjust law, or this
series of laws, of which you complain?
iOOKBiany ucspouc stute, whero the
law Is made to suit every emergency, bv
an insiani exerciso orino win or the ru
ler, as a most notable example of what
law will do to the utter abasement and
Impoverishment of the people. I neei
not tell you how abject their coudi
tlon, nor how hopeless their future
If this Is an extremo case, como down
near our own system and our country
What held Southern Kurono in thrall.
wniio nil cue rest or Christendom was ad
vanclng, but tho rank Injustice and ine
quality ofutill unrepealed civil and cc
clesiastlcal lawT what is tho causo of
tho ignorunco and poverty of the French
ilea iun try aud lower order of laborers, if
It Is not round In the heritage of unlust
iaw, wnicu tno greatest or tho world'i
revolulloui did not sween awav? What
but law has nut half of tbn brniul nnrou nf
old England into tho hands of three
hundred men, aim thereby condomned
three millions or their eounlrvman to
pauperism? Wlia but law Ischurgcuhlo
wun the conuition or Mcotiand. where
thirteen men own half of the kingdom,
aud misery owns half tho peoplo? Go
whero you will, chooso whatever exam
plo pleases you best, and the result Is tho
same. Tho greater tiio immunity from
tho operation of unjust and uneoual
law, nnd thu more perfect tho freedom of
uie individual, tno greater tho prosperity
of the state, and the more elevated tho
condition of tho people. ' In our own
cose, the exemption of the country from
tho most dreadful ovlls which uflllct hu
man society In Kurope, Is wholly duo to
the grcuter freedom our people enjoy
From Dahomey to Mafsaouuctt8, thero
is no exception to tho rule: Oilier
things being equal, the cxteit-6f individ
ual liberty is tho exact guugo of tho com
mon happiness and prosperity.
If I do not, mislead you, shall wo not
susneet tliat at the bottom of thu great
evils by which oven this country is
afllioled tho growing width or tho gulf
between tho rich and tjie poor; tho In
crease of pauperism, and tho greater fre
quency of crime, which make our larger
cities hideous tiiere Is the same agency
at work, though less potentially, that Is
tho cause of such misery in tho old
world. Nay, who cuu doubt that God is
more merciful than man, aud that to the
marring of His work, and to 'ho Inter
ference with Ills lawd, are duo evils that
shake tho faith aud chill tho hope: of
mankind? .-!
In theoriliuary history of a modern state,
political power follows the anoumulatlou
of tvealth Tho concentration of money,
land and merchatidlsu in a few hands is
the, leading economical characteristic of
our times. Knowledge js power says, tho
proverb, So 'Is hard cash. Bulls aAsoiu
mnu mistake to suppose that the vast ao
cumulations of our day.which shame the
miiivu woiiiui or me nonesi meu oi mo
I Koman world, can be luapeij uj wjlhout
los to those who coutilbuto each Mis
" share to the aggregate, Mikewhat'just
ullowauctfyou please for tfie'anpreolatlou
devalues all oyer tho civilized world,
and the f iol renmlus as much a fact &sku
demoustiutloirofa Hmthbmutlcul propo
sillon, Ihut that which one man gnlns,
oviraud above his shnre of the wnrid'sln
oreusing wealth, and his legitimate earn-
' lugs, is the product ol the lutior t.f other
men; hence 1 may assert that the vast
fortunes of tho period are maluly the ro.
suit of that vicious legislation by which
labor Is robbed of Its Just reward; and
that in this era of peace, tho hordes or the
very rich are an approximate mcasuro of
tho oppression of the poor.
After what has been said, I noed not
fiolntout to you with minute particular
ly the unjust ami unequal law by which
tho rule of modern despotism Is perpetu
ated even in this Republic. Men of my
political school hold that it is tho object
of all Just law to perpctuato aud defend
the natural rights of tho citizen; and
that every man has by nature tho right
and Is frco to do whatever ho pleases
within the limit of the religious obliga
tion that he owes th his Maker, and tho
moral obligation that he owes to his fel-low-men.
Whatever rcstlrcts or hinders
tho enjoyment of this freedom, Is ati ex
ercise of despotic power. Ho is freo to
go or remain, to make, to buy, to sell, to
pray, or to sing, anu thero should bo
none to make him afraid. lie Is not
only free; ho Is also, Indisputably, an
equal of any other mini ; aud that law
may not confer upon uuy human being a
rigui tnai no cannot uiso enjoy. I pray
you,, then, uentlemen. to dismiss from
your minds tho mischievous (ullucy that
government is a parental ami benevolent
iiiBimuioii, cioiucu wun unlimited power
by tho consent of tho uovcrned. Thut
lie Is the prolific parent of all despotisms.
Government Is not a nursing mother of
material or nhllautrhonlo schemes, or of
oi uio amou ous niaus or men. il
should bo an embodiment and a realiza
tion of tho highest human Idea of just
icethe Impartial defender of the rights,
and an Ininlacablo Nemesis to tho
crimes, of men. Having discharged its
functions, as prosecutor, Judgo and exe
cutioner, and tho duties Incident thereto,
It has but few other tasks that It may
pio.ier'y consider as lis own. It is the
first duly of government to muko overy
man free, and then to let overs man
alone. As long as I am within the lim
its of tho moral obligations that I have
pointed out. 1 raav sav to tho law Kood
your hands off!
Let mo apply to our own caso tho facts
aud principals that I have laid down.
and through them seek to discover the
the aourco of 'the abounding evils of
which the poor of our country complain.
Whence the Inequalities In tho condition
of our countrymen tho overgrown
wealth of some, and the abject nenurv or
others? That would be a muster mind
that could trace out thu history, and
follow to their last otllce the wide-snread
and subtle Influences of that system that
wo call Hanking. I have told you that
money Is a power in the Htate, and that
it draws to itself, at will, political inllu
once, as surety as mo eartn attract a
railing body; auu in this couutry, es
pecially, where the pursuit of wealth Is
the ubsorbiug purpose of, I may say, all
our countrymen, tho potency of money
In giving tone to society, shape to the
law, aud limit to freedom, is u matter of
world-wide renown. One would suppose
that, such being the case, the ell'ort of
tho government would be to guard
auainst any legislation tho object of
which is to concentrato the power of
money in a rew hands. But what Is
tho fact? I take no note of tho past in
connection with banking the history
of tho present period is sufficient. Wo
observe thut law has conferred upon
certain men a monolopy in tho manu
facture of paper money, and at a price
to tho public weal that we shudder to
know must bo nuld. Modern banklnir is
a scheme by which tho banker, author
ized and protected by tho law, draws In
terest on what he owes. Wo have, to-
day, an isaue of paper money by tho
national banks, represented bv about
three hundred and sixty millions of dol
lars, the interest of which, as tho bunks
munugo their funds, cannot be less than
tinny -six m nonu nor unnuin. Everv
cent of this great sum Is an Impost on
tho udustry of the people; aud tho figure
that we used but partially expresses the
extent and severity of tho exaction. The
power given to tlio bankers to inako
currency cheap and plentiful, or t-carco
and dear, and tho attendutit power to
raise or lower tho price of laboratid com
modities, s tho source, in the speculative
world, of far greater prollt than the sim
ple Interest on the money alono. Again,
by tho worklni'of tho law. tho banks
aro made the mohled centres of the com
munities in whleh they are opened, nnd
to them flow tho deposits, or tho uniit-ml
mollies of the people, which now. In the
United States, uveragoabputSoOO, po.OOO,
In tho u'so of which tlio bankers have a
most fruitful source of wealth.
Flijs aro not born of thistles: nom...
thing does not como of nothing. Tho
fortunes that flow, never with irreutor
speed than now, Into the strong boxes of
tho men who aro thus favored by tho
law, do not descend with thu duw or rlon
with tho foir. Thev aro tlio result of
human toll eiieaued iu producing or
shaping tho productsof theearth. Every
dollar that represents tho accumulated
gains of this crotituro of tho law, somo
man lias earned, aud somo man lias, by
uiu auuiie operations oi mis aruuuiai
system, been forced to glvoup as his
tribute to thejustlceaud short-sigthtod.
Hess of thu governing power. To paper
mouey as such, with which to securn
gteater facility ofexchaugos, undtosavo
the waste and wear of the precious met
uls, sound economists do not object
But they do demand that tho manufact
ure (hereof shall couso to bo a monopoly,
and thut tho trafllo in credltw, lllco tlte
trade in soun ami unlleo. shall lin frnn
In n word, that tho pretonco, that, in
vesting, certain rapn with .tho power to
draw, interest, oi what they owe, (ho
avenmo,ht Is protecting tho poopln
ugttluqt tho effect of (raud, shay ceuoo lo.
to. bo u motlvuof uotlon.-and thut tlm luw
hul tip longer ubuso itself by creating
aim uefeudiuK, for tho benefit of those
whom it deslunates. a mouonolv that
ran only be profitable al public expense,
To the extent that: banking despoils la
bor, It is a urlovous burden to tholuhnrltiv
Classes, upon whbm at last Us bunions
rail. But serious as It is, banking Is one
oftho minor eylls against which tho
poverty of the country contends.
To-duy a conspicuous cause of the
Holies or the rich and tho poverty of tho
poor, Is the commercial legislation of
tno couutry, overy line or which is an
outrage upon the Inalienable right of the
citizen to do what he pleases with his
own. Under any just system of govern
ment, mo claim or every man to tho
fruit of his own toil, subject only to Jgst
anu cquitauio taxation for the proserva
tlon of order and tho punishment Of
crime, Is as snored as his claim to hi own
person aud his own lifo. Whatever
limits It or encroaches upon It, Is, to tho
extent or mo limitation or encroaonment,
a form of slavery to which no good
citizen is called to submit. Government
has no nioro legitimate power to toll mo
that I shall not sell my crop of wheat or
my barrels of pork, whoro I caused them
for tho most, and take In pay therefore
what pleases me best, thonitfias to limit
mo in tho number of my own Augers
thut, I shall usoln holdlmr tho nloueh.
or thu number of teolh thut I may em
ploy In tho mustlcution of my food. I
huve no patience with that sophistry
which invents Justification for this con
ditioned and partial slavery in which all
our countrymen, savo those only who
profit by the rank Injustice, are held.
The so-culled Protection Is a constant
and unmitigated robbery of tho laborer,
by whom thu enormous bounties gath
ered by the domestic manufacturer aro
pah! at lust; and could we equalize other
conditions so us to get ufair test, I havo
no doubt that, from tho Brut recorded
commercial transaction down to tlio pres
ent time, It would be found, us wu find
Il hereto-day, that the poverty and crlmo
existing among different nations could
always bo gauged by the extent und
severity oftho commercial restrictions
and dlMibllitles under which theso na
tions have respectively suffered. Tho
tarlfl'tiow in fnrcu is rapidly filling tho
altns-huuseH, thu prisons, the reforma
tories aud hospitals und other churita lo
institutions of this laud. It is demonst
rated that, under its operation, tho
laborer hashulleredau abatement of his
wages, when they are compared with tho
costor the necessaries of his dally life,'
equal to difference between fifty -tlvo
uml seventy-eight percent,, and that overy
day of Its uxlniencu makes his condition
worse. Be assured gentlemen, that in
splto of the utmost ingenuity of mun, tho
law, when it touches unythlniroht of tho
sphere that I have defined," is always u
marplot and u bungler; and that espe
cially It never Imposes a restriction upon
Industry or trudu thut It does not, In tho
attempt to protect or enrich one class,
Impoverish another. I believe that, did
time ullow, I could show you by Indis
putable facta und figures that all other
taxation In this country Is light compared
wun mat wnicu a nign lariii exacts, and
that tho elanea that aru the least able to
bear loss, aro those upon whom (lie
greatest Iom falls. As it stands, the
abomination searches every nook
by which, to his greatcoat, vexatious do
Jyiml weariness of hope deferred, the
laborer is tired out, when ho scekare
dressof thoso who would wronsr and op
press him. Think of tho attempt of
poormau to enforce a claim against a
great 'railroad king," or an "eminent
banker," if tho latter wore disposed to
IVMt,T.n.0 J.u,(,,c,ary. "mug" greatly
simplified In this country, is still a mas
of explicit directions, How Not To Do It
It is a rolio of barbarism, coming dowa
to us from tho old times in which men
were mpposod to have no rights that the
law did not confor times in which the
theory was that overy membcrof human
society first surrendered all his natural
rights for the sake of gaining protection
for the few that tho governing power
was gracious unough to give back. It Is
still, too truly, n collection of usolcas anil
antiquated forms, and of terms robbed
from a languago now dead, but which
failed to earn to tho tomb with ittheex-
plodcd notion upon which tho Jaw-book
ofto.dayls based. To tell a lawyer of
tno oid sonooi that, properly defined,
law Is a series of rules and theso only
to which man may appeal for the protec
tion, rather than for tho limitation or
destruction, of his naturul rights; aud ho
would regard the blasphemy agulust tho
Bluckstono Blblo anil its commouturies
us little less Implotrs uti outrage than
thut other blasphemy which men call
tho Unpardonable Kin. To this system.
at once so cumbersome, so complicated;
so contradictory one part with another;
in pructico so slow and so costly; and in
its results, us you may overy day tteo by
tho defiance aud contempt with which
rich rascals treat it, so partial und unsat
isfactory, tho defouso of the rights oftho
lowly aro confided. Jti its larger nnd
most ImportantrcfUltH, tho Judiciary lias
become an engine by which thu plunder
wrung by bad law from the labor of tho
country is divided uraonn thoso who
struggle for lbs possesniou. Still, with a
cerium uegrco or power ior inepunisu
meut of crime against person, where tho
or lias not tno weaitn to euauie
aud cranny of tho poor man's house.
and there Is not a thing that he or ins
family eats, drinks or wears, upon which
he does not pay u tribute of a part of his
wages to thu manufacturer, who is priv
ileged bv law fo claim It. If thu hunks
of the couutry annually oxaotof tho noo
pic, or rather of the labor, of tho country,
eighty to one hundred millions of money
in inesiiapuni interest anu premiurosoii
what thu bankers owo. the num. vast as
it is, is us noiniuir compared to thutia-
grant robbery that this tariff perm Its.
It claims not less than fourteen-mllllons
a year upon tne article or phx-lron alono;
and thut Is a sample only or the endle-s
atiominuuoiis tnai are, by an true states
maushlp, to be charged to. its aceouat. I
entreat you to remember that these un-
Just exactions aro wruag from the labor
oi mo country, jus a pari or tho lane-
ilm to takoadvantago of tho law's In
terminable delay, us a defender of tho
groat rights of property .when they aru
uBsalJcd by unjust enactments, it has no
welttht. i am sorry to say thut It is usu
ally on thu slilu of the despoiler; and tho
history or tho last ten years, seen in tne
highest tribunals of the laud, will prove
what i assert.
Oune mnro: look nt thu course of lecla-
latlou In the creation of tho giant mouop
olles'wuloh uru In themselves a procla
mation of, tlio continued Inequalities In
the condition of men. Tho prodigious
robberies of which tho railroad corpora
tious of thu country havo been guilty, by
tlie authority of tho law, aro tho aston
ishment and wonder of all leaser cormo
rants that prey upon tho people. But,
unsatisfied, thev aro so perfecting tho art
of legullzlnt: plunder, thut thev aro
ashamed of tho puerile efforts und the
begiiurly millions with which thuv havo
heretofore been content. Now thev
threaten combinations that shall shape
the policy of tho federal uoverument it
self. Now values aro created by rail
road enterprises, but it is undoubtedly
true thut less to thesu than to advantages
which tho law ulvus to monopoly, are
duo the accumulation of the greut fortunes
that Imply tho plucking of those whom
tho law has left defenseless. See what
is going on under our own eyes, in tho
money centre of tho continent, tho rail.
rouds of the country being thu weupous
that are luvoitod for thu spoliation oftho
poor. To-day tlvo or sx millions oistock
wiped out, ror the beuetll or the large
opqrators who havo urged labor and
rent ability of tho capitalist to throw off small capital to subscribe it, or muko
the burdens -Aligned tojilai upyu lapse ati investment for tho rowurds of toil.
ana law.wsttiio
less favored by custom
man of money a manufacturer, lils taxes
under tho operation of the tariff Wo
ciiurgeu in mu price oi.ius oiaiiumcwreu
products, to be paid by the consumer Is
lie a banker, whoso source of prollt ;4 In
the monopoly thut he and hls'.fe'Mows
enjoy of drawing Interest oq Wlwil jlhey
oi tno privilege inui the jaw conisrs? js
bo u landlord with houses and lands to
rent, tho tariff taxes set'down against: bis
name, aroaccouuieu ior in mo increased
charges heaped upon his tenants. Is lie
a merchant, look at tho per contago of
profits, und see how Ills customers, who
eut, (irinic ami wear what he has to son,
aru forced to ussumo tho loud that be
should bear. Does ho print nuwsimnuis.
how much do his tuxes Increase tho sub
scription prlco of his dally or wceklv
Jotiruul? Is ho a bondholder, llvlmr on
his Income, fco tho exemption thut tho
law gives mm. uoes ho own and opcr
utu a tullroad, let thu present freight
luriu ten wuo pays puck the taxes that
are nominally Imposed on his line.' Go
from thesu through every form of outer
prise In which capital engages, and learn
from euch what a wealth of Ingenuity it
has in relieving Itself or thu burdeus im
posed by the government. Throw u
stouo Into tho water, and mark tho fuot
thut It settles down to thu solid bottom
where It rests. In human society, labor
is tho basis of all wealth, and to its homo
tho tuxes, ba they largo or small, direct
or indirect, wIsq or foolish, inovitubly
descend. Shall wo wonder thut the rich
aro growing richer, "ud that poverty in
these days is tipped with a now nnd
sharper sting? shall we wonder when
wo see us plainly us we see thut there aro
three augles '.n a triangle, that, with
such legislation, tho souiul of conlliot bu
tweou labor und capital rises higher and
higher, or that the cry of enforced Ignor
ance and helpless want Is heard an an
ominous shriek ull over tho laud?
I am forbidden by thu fear of exhaust
ing your patience, to oven glatiuu at tho
legiou of causes, thut, under tho sauotlon
and approval of tbolaw. bear with crush
lug weight upon tho industry of tho poor.
But lot mo turn vniur attention for ttf hio-
meutto that mass of abomluatlous, the
horitagd of tho pubL which wo call tho
Judicial systom of tho country. If the in
genuity Of the adversary had been
Goue. ovorv dollar of It. throuirh thu ef
fect,' partly of ignorance, but maluly by
tho nporutjun of legallzfil wrong. ToJ
morrow, fivoor tcu millions of new stock
are created, by thu virttto of ail ingenious
I'i ,Mt with tlm result to unrlch. tho
operator ut tluu'puuse of thu deprecia
tion oi mi" property nt innocent uoidors.
Tho lust and urcutest feat, as yet most
memnrublu, though wo know not when
It, may bu exceeded, was tho robbery of
the public to tho extent of twenty mil
lions lu a single week, at least a moiety
of which went into the pooka of tho rob?
hers. Every transaction of this sort, no
matter how remote neem tho oonsequon-
ccs, is, us truly an act or war upon labor
as, ii mo dcsnoucr nau swept wun an
army over thu country and robbed that
labor by force of arms of a like amount
of its ourulngs. Because by labor, us thu
basis of society, all thu burdens Imposed
upon thu superstructure, aro sustained at
Again, lqok, If you please, at thu laws
which wero formerly applied to womuu.
aud which are yet sadly In need of re
form. Waiving tho question of tho right
of women to vote, as a matter too largo
for discussion here, though 1 um for tho
extension of thu trauchlse, I ask you how
much tho condition of women in all
Christendom lias differed lrm thut of
slavery; und what but feebleness und
poverty you huvu had a right to oxpect
from thorn? Thu hospitals, tho aim
houses, thu multiplied "homes" uml.Mln-
stitutions" for tho caro of women, are
moro clouuent thairauy word of mine,
Tho Moral Boform (societies, thu Mugdu-.
leuo Asyluips, ami all tho putty niuuhlu-:
ery with thu turning ot.whioti men quiet
tholr consciences, will bu unnecessary,
When you make women free.
This list, though Incoiuplete, jsulready
too long, J.hadtime to ludicuto qnly.a,
fow.of llio sources, whuneo tho iuyqual-
tie's pf, meii,arjao, They, are al ot one,
class, tho interference, by Jogal device,
with tl6 nutijiul rlKbtsortho puople-Hn-,-terforeuce
ninthly lu thqcoutiolot Indus
try, and lu tho limitation of pwsquul
freedom, iu mutter routing to, "money
and to trade, lu ibo turni, U taucs one
fqrni.audju bauklpg.aiidcorporuimonr
VL ' i'.T: I. ,..!-. ,o mml nil" lilt h Ilk nil tll
result is thoJiaina. Jvuw men have stop-
en inced
to furnish a plun, by tho ugouoy of whlnh
itho ftonr,im,hibt, be. 4?Rhiu Juaijcfc pd
tno non might buy it, ne could njot v
exoeodod what the experience or man
has accomplished. Without impugning
tho honesty of those who administer the
law, we may arraign the' whole ayatera
2. mouaviooinnensattou for tho, yarltMlit
faiiM.o(;wauLvmJry apd .prymaWKa
death, In vol ved (u tho case, Is. I hiwl
loug been of tho opinion that, owlug (e
the effect or all theso artlflclul cau-es, tthe
oreaUoos of tho law, which, wlthput, ae
IConelmUVl n iwsoa'l 'a,, f

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