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Pw Eight HARVESTING SOY BEANS FOR GRAIN For the information of farmers who are beginning to grow soy beans for grain rather than for hay, and who are unfamiliar with the handling of plants under the former conditions, the United States Department of Ag riculture will shortly publish Farm ers' Bulletin, "Harvesting Soy Beans for Seed." The demand for these seeds for use in the production of oil, feed cake, and other bean products is lapidly increasing an dthe farmers of the United States are preparing to meet this demand. The character of growth, the uni form maturing habits, and the heavy seed yields of the soy beans, says the bulletin, contribute to the ease of harvesting and recommend the plants for seed production. The many dis advantages which attend the har vesting of cowpeas for seed are not common to the soy bean. When grown for grain alone the shattering of the pods of the soy bean is a serious fault and inexperienced growers are likely to sustain a heavy loss of seed through lack of knowledge and im proper handling of the soy-bean plant. pi uniiuiiu^ v* v«»v r**"-"' Time of Harvesting In general, the best time to har vest, except where special bean har vesters are used, is when about three fourths of the leaved have fallen and most of the pods have turned color. If cut at an earlier date the plants are difficult to cure properly, and the yield will be lessened materially on accunt of the immature grain. On the other hand, if the plants are al lowed to become too ripe the pods will shatter before being cut, and much seed will be lost. When special harvesters are used to gather the seed, the plants much reach full ma turity to obtain the best results. Methods of Harvesting Various methods of harvesting the crop are in use in different sections where the soy bean is grown largely for seed production. The crop may be cut With ordinary mowing ma chines, self-rake reapers, self bind ers, or even with scythes, corn knives, or sickles. The beans also may be harvested with a special bean harvester which gathers the grain from the standing plants. When the plants are cut before maturity they are cured in shocks and allowed to remain in the field until a convenient time for thresh ing. If thoroughly dry they maybe housed and thrashed later. Thrashing Thrashing may be done with an or dinary grain separator, but if this machine is used it must be altered somewhat to prevent the cracking of the beans. In some cases a special set of thin concaves is used for thrashing beans and in other in stances some of the concaves are re- Written For Graphic Readers G. E. Conkey As one of the largest organs of the body, the liver is likewise one of the most important. The liver prepares the bile which is an important aid in digestion, assisting in some of the most necessary chemical changes in the blood. A great volume of blood passes thru the numerous blood vessels of the liver. The minute capillary ves sels make a favorable lodging place for various parasites, where they can multiply and begin their disease pro ducing action. Herein lies the cause of many liver diseases. Cholera bacteria, tuberculosis bacil lus, black-head protozoa (turkeys) and aspergillosis fungus are among the more common liver diseases, para sitic in origin. These variously cause congestion, inflamation, and death of the tissues. The principal other af fections are congestion, inflamation— called hepatitus, atrophy or wast ing of the liver, jaundice, and fatty degeneration. The symptoms being practically identical and the method of treatment much the same we may class these last named under the gen eral head of liver troubles. Symptoms Symptoms in liver trouble cases are slow to appear and often misleading, and the result is discovery of the trouble too late to apply an effective remedy. The careful poultryman or fiancier who watches his flock close ly, will detect these symptoms, but the ordinary market poultryman will usually not notice anything wrong un til the disease is well advanced. Watch for danger signs like lack of coloring in the comb or wattles they will gradually change to dark red or purple. Loss of appetite, with the bird becoming sluggish, is another warning. When the skin takes on a yellowish hue, and this is also indi cated in the comb and wattles, you may suspect Jaundice. Usually, this disease is attended by a watery diarrhea dark in color, gradually changing to a yellow cast. Farm and Home The shattering varies with the varie-, thoroughly dry there is no such dan ties of the bean. It is well, however, ger. The best plan, perhaps, is to with most varieties to give special spread the seeds out on the floor im attention as maturity approaches to mediately after thrashing, and prevent serious losses from this cause, shovel them over from time to time Liver diseases, on past mortem ex aminations, usually show the liver greatly enlarged, but occasionally it may be smaller than normal. A liver congested with blood, or marbled, or moved. Good judgment on the part of the thrasherman -will enable him to adjust the ordinary separator so that the beans may be thrashed with little splitting. Special pea and bean separators are on the market and their use may be advisable when large acreages of the beans are to be han dled. If thoroughly dry, soy beans can be thrashed with a flail. If only a small acreage is to be thrashed— an acre or so—this method is prac ticable and economical. In a few sec tions a corn shredder has been used to advantage in thrashing beans. If properly cured and dried out, the beans shell out very rapidly with such a machine. The straw obtained from thrashing .soy beans for seed is a valuable feed for all kinds of stock. In many sec tions the straw is baled at the time of thrashing and sold to liverymen, dairymen, and stock feeders. Storage of Seed As soy-bean seed spoils rather easily if not properly handled, care should be exercised in curing and storing. After the beans are thrash ed they should be watched carefully to avoid heating and molding. When until they are thoroughly dry. After this they may be safely put into sacks or bins. The storeroom should be dry and with a free circulation of air. Soy-bean seed loses its viability rather rapidly, and it is not safe to hold seed for planting purposes more than two seasons. The seeds of the soy bean, unlike those of the cow pea, are rarely attacked by weevils or other grain insects. ALFALFA HAY FOR HORSES "Alfalfa hay if properly fed is the most valuable horse feed available for the average Kansas farmer" is the claim of W. C.. Campbell of the Kansas Agr. College. He adds, "It should be remembered that the al falfa hay must not be cut until it is quite mature it must be free from dust, mold or smut and it imust be fed in limited quantities. As to the amount to be fed experience seems to indicate that about one pound per day per one hundred pounds of live weight is the maximum amount for the work horse."—Agr. Ex. Dept. N. D. Agr. College. GROWING WINTER WHEAT ON THE GREAT PLAINS Soil Moisture at Seeding Time is the Most Important Factor For Suc cessful Crops Washington, D. C.—In the cam paign for increased wheat production, the United! States Department of Agriculture is calling particular at tention to the desirability of winter Vheat in the Great Plains region, yet advises against planting when a lack of soil moisture at seeding time is practically certain to mean no crop. CARE of POULTRY LIVER DISORDERS spotted with blood, are variations which depend on the form the disease has taken. Diseased conditions of the liver are often accompanied by other internal diseases, especially of the alimentary canal. Cause Liver troubles are largely due to over-feeding, especially on foods too rich, or too heavy in their propor tions of starch and fat producing ele ments. For this reason very fat hens are especially subject to some form of liver trouble. Lack of exer cise where birds are confined to small runs if of ten a very important con tributing cause, but in the main, over-feeding is the primary cause. You must feed carefully to avoid liver disorders. Careless feeding, and its attendant development of liver diseases is ruin ing many flocks. Proper corrective measures would restore the diseased organ to a fairly healthy condition, but the changes must be rigidly en forced, and the efforts must be contin ued over a sufficient length of time, to get the right results. It is only reasonable to expect that any im provement in the birds is going to be slow since the causes which have led to the diseased condition have often been acting for a long time. Treatment Correcting the mistakes responsible for the trouble is the most effective treatment. No medicinal remedy can possibly take the place of the proper feeding and handling of the afflicted individuals. Don't attempt treat ment if the trouble is one of long standing or if there is anything to in dicate that the liver is badly diseased. Complete recovery is very uncertain in such c$ses. In milder cases, give free range if possible, and then let the birds pick up most of their living. If you can not give free range, at least provide a good sized run in grass. Feed mashes sparingly, and give grains in a litter so as to induce exercise. Use epsom salts in the drinking water for a while or give each bird a liver pill every other day for a week. Give suitable remedy when there is indi gestion or bowel troubles. W1LLIST0N GRAPHIC Under such circumstances it may be better to wait and sow spring wheat The production of winter wheat un der dry-farming conditions, says the Department, is likely to be stimulated in the Great Plains area, by present and prospective prices and by plans now under way to increase the crop as a patriotic effort to meet the neces sities of war conditions. The soils of the plains are generally rich ferti lizers are not used and this makes agriculture in this section indepen dent of the war-time fertilizer situa tion. Winter wheat is recommended for the region for several reasons. In the first place it is naturally adapted to an extensive agriculture, in which large machinery can he used to ad vantage and a minimum of man la bor can be made to cover a maximum acreage. In the second place winter wheat shows a closer relation between yield and water content of the soil at seeding time than any other crop. Under dry-farming conditions, in a normal soil, winter wheat can use water from a depth of six or more feet. If the soil at seeding time is wet to as great a depth as three feet, the Department advises sowing as great an acreage as possible. Con ditions are favorable for germination and growth, and the chances for a crop are good, even though the win ter and spring rainfall may be be low the average. On the other hand, seedipg in a dry soil means that the rainfall and all other climatic condi tions must be much better than nor mal if a crop is to be produced. Bulletin on the Subject Brief suggestions for winter-wheat growing under dry-farming conditions are given in Farmers' Bulletin 895, "Growing Winter Wheat on the Great Plains," which will be sent free on application to the United States De partment of Agriculture. These sug gestions are based on extensive ex periments in the Great Plains States. The bulletin discusses varieties, the rate and time of seeding, the place of winter wheat in the agriculture of the region, and cultural methods for each of the nine dry-farming States of the Great Plains region. The re sults of these experiments will be treated more comprehensively in a Department bulletin to be published shortly. RED CROSS LETTER The American Red Cross has per fected plans to care for Americans who may be captured and held in German prison camps. A Prisoners' Relief Committee has been organized at Berne, Switzerland, under the su I ervision of Ellis L. Dressel, of the American Legation. Mr. Dressel served from the outbreak of the war in 1914 up to our breaking off diplo matic relations as an attache of the Amberican Embassy at Berlin, where his duties included relief work for men of the Entente nationalities in German prison camps. Today only about one hundred American prisoners are held in Ger many. Most of these are civilians taken off American merchantmen that have been sunk by Teuton submarines. More recent arrivals in the prison camps had served as gun crews, since the arming of our merchant ships. Speedy provision for their relief and for those who nriay be taken pris oners is necessitated by the German policy of giving their prisoners of war food totally inadequate to keep men in good health. The extremely high death rate among Russian, Ser bian and Roumanian prisoners in Ger many and Austria (30 per cent in the case of the Roumanians) has been largely due to the inability of Rus sian and the Balkan states to organ ize the rationing of prisoners of their nationalities from their home coun tries. A recent cable dispatch from Paris tells of a French soldier just back from a German prison camp and in the last stage of tuberculosis. This soldier was one of a battalion of a thousand young and healthy men captured in a body, early in the war. More than fifty per cent of the num ber are now dead, or have been re turned to France, via Switzerland, as incurables. Malnutrition, no less than unsani tary conditions, produces these re sults. British, Canadian and Aus tralian prisoners of war in Germany now depend exclusively upon food shipped to them from London, and generally give the prison camp ration to prisoners of other countries, who are, as a rule, less well provided. Bread is already being dispatched from Berne to the Americans in Ger many, and arrangements have also been made for transmitting letters and money from their families and friends in this territory. Thus far only bread has been sup plied by the Berne Committee of the American Red Cross. Assorted food parcels and clothing will also be for warded soon. In the meantime the Central Prisoners «f War Committee of London is acting on behalf of American prisoners in Germany, sending them such foods as the Com mittee regularly despatches to Brit ish and colonial prisoners. By arrangement with Germany, these food parcels are sent to the prisoner three times a fortnight. The parcels supplement the bread which is also regularly supplied, and each of them contains ten pounds of meat, butter, sugar, jam, coffee or tea, salt, rice, and dried fruit. The American Red Cross is forwarding to Berne stocks of the same foodstuffs, as well as cheese, evaporated milk, codfish, and mixed biscuit. Tinned goods cannot be sent to prisoners, for Ger many has made over the tin contain ers as hand grenades. Have You Got The Right Connections For Your Hauling? This is the time of year when the hauling problem gets to be a vexatious one and also when it is important that it is seettled promptly. Promptness in draying and transfer work is one of the most important parts of the business all the time but during the cold weather a little delay often means a big loss. Promptness is our principle the year around and if you have your dray work in the hands of this firm you can rest easy that you are going to get prompt service during the winter months. So if you are not satisfied at present let us talk over this mat ter with you and we will assure you that we will be glad to give you the benefit of our best service in this connection. Four big drays enable us to handle the work promptly and satisfactorily. Evans Dray and Transfer Co. ARTHUR EVANS, Prop. More Loaves of Bread Better Loaves ot Bread Are made these days from every kind of flour than ever before because the people of our country face a shortage of flour stuffs. If you want the maximum out of every barrel of flour you use buy a sack of Silver Sheaf. Its made at home and you will be able to make that good bread in your home. Try a sack today and if there is any fea ture of this flour that is not the best tell us about it Whole Wheat lffing Co. Williston, N. Dak. Thursday, September 18, 11T.