Newspaper Page Text
:c '.* •:,
Marshall, Minn .... 7.81
Rush City, '.linn.... 7.40
perfleld, .Mi'in 8.S3
Winuelnipi' Minn... 7.67
Average in large No.
•f analy: In va
rious pa lis of U. S. 7.8
Average in large No.
of analysi in va
rious parts of U. S. 5.1
Chemical Conpositfon and Feediaf
Vatoe of Clover and Timothy Hay.
By Ralph Hoagland, Division of Agricultural Chemlatry, Minn*
,1, aota College of Agriculture. .j,
Clover and timothy are the most
widely grown of any of the grass
crops of the NoitUwest, and there
•re probably very few farms In Minne
sota upon which one or the other is
not grown. More often, clover and
timothy and grown together. There
ought not to be a farm in Minnesota
upon which clover, or clover and tim
othy, are not grown regularly in the
rotation with grain and cultivated
The common practice in growing
these crops, is to seed down a mixture
of clover and timothy with a grain
crop, barley, wheat, or oats. The
next year the farmer cuts two crops
of clover, Mid the second year a good
crop of timothy is obtained. In the
third year, the timothy field is often
pastured, and the next year it is
plowed for corn. When clover is
aeeded alone, only two crops are cut,
end the fiold is plowed the next year
for corn, since clover is only an an
All clover is usually fed on the farm,
It being -in excellent feed, especially
tor milch cows and young stock. A
part of thfc timothy is fed to horses,
•nd possibly a part to other stock
and, If markets are convenient, some
timothy is usually sold, as it ordinarily
brings a good price upon the market.
If both clover and timothy are fed
on the tV:ni, the question arises,
Which kind of hay will give the best
returns pith for milk or beef produc
tion, or fo growing stock? Clover
usually gives a larger number of tons
per acre l! :n timothy. If a ton of
Clover con itus more food value than a
ton of tin
tiy, It certainly will not
timothy for feed, except
horses. It would be
raise timothy for feed, us
li clover, only if the hay
of timothy will have the
value as the hay from an
pay to rai
from an a.
acre of din
of explanation regard
used to express the re
mical analysis and the
different classes of coui
plants, and even dry
tag the to
value of (1
Composition of Clover.
Marshall. Rush City
Vater 17.70 14.16
)ry matter 82.30 86.84
Composition of Dry Matter in Common Red Clover Hay.
Composition of Dry Matter of Timothy Hay.
2 1 2
2 8 2
Discussion of Tables.—On glancing
at the table? of analyses of clover hay,
it will be noted that the average com
position of the Minnesota samples com
pared quite closely with the average
composition of clover hay from various
parts of the United States. The Min
nesota samples contain an average of
12.96 per cent protein as compared
with 14.5 per cent in samples at large.
With the exception of alfalfa, clover
oentptn« more protein than any of
^erorle. Ash. Fat.
Per cent. Per cent.
A.. ir' Olover hay. 7.8i 3.44
A* In Tim. hay. 6.44 2 35
chief difference in composition
cf er ai timoth\, it will be noted
is that ov contains 12.9G per cent
proreii, as compared with 7.03 per
cott .a .iniothy, or nearly twice the
amount pre tent in the latter. There
l!'ly more fat in clover, and less
fll?r, thf^n ':i timothy—facts in favor
of oHn-rr. lover aTso contains more
carbohydrates than timothy but, as
a rule, as will be noted in the average
composition of samples at large, tim
othy contains more carbohydrates or
fattening material ttuu clover.
Timothy, average by
It will be noticed that the coefficient
Of digestibility of the nutrients in
clover is somewhat higher than in the
case of timothy.
The following table shows the num-
Nutrients in favor
hay, contain water. The water In bay
has no food
Dry Matter.—Hay is dried la an
oven at 212! degrees F. The water is
all driven off, leaving the dry matter,
which contains all the food nutii
Ash.—When the dry matter 1s
burned, ash or mineral matter id left.
This mineral matter is necessary for
the formation of bone, the upbuilding
of tissue, and In body fluids.
Protein—This class of compounds,
present in all plants, is very Impor
tant, since it is necessary for the »i
building of the tissue and muscle, and
for all growth, and for the production
of milk, l.ean meat is nearly pure
proteld, and casein of milk and white
of egg are also pioteids. Man or ani
mals cannot live without iood contain
Carbohydrates—This class of com
pounds contains such substances as
sugar and starch, which, when eaten,
may be transformed into fat which
may be deposited in the body or they
may be oxidized with th0 production
of heat or energy. Fattening animals
require a diet containing a large
amount of carbohydrates. This class
of compounds cannot be used for the
upbuilding of tissue, or alone for the
production of milk. An animal fed on
carbohydrates alone would starve and
Fat.—The fat found in plants Is sim
ilar to animal fat, such as lard, butter
fat, etc. When extracted, it usually
contains some impurities, however.
Fat is used in the body for the produc
tion of heat or energy, or may be
stored up in the body as fat.
Crude Fiber.—This consists chiefly
of celluose or woody material whicli
makes up the framework of plants
It Is not readily digestible, and hen
has a low iood value.
The following table shows the com
position of clover hay from a number
of localities in Minnesota. Since the
percentage of moisture in different
samples of hay varies greatly, tlie
composition is determined on the dry
matter basis. Results from Bulletin
34, Minnesota Experiment Station:
83.82 87 !M
The following table shows ttae com
parison in composition betweee Min
nesota samples of clover and timothy
The feeding value of any feed de
pends not only upon the composition
of the feed, but also upon its digesti
bility since it is only the digestible
feed which is of any value to the ani
mal. The following table shows the
percentage of the digestibility of nit
trlents in clover as compared with
Percentage of Nutrients Digestible.
Jenkins & Wlnton..
same authors 57.4
ber of pounds of each of the digesti- above coefficients of digestibility.
Digestible Nutrients in 1 Ton Clover and Timothy.
•Nutrients in favor of timothy hay.
The results found in this table show
the relative feeding values of clover
and timothy bay. Clover contains
over twice as much digestible protein,
and considerably more digestible fat
and carbohydrates, than timothy hay.
the other common gras3 crop.
The table of analyses of timothy hay
shows that the average composition
of Minnesota samples agrees fairlv
well with that of samples at large. The
Minnesota sample contains 7.03 per
e#ul protein, and samples at large
6.8 protein. The former contains 2.35
per cent fat the latter 2.9 per cent.
Proteids. Crude Fiber, hydrates.
Percent. Percent. Percent.
12. 'JO 26 .82 (0 .05
7.03 39.87 44.30
Clover hay then, contains much
more of the essential food nutrients,
especially protein, than timothy. A ton
of clover contains 259 2 pounds of pro
tein a ton of timothy, 140.6 pounds.
Dry Matter. Ash. Protein. Fiber, hydrates.
6 6 2
ble nutrients in a ton of olover as
compared with a ton of timothy. This
table is compiled from the average of
analyses of Minnesota clover and tiro
othy previously noted, and from the
6 6 2
Clover is especially suited for young
stock and milch cows, while timothy
is more used as food for horsea. Tim
othy Is too expensive for general stock
feeding, since the same amount of nu
trients can be purchased in other
feeds for less money.
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