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Wh'Ch he was not PmP'1ysema ,W| s"metimes ugm Whit Government Experts and Other Prominent Writers Say on Agriculture and Allied Topics. SOUNDNESS OF THE SIRE AND DAM IS IMPORTANT fntrtctions Wisconsin's Law Indicate Dtaeases Which gfaoald Disqualify Animals for Breeding Purposes. It pays the farmer to raise horses, lut be is robbing himself of larger profit and doing a serous wrong to the future quality of horses and the standard.-: of horse breeding when ho consents either to use an inferior stal lion oi* on* afflicted with any transmis sible disease or defect, or a mare which is not perfectly sound. Wisconsin has taken a great ad vance step in the matter of horse went a step farther and definitely de 8n»d the defects and diseases which would disqualify an animal from regis tration. it having been found impos sible under the law of 1905 to retire tiosotnd horses, except in most fla- CLYDESDALE MARE JANICE MEREDITH, 10934, AND FOAL Property of Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station. FMt cases, as, where a dispute existed u to the seriousness of a known tm •ousdaess or disease, the owner could Wi back upon the lack of exact infor mation i!jion the subject and, if so lnchned. the veterinary had the same recourse Under the original condi tions the owner of an unsound stallion f«di!y might swear that the horse sound "to the best of his knowl •Ue. as that knowledge was meager Ud not made exact by law, and the Werinarian likewise could sign a Badness certificate conscientiously. *n he found some blemish or dis lwiient. regarding the transmlssi- eifoctl ^bat these disqualifying diseases rc will prove of geueral interest and if farmers and breeders, and we i»! ,h list as foll °vs: Cataract, urosis (glass eye) periodic op Waia (moon blindness) laryngeal egia 'roaring or whistling) pul- (heaves, broken chorea craEpinHss st. Vitus' dance, shivering, string-halt spavin ringbone sidebone nav mr'hv Sl?ase °s spavin curb, with JJ formation of hock glanders eoit urethral 8 u,fl «leet melanosis. of mav'Y rst tni nK __ d- 3 an a fP ea rouble the loudi:J,r°mir,em «ii tt-r jf ''ontra In such irai .. »h 0p,ic nerv" ni31'6 ,}aral'zetl u 10 urt'f(jjn fcso'th*. 'be eyes rnav J5 rf'ril'Hr the and ''^tlness !,!„ ob8er -riouv', ,. the other eye diseases mentioned hereditary beyond question and no stallion or mare so affected should employed for breeding purposes. Pulmonary emphysema (heaves or broken wind) is a common disease, and especially in those districts where clover hay is fed to horses. The feed ing of coarse, bulky, dusty food or fod der that has become moldy is most likely to induce heaves, "but, in each in stance where the disease appears, if may be taken as likely that the ani mal attacked inherited a susceptibil ity to that trouble from an affected sire or dam. It would be well were all horses affected with heaves re tired from our breeding operations, and a similar course should be adopted ed regarding these affected with any form ol "chorea." Wisconsin's law also plainly stipe lates that stallions having unsound ness implicating the limbs and joints shall not be licensed for public serv ice. Bone spavin, ringbone and side bone are notoriously hereditary, and all horse breeders should become profi cient in detecting the presence of thca«?- unsoundnesses. Hog spavin may be taken as the evidence of an undesirable, unsound conformation of ^7j, the hock joint and when lameness is «al .*'eid,a lty il ,s 'rom iaurt,s|s, improving the gen- present often is associated with bon °f these diseases spavin. The hock is a most important stated that, a horse's eve joint and should be sound in every re. ar to be *Mli perfectly sound I spec! in sires and dams exnected to "stone blind" produce serviceable animals for har I or "glass eye" as the work. For this reason conformation is termed. In this should be taken into account in choos unusually breeding animals and those hav and free fronl ing 8l)erls. tj-j he ve or dete:- '-ri naM'V lhe educate a veterin- ./ sa v on examination racl is Present and how ri the eye. Cataract ^'nhtt, a,ed altacks "Wl:iu a stun0"8 ivn S usua,,y are 1 familiar 1 -i °'!'S 0f th( lattei :••',ndro A PAGE FOR THE FARMER 1 ways comes from some Irritative cause, such as dentition fever. Indigos tion, worms, influenza, "pink eve," strangles (distemper!, exposure to cold, drafts, dust, malarial environ ment and other causes of ill-health. There also is a theory to the effect that this disease is due to germs, ar.d it has been observed that it has be come less common where farm lands have been drained and cultivated, lead breeding, in 1905 passing a law that ing to the improvement of sanitary ail public service stallions must be conditions. Still the disease is corn registered. and placing reasonably paratively common but not all horses high requirements upon those eligible exposed to aggravating causes cou rt such registration. Last year they i tract the trouble and the probable rea son is that only horses bom with a hereditary predisposition to the dis ease become affected, while other horses inherit "strong eyes" less liable to become affected injuriously by irri tatlon. The tendency to this and "b°fcK-v" hocks, "sickle" hocks, or but It will be no- such as are known as "curby hocks," l»'hilH of the eyes in- should be rejected. A curb air«ctiii« "aa iacting when exposed t. stror. latf.,' 8ht n,ain permanent!.' 4 r,tuli, the 'on, which is v a sound, well formed hock is not al ways serious, but, if it be associated w'ith curby formation of the sickle and retina order, it is a most objectionable fea- and an af- t're and should be so considered. -•-a ion or niare should not be I Sound feet are an absolute necessity 1,ur l' oses as weak- for every horse and any stallion be transmitted mare afflicted with navicular dlseas' animal susceptible to I w A "cata- ,,le Contrary niay be notice- .r'diV ns ,ance8, but often u is e at a l" he likely to transmit foot weak- uess or an undesirable conformation liable to induce foot diseas?, Buch as navicular trouble. Unsoundness may spring from eith er sire or dam. hence it is imperative that both sire and dam should be sound, and we never can preduce sound horses by retiring unsound stal lions but continuing to employ un sound mares in our breeding opera tions. Let every owner of an unsound mare remember that he Is retarding progress in horse breeding if he breeds from sfuch an animal, and at the same time he is missing the profits that uiiglit be obtained from the employment of sound, higher class stock. o' n I" moon blindness I or impaired sho,lld re eet a" stallion or mare afflicted lc.,a Fain tl a ract or I,er'°dic oph- dis. S i Ven 11 ,lle Dame au of a S n acccunt of the -t ''ecurring at inter 'he f'0M'esP°ndi'g more or "»se ont,^a.B"S of the moon ia due There is no pleasure beyond the rules of righteousness toward others there is no pleasure in what injures another.—Watltlnson. The tu comQioo opinion, tu "olf teeth," but al- lj 1 a'*"'* I (I vowvo .A rftc iMM. fimmer. A Moderate-Sized Barn This barn is calculate^ for n farmr.f 100 or 150 acres. The plan is drawn supposing it to be a bank barn, with side drives. The same plan can be u*"d for an end drive tor five horses, and a box stall for Blrt8 colts (or mare and foal), 27 cattle and box stall for calves also root cellar. The walls are to be either stone or concrete. The windows in basement to be 24 inches by 30 inches of glass and ft6 O'f CM.' 0O clear the distinction between thesu grains the accompanying illustration is given. The heads of emmer are short, compact and flat, the spikelets being set very close together. The h.tads of spelt are long and open, the spikelets being set quite far apart. Spelt is generally of coarser type than emmer and the proportion of hu,ik truss si'!.-. 10 in- in inch.- in incl es 1 floor Plan of Barn. hung on hinges at the top Ian lights above doors, 12 inches by 40 inches roof to be a "hip" with lower rafter half' pitch, and tipper rafter "third" hitch purline posts to be placed. 12 i'ft inside of outside of aide posts, main posts and purlines post to be 10 by 10 inches, and upper cross beams 8 by 8 inches. The barn Is to be 40 by GO feet, and basement wall. feet clear of poists. The main and CcuAfc fx Z0" set on stone wall sills they are to be 3 inches by 10 inches if on posts sills must be 10 inches by 10 inches. The wall should be 9 feet clear, and wall 10 feet high over all. The following is a bill of the material apart from the stable. Ten sills 3 by 10 inches. 12 feet long: 4 main plates. 8 by 10 laches, 32 feet long 4 purline plates. 8 by 8 Although closely related to true wheat, both spelt and emmer are in a commercial sense quite distinct from it, and should be compared rather with oats and barley. Knimer and spelt are used for the* feeding or cat tie, and it Is for such purposes that they deserve consideration. To make J' n C^rrcc S/Afli.s /9 C*rris 5" V feat long S side girts, by 6 inches. Hi feet long 6 end girts, 6 by inches, feet long center purline girts. r»h "slight ®. 1 u ... ii, i n h-v inches, 12 feet long 4 door changes. It will give accommodation et l0 ns 10 rts caps )y 6 im lu s feet lon „. V*AfVAHj tl*lk fcta&urt 0*" OK' VlNt fkOOft.% ii" w,os 3 by 4 inches, 12 feet long 02 rafters, 2 by 6 inches, 18 feet long 62 rafters, 2 by 5 inches, 9 feet long 10 cross beams, 9 by 9 tnches, 12 feet long cross beams. 9 by 9 inches. 16 feet long 3,700 feet inch flooring 2,240 feet planks for five floors 2,200 feet siding, 18 feet long 2.000 siding. 14 feet long for ends 3,500 feet inch roofing 26 M. shingles pieces 1 by 6 for ridge brands, 14 feet /i rll»e plates are to be "Bpliced." If pieces 1 by 7, for ridge brands, 14 rteo Rvon Roor Bo* LL s~Ho*lgr HI Plan of Stable. nches 31 feet long 10 main posts. 10 feet high, and will require 30 cords by 10 inches, 18 feet long 10 purline stone, or 120 wagon loads 30 yards posts, 9 by 9 inches, 30 feet long 3 sand, 120 bushels lime. EMMER AND SPELT C. feet: 12 pieces 1 by 12 for cornice. 12 feei 2 granary girts, 6 by 6, 16 feet 2 granary girts, 6 by 6, 12 feet: 16 tancy studs. 2 by 5, 8 feet long 320 feet' matched, sheeting for gran ary 320 feet inch sheeting, for gran ary 400 feet inch sheeting for ceiling granary 12 joist granary top, 2 by 8. 12 feet 10 pieces 1 by 7,14 feet face boards. The stone wall should be 10 present in the threshed grain is usu ally larger. In the matter of yield emmer is de cidedly superior For five years em mer has frh'en an average of 800 pounds of grain more than the highest yielding variety of spelt at the On tario agiicultural college. At the Brandon experimental farm emmer has also shown its superiority as a yielder, though at Indian Head in Saskatchewan in 1907. the two grains were about equal, the emmer giving 2,020 pounds per acre, and the spelt 2,200 pounds. An Economical Wan.—When [(low ing with a 16-inch walking or sulky plow it is necessary to use at least three horses, and if two teams are used through the cultivating time one horse iff standing still while the plow ing is being done. On the other hand, if the plowing done by the three horses can be dull vat ed with two, then one horse is standing idle until it is time to plow again in the fall. By using a 12 or 14-inch gang plow, four horses and one man will turn 24 or 28 inches of ground as against 16 inches with thiee horses and one man. By this method the same four horses used for plowing will make two teams for cul tivating and do away with the expense of having an idle horse pari of the time. With the cost of keeping horses as high as it has been the last few years it is worth while to flgu. on these matters. Keep Books.—Keeping books is one of the essentials of dairying not ex clusively with individual pawons. but an exact account of outgo and intake, with proper allowance for capital In vested and labor expended. Know ex actly what you are doing. WATCH THIS PAPER FOR LIVE NEWS AND UP TQ-MTI TOPICS OF FAMILY INTERE8T. IN THE SCANDINAVIAN NORTH Cleanings of Important News of Norway, Sweden and Denmark, with Occasional Comments. By MARTIN SWEDEN. Comma ili 1- P. C. Al:Ii4l'. V 11to year-. at the ag 12 6 bv 6 jnch( s 2 feet |ong 12 girts. by inches, 14 feet long 50 joists, 2 by 30 inches, 1G feet long: 50 joists. 2 by 10 inches, 14 feet long 10 long braces for purline posts. 4 by 4 inches. 10 feet long 40 scantlings, There are protests against the kind's proposed act to elevate Mr. Raf. a merul er of the riksdag, to the rank of nobl'lty, and against making the explores Sven Hed in, u baron and his excellency, Mr. Llndmaun. a count. NTs Fcsgren. barber of Eksjo. "Tious as the man who first proposed sani'arlums for consumptive* iu Sweden, is dead. It is pathetic that he f»ll a victim to Ihc dread disease, against which he took up arms, and was himself denied entrance to a san atrrium after he had contracted the Mr. Palme has introduced a meas ure in the riksdag making the issuing of !e'th certificates a more serious matter than has been the case In the past. A Swedish writer, in comment ing on this, humorously says that Mr Palme wants to protect pastors against the mistake of conducting funeral services over "sand men." A vivid picture of the distress now prevailing in Lapland was recently put before the government of Sweden by a farmer front the stricken coun try, who came to Stockholm for the 5 i special purpose of letting the authori ties know the exact facts in the case. So great is the scarcity of f,ood in some places thill the people cook mops coup. The controversy betwe?n Sweden md Russia over the proposed fortifi cation of the Aaland islands by Rus sia continues to be, the burning topic of the day throughout Sweden, and the press of Kuti1at\il, France and olh er countries has devoted considerable attention to the same subject. The latest account of the situation, as viewed In Stockholm, is t'.• !i• in the following dispatch: ''Increasing excitement attends the liscus^lon as to the future of the Aaland islands. The news reached Sweden that Russia regards the treaty whereby tie St, Petersburg government bound itself nol to irtify this archipelago, or any part oT it, as dissolved by the rupture of the union between Sweden and Norway. The Swedirh government refuses to ac cede to any such view Its position is thi'.t Ru-sia solemnly engaged with Great Britain and France hi March, 1856, neither to f'irtify the Aaland it-lands nor maintain there any mili tary or naval establishment, nnd that this engagement was absolutely unaf fected by the dissolution of the Swed ish-Norwegian partnership. "Sweden did not sign that treaty, lint tlrcat Britain. France and Russia did. The Stockholm government re gards its continuance as vital not only to the seeuiitv or Stockholm and the whole of th" Svedihlt kingdom, but to free iic.'-ess to two-thirds of the Baltic sea. Itussian guns lowering over this capital from the Aaland islands, only twenty-six mil^s distant, and Russian sta power brought so near are condi tions which the Swedes cannot con template witho.it the greatest resent ment and alarm. It would menace the kingdom's trade with its Northern rovinces, practically shut up the gulfs ol Bothnia and Finland and cre ate so terrible a danger to this coun try that Sweden would be forced to onvert Its-\f into an armed camp and 1 A committee has recommended that the Toivgrenska fund, amounting to 475.0: 0 crowns, be used for the estab lishment of a conimercial hitch in Stockholm W ODI.AND dead' A man who desires to remain un known has donated 18.000 crowns to the Hed Cress Sin iety of Stockholm. The steamship rates from Sweden to America, which have been very low during the-winter. haw i)-en raised i, the eld level. und« i i burden of cruh 't^ armamenU-. Rtis:-ia now talks freeiv about its sovereign rights in the Aaland islands, forgetting that the Slav Colossus took tl'cjti forcibly away from Sweden—in other words, compelled Sweden to cede them in 1809 after a desperate struggle hy the Swedish negotiators to retain them for this kingdom. "The Swedish people are eager for the details of the negotiations going on among the great jowers concern ing Swedish territorial integrity. For eign Minister Trolle, who is taking patt in these negotiations, speaks re assuringly in the riksdag, but the country wants to know just what is b"!ng done. If the iiowers are to guar antee Swedish political and territorial integrity, this guaranty will never, with the consent of the Swedish peo ple. restore to Russia the right Vo do as she pietise- with the Aaland archi pelago." school K:'ng Gustaf has decorated Mr W. C. Muschenheim of the Hotel Astor of New- York with the order of Vasa. This Is because Prince Wilhelm re sided at this hotel on his recent visit to New York and was the recipient of marked courted#* at the hands of Mr. Muschenheim. NORWAY. The Trondhjem Klectrie Power company has contracted for power front Lerfos, where modern electrical machinery will be installed. Fierce storms raged along the coast of Norway the hitter part of January and the first half of February, inter fering considerably with the fishing A new church, to be known as "The Ministers' church," is to be erected In Chrlstiania, 20.000 crowns having already been contributed for the pur pose. It Is reported from Vigsnes that a rich vein of copper ore has been dis covered t^ear the old Vigsnes sulphur and copper mine. A company has bet n oiKin:/.ed to explore the new mine fret Nieo'.iysen, who vv.ts born at Bergen in 18:il. and who has been a prcfeysor I'j the me Ileal department of the University of Chrlstiania since i S70. has handed In his resignation. to take effect April l, 1908. The bulk jf the fresh herring e\ ported I'to.rt Haugesund this year is shipped to Ktigland and Germany, and the salted herring goes to Russia and Sweden. The export of fresh he: ring will be less this year than in 1906, when it was 264,ono hi., valued at 2,079,500 crowns. A corrpany in Stavanger now pro poses to establish factories for trans forming seaweed, of which there Is such an abundance along the coast of Norway, into fodder for cattle and oth er livestock. It is maintained that when properly treated seaweed he comes nourishing food for animals. The Paehn iron mines at liollen re cently celebrated celebrated, so tu speak, the 2'nith anniversary of its ex Istence. During the first 2«0 years tin operators of the mine worked slowh. taking out only about 150,000 tons of iron, but since 1900, when the mine was reopened for business, the diu ging has been quite brisk. It Is esti mated that the old mine has yielded up some 570,000 tons of Iron al'o get her. Those members of the paudviken congregation who had intended to he gin action against Rev. Konow, have decided to drop the matter for the present on the advice of counsel Meanwhile they have sent a document setting forth the situation and de maiiiliug Rev. Konow's removal for heretical teaching to the church de partment, and in this they have th* support of the V'estland home mission society :ind (several prominent tniui.H ters in that part of Norway. It is et-'timuted that the moors or marshes of Norway embrace 12,000, t)00 roods, and are in almost exactly the same condition today as they were since the country was first set tied. How to turn these wastes Into useful land is a problem that is now receiving a great deal of attention, and it is certain that much work along this line will be done during the next few years. Some of the moors will he turned into forests, others furni-h eat for fuel and still others, when properly drained, may be culti vated for gticultural xjurposes. The church controversy, which I mentioned laet week, will play a part ill the election of members of the storthing H. H. Andersen, one of the leaders in the Oldand church faction, is at present organizing for the cam pi.ign in Hadeland and Land. He visits every parish and brings about an ai po'ntment of committees whose business it will be to see to it that, men in sympathy with Prof, Odland's theo'oglcal views are put in the field to lepre.'cnt the people in the storth ing. What Mr. Andersen is doing in Hade'and and I*and will be done by other laders in the other counties of Norway, and it is announced that a systematic agitation will be carried on all over the country by means of pamphlets, newspapers and lecturers. OENMARK. It i» reported thai the city council of London will visit Denmark the* coming spring to observe Danish In stitutions and interesting scenes. The experimental laboratory of the department of agriculture, which be came known the world over under the direction of Dr. Fjord, and which had the respect and confidence of the farmers of Denmark in a marked de gree has fallen into popular disfavor, on account of the "scientific guess worl that, has been goint on under the pre-e.it management The husmaend" (tenants) of Den mark have adopted Feb. 1 as their an nual holiday. Just as the laborers have selected May 1 as their best da-. The so-called "packet post" between the I'nited States and Denmark has become much more expensive during the last few vears, and as a conse quence f.'wcr packages are sent from one country to the other. In 1907 only 5.500 were sent from Denmark to the Denmark, to which 1 have frequently I'nited States to Denmark.