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1UU .i.l.l.l.f- Vliiuvuiwiti uumnt w . . - I lamous Secret Service i i j ,,.. ' i ( H A i Jf v J Si ozv ifo aw; rf tory for Stonewall Jackson Exploits of Tim Webster and Elizabeth Van Lew for Union cause -Many interesting personalities of thoSe other war times brought to mind by Ale- mortal Day. , Aaenfe in Civil War jS&s. ' T55T HAM ' X - - 4:'Wfc,.. , rflS) Si i ,V r v.-f-j it 1t I Miss Pauline Cushmart TOXICWAl.L JACKSON'S Vall.-y cimipiilii was oue of tlie gront decils of history. Not since Nu IKiltMin's timo have mon been so dazzli'i! n they v-re by that great ! exploit of hla. Yet Stonewall illicit have gone down the Valley In defeat had It not been for a little college girl named Belle Iloyd. On May 23, lStil. after Jackson had routed Banks and driven him In confusion up the line of the Shenandoah, he wrote this letter: "MIsh Belle Boyd : I thank you for myself find for the nnny for the Immense service that you have rendered your country today." . The I'liloti (ieneral Shields was quartered at Sriss Boyd's house. He held ft council of war there. JIIss Boyd bored a hole In the floor of her chamber, which was over Shield's room, and lay there with her ear to It throughout the night. The next morning Stonewall Jackson wns In full pos slon of the plans for n great battle, nnd wns uble to defeat the I'nion army. She kept up her valiant work for the Confed eracy until the I'nion officers began to suspect her, and Jackson ordered her to move from her Shenandoah home to Winchester. She had been arrested by the Federals and had flirted her way to liberty for she was n pretty girl, despite the libelous photographs of her. In Winchester, Jack son conferred upon her n commission ns captain In the Confederate army. By this time the whole North had become aware of the services she was rendering the Confederacy, and every officer nnd private was on the alert to get her. Yet she es caped until 1S04, when she was caught on a block ade runner. Her captor lost his heart to her, deserted the navy, nnd married her, nnd the prince of Wales, nfterwnrd Edward VII, attended the wedding. Belle Boyd Is the most famous of the spies, but there are many others wlfo deserve at least as much fame as she won. One of them was Ellba beth B. Van Lew, who hnd the Incredible courage to net as a Union spy In Richmond throughout the war. There was not a moment during those four years when Lizzie Van Lew could hear a step behind her on the street without expecting to have somebody tap her on the shoulder nnd say, "You are my prisoner." She did not confine her activi ties to spying and reporting what she hnd dis covered to the I'nion genernls; she hid escaped prisoners In her house, she dealt out messages to soldiers In Llbby from their homes; her resources were endless. One of her favorite devices wns a metal platter with n double bottom. In which she used to pretend to convey food to the prisoners. Once n Confederate soldier, whose suspicion had been aroused, Insisted on examining it; but that day Lizzie, who had been expecting some move of this kind, hnd filled the false bottom not with secret messages hut with scalding water, nnd the soldier dropped It with a shriek. Lizzie Van Lew hnd n secret recess in her house, a hiding place for dispatches. Sometimes Khe would move a hand Idly toward this recess, nnd an hour or two later some old negress, ap parently dusting the room, would slip her hand back of the mantel nnd find n dispatch which would go to Ornnt that day. It wns Lizzie Van Lew who stole the body of Col. Ulrlc Pahlgren nnd smuggled It out of Richmond, one of the most daring exploits of the wnr. Rosa B. Greenhow wns a Confedernte spy in Washington who dazzled the Union In the early cinys of the wnr. It wns one of her nsslstnnts, a Miss Duvnl of Wnshlngton, who brought Beaure gard the first news of McDowell's advance nnd en abled him nnd Johnson to foil the Federal plnns for the cnmpnlgn of Bull Run. Mrs. Greenhow sent Miss Duval to Benuregnrd on July 10. giv Ing him the first news of the contemplnted Ad vance, nnd on July 10 she sent him word of the forces nnd the contemplated movement of the Union army. He promptly wired the information to Davis, nnd the word wns sent to Johnson, which resulted In his advance nnd the terrible downfall of the Northern cause. The Northern secret service was technically under the direction of Gen. Lafayette C. Buker, a man without scruple. After the war Baker in sisted on taking to himself -most of the credit for what had been done in detective work, but ns a matter of fact the best work done In the wnr wns done by volunteers, men and women, who were willing to risk a shameful dentil to serve their country. Mnnv of them were prlvnte soldiers; some were enlisted anion Allan IMnkerton's de tectlves Of these the most famous was Timothy Webster, one of the greatest detectives who ever lived Webster succeeded In getting the South to believe In him to such nn extent that he came near being made the colonel of an Alabama regiment, nnd in Baltimore he was a member of the Knights of Liberty. He even became a trusted emissary of the Confedernte war department nt Richmond, nnd at Blttsburgh a Union mob tried to lynch him ns a Confedernte spy. Nothing saved him but the arrival of Alinn I'lnkerton, with a drawn revolver, nnd Webster and I'lnkerton backed against the wall nnd stood off the mob until help arrived. Webster was finally captured in Richmond, and was betrayed by one of his associates, who con fessed to n man he supposed to be a Catholic priest. The man was not a priest, but a disguised Confederate soldier. The secrets of the confes sional, of course, did not apply In such a case, nnd the brave spy wns hanged. Hattle Lewis, Web ster's sweetheart, got an audience with Mrs. Jef ferson Davis nnd begged her, with tears In her eyes, to save the man she loved. Instead, HntHo Lewis herself was convicted of being a Union spy nnd served n year's Imprisonment. There was one girl who won the rank of major In the Union nrmy. She wns Pauline Cushmnn, nn actress, who became one of the best nnd most famous spies In the Union nrmy. Often nnd often Major Ifciullne acted ns a sort of advance guard to the Federal nrmy. Twice the Confederates captured her, but on both occasions she escaped. The first time she came near being released after a first search, but a second revealed the fnct that In n hidden recess In her garters there were orders from Thomas. She wns about to be hnnged when Thomas captured Nashville nnd saved her. Secretary Stanton commissioned her as major In the Union nrmy, nnd she wns the only womnn who held that rank except Maj. Belle Reynolds, the wife of a captain In the Seventieth Illinois, who went to the wnr with her husband nnd performed such prodigies of vnlor that Stanton honored her with n commission. Sam Davis, the boy spy of the Confederacy, left nn Imperishable record of heroism. He was only fourteen when he Joined the Confederate service, nt first ns a private soldier. His tnlents ns a spy were great, nnd throughout Brngg's long war fare In Tennessee he continually made use of the brave little fellow. Davis was finnlly betrayed nnd enptured In Nashville. He was taken before Gen. Grenvllle M. Dodge, whose story of the hear ing makes a companion piece to the last days of Nathun Hale. Here Is the story as General Dodge tells it: "I took him to my prlvnte office and told him It was a very serious charge brought against him; that he wns n spy, nnd from what I found upon his person, he had accurate Information In regard to my army, and I must know where he obtained It. I told him he was n young mnn nnd did not ' seem to realize the danger he was In. Up to that time he had said nothing, but then he replied In a most respectful and dignified manner: " 'General Dodge, I know the danger of my situation, and I am willing to take the conse quences.' ' 'I know thnt I'll have to die, but I will not tell where I got the Information. And there Is no power on enrth that can make me tell. You are doing your duty as a soldier, and I am doing mine. If I hnve to die, I do so feeling that I am doing my duty to God and my country.' "I pleaded with him nnd urged him with nil the power thnt I possessed to give me some chance to save his life, for I had discovered thnt he wns a most admirable young fellow, with the highest character and strictest integrity. He then snid: 'It Is useless to tnlk to me. I do not Intend to do It. You can eourt-martlnl me, but I will not betrny the trust reposed In me.' He (hanked me for the Interest I hnd taken In him, nnd I sent hira bnck to prison. I Immediately culled a court-martial to try him." Even then the boy received offers of liberty If he would betruy his confederate. He would not. i-s-. .i w I'm , m Ki4 tttes Boyd The only thing he wrote was a short note to hl8 mother saying that he had been captured und wn to be hanged nnd was not afrnld to die. As he stood on the scaffold a messenger arrived from General Dodge promising him Immunity if he would revenl the identity of his confederate. The rope was around his neck; the boy answered: "If I hnd a thousand lives I would lose them nil here before I would betrny my friends or the con fidence of my Informant." Then he turned to the executioner nnd said casually, "I nm ready." The trap was sprung und one of the heroes of the Confederacy was dead. He was then sixteen years old. There wns nn underground railroad of Confed erate sympathizers running through Maryland and Vlrglnln, headed by Custis Grymes of Virginia, ne came of the family which gnve n wife to George Washington, nnd many of his emissaries were high-born women. One was a clergyman, Rev. Dr. Stunrt. nn irrepronchable Episcopalian. When the dashing but hopeless rnld on Vermont by n Confederate force in Cnnndn was ordered In 1SG4 Grymes sent a girl named Olivia Floyd, who concealed the order In her hnir. It was the fnsh ion then for women to wear a curly net over their locks, nnd Olivln hid the documents there and made a wild ride on a bitter cold night into the lines, where she delivered the orders that resulted in the attack of St. Albans. Gen. Jim Lane hnd n woman spy nnmed Eliza beth W. Stiles, whose husband wns murdered be fore" her eyes by Quantrell's guerrillas In 18(12. Border warfare was merciless; there wns some thing Indian nbout It. Mrs. Stiles devoted her life to vengennce. She wns quite deliberate about It. She went Enst nnd put her children in school, nnd then enme bnck to the West nnd put herself under Lane's orders. She faced denth mnny a time; once she was arraigned before Sterling Price himself, but she mnde him believe she wns a Confedernte spy, nnd he gnve her a horse and fire arms and sent her on her way. One Union spy, Mack Williams, found himself in the Confederate line face to face with his own brother, a Confedernte soldier. "I'm a Yankee spy," said Williams; "you're n rebel. Betray me if you want to; it's your duty." It was a hard and delicate question, but the ties of nature won out over patriotism. General Baker hns recorded the fnct thnt for two years a farm near Fulrfax Court House was frequented by Union officers, none of whom had the least suspicion that a daughter of the house was a Confedernte spy- She wns, Baker says, "a young and decidedly good-looking womnn, with plensing, inslnuntlng manners." She appeared to be a violent Union sympathizer, yet nt night she used to go out and meet Colonel Mosby nnd give him the information she had gained from the credulous Union officers. Baker finnlly cnught her by sending a woman spy who gained her con fidence. New York Times. ULYSSES S. GRANT MAN AND SOLDIER By a practically unnnimous verdict, Ulysses S. Grant Is named as one of the few great military chieftains of the world. And the closest scrutiny of his work will convince us that his fume rests upon the most substantial foundation; upon suc cess unqnlifled and unquestioned; upon the car rying through to its fulfillment of the most stu pendous projects, involving such perplexing and elusive problems ns are only to be encountered in the nrt of wnr. Henry E. Wing writes in the New York Christian Advocnte. And lie won his success without any of the purely personal advantages with which, In the popular fancy, the Ideal hero Is endowed. Grant was not a handsome man. I mean there was nothing specially attractive In his bearing. He has the reputation of hnvlng been a wonderful horseman; and he was, of a certnin sort, riding, occasionnlly, the most fractious animals, and rid ing always like one of the furies. But, mounted or afoot, he had a careless and almost slouching manner, nnd he cut a pretty poor figure by the side of the stately nnd dignified Mende nnd Burn side, or the splendid and dnshlng Sheridan and Hancock. His habitual conduct wns exceedingly quiet nnd reserved, giving one the impression of innate diffidence, bordering on renl bnshfulness. His ordinnry conversation wns on the most com monplace topics, and I huve no recollection of his ever giving expression, by look or language, to the extraordinary genius with which he was certainly endowed. The trnit for which he wns best esteemed, at the time I knew him, wns his tenacity. But I am certnin that it wns not apprecinted. How, while sturdily holding to his main purpose, he sub mitted the details of the campaign to almost and sometimes most radical changes. His message to. General Hnlleck, from Spottsylvania, "I purpose to fight It out on this line if it takes all summer," was interpreted to menn thnt he would not alter his course one iota, whatever might hnppen. This did hlra great injustice, as representing him to be n very stubborn mnn ; while, on the contrary, among Grant's most vuluable characteristics were his open-mindedness nnd his wonderful faculty of putting lessons once learned Into practice. Behind that Impassive face this silent man was holding a substantinl scheme for putting down the secession. This scheme embraced the general movements of all the great armies of the United States and Involved the Intelligent co-operntlon of half a score of loyal general commanders. Grant hnd evidently such Implicit confidence in this general plan that no Incident of battle, march or siege could disturb his equanimity. Only once in my presence In that whole cam paign did he betray the slightest perturbntlon or vexation. That was with his chief subordinate on the fatal morning of the Petersburg mine ex plosion. After the mine had been fired It was absolutely necessary that the assault should be In stuntly mnde. We waited a long time to henr the cheers of the men as they would chnrge through the breach. At last, facing the stalwart com mander of the army, he cried: "Why don't the boys go in?" And on Meade to whom this seemed a new idea starting to stammer some reply, Grant gnve him one look of intense disgust, nnd, wheeling his horse, rushed headlong to the front. An example of this resolute faith occurred nt the Wilderness. When affairs were in the most terrible confusion on our left, an officer rode up and reported, In an excited manner, thnt Han cock had been cut off and captured. Grant wns sitting on the ground with his bnck to tree. He did not even get to his feet. He q-'ietly took his pipe from his mouth and said that he did not be lieve It. And he wns right. It was during this battle thnt he gave me. a characteristic message to Insert In my dispatch to the Tribune. "Tell the people thnt everything Is going swimmingly down here." This wns In the midst of nn engagement which wns nt lenst Indecisive, und In which all his plans were being frustrated. CURIOUS CONDENSATIONS A method by which metals which have been absorbed by a human body can be withdrawn by electrolysis has been developed by an Englishman. An English patent has been Issued for a process for rolling hollmv steel bars from lnpots that are drilled and filled wlrti heat-resisting snd. There are mnrvelously Jeweled combs of Spanish shape and size, some in shell, otuers in metal, gold, silver and composition. lium nudding In a bladder container is a great delicacy in southeastern Europe. A stove that is rubbed with a lag that bus been soaked in paraffin, in stead of with ordinary blackening be comes bright and glossy. The shine will not rub off. The use of sine wire in Germany Is a subject of much discussion at pres ent lu the electrical circles of Ger many, due to the Increasing scarcity of cepper, and because iron wire are not always satisfactory Electric locomotives hnve been built for a German railroad having heavy grades that draw loads of 230 tons at a speed of 42 miles an hour. It hns been estimated that an In vestment of $800,000,000 would be re quired to produce mechanically as much nitrogen as Peru's nitrate de posits yield every year. The tower of a tall church In Switz erland hns been equipped to receive the time signals sent out by wireless telegraph from the Eiffel tower in Paris. The United States geological sur vey last year carried on Investiga tions in 47 state Alaska, Hawaii and the Canal isone. Steel trough decking invented for concrete flooring or roofing by nn Eng lishmnn is so, formed thnt it can be riveted from one side and given water tight Joints. The German government now pays from $243,300 to $438,000 for a Zeppe lin dirigible, while the average price paid a few years ago was only $121,. 700. PLANS FOR RAISING NEW UNITED STATES ARMIES BY DRAFT DETAIL8 OF THE UNIVERSAL SERVICE LAW AS DECIDED UPON BY CONGRESS. CALLS MEN FROM 21 TO 30 Provisions Also Made for Volunteers Who Wish to Join the Military Forces of the Country Prohibition Clause Is Made Drastic Army Medl cal Officers Assigned to Duty In France. Approximately ten million men be tween the ages of twenty-one and thirty Inclusive will be required to reg ister as avulluble for mllllury service In the wur with Germuny under the terms of the new national nrmy bill perfected by the conference committee of the house nnd senate. From these ten million men there will be selected the first 500,0(!0 re cruits to the selective conscription urmy, the second IiOO.000 when the president decides to cull for them, and recruits to bring the regular army and National Guard up to maximum war strength In the event thut volunteers to these forces fnll to come forward In luflldent numbers and the president exercises his power to draft. But in order thut men under twenty one and over thirty may serve their country if they so desire, the meusure provides for the acceptance of volun teers over eighteen years and under forty years. The gigantic number of men subject to drnft will not all be called to the colors by any meuns. The proposed law gives authority to the president to draft as mnny men as he deems nec essary to fill up the regular army, the National Guard and the conscription force of 1,000,000 men. 2,001,000 Armed Men. It Is estimateo by the war depart ment that as a result of the authority conferred and the action to be taken 2,001,000 officers nnd men will com prise the mllltury establishment of the United States. Under the new bill agreed to author ity Is given to fill up by draft the reg ular army and the Natlonnl Guard to war strength, and to raise outside this 1,000,000 men, 500,000 to come as the first quota. The war strength of the regular army is about 290,000 men. It has now about 130,000 men nnd Is short about 155,000. The National Guard bus a wur strength of 025,000 men. It has now about 125,000 and Is short about 500,000 men. Therefore, on the first call there enn be taken for war service about 055,000 men to fill up gnps in the regular army and Natlonnl Guard nnd In addition 500,000 as the first quota of the con script army of 1,000,000 men. In the first drnft It is possible about 1,155,000 men will be taken for active service, leaving authorization under the present bill to call out Immedi ately 500,000 more for another con script army. No Place for Roosevelt. The action allowing Col. Theodore Roosevelt to enlist volunteers for for eign service has been eliminated. What the colonel will do now that his pet project Is Incapable of realiza tion Is a question. It Is generally un derstood that President Wilson Is ab solutely opposed to the Idea of a vol unteer organization under command of the colonel. Pay for enlisted men and non commissioned officers was agreed upon as follows: . Men now receiving less than $21 per month are Increased to $31 per month; those who received $24 are Increased to $32 ; men who receive $30, mm or S40 are increased $6 each ; men who receive $45 are increased to $50. Army Officers Pleased. Army officers received notice of the age limit with pleasure. They had expected a higher maximum, though they would rather have had the orig inal ages of nineteen to twenty-five. A new section In the bill authorizes the president to organize and equip three machine-gun companies for each infantry and cavalry brigade and four machine-gun companies and an armored motorcar for each In fantry and cavalry division. These will be additional to those already provided. An Interesting chnnge Is that the draft will not be based upon the num ber of persons "available for serv ice," as first proposed, but upon the population. A man may register by mall, if nec essary. Fraud in registration, exam ination, etc., is punishable by the same Imprisonment, "or, If subject to military law, the Individual shall be tried by court- martial and suffer such punishment as a court-martial may di rect" Dry Clause Drastic. The prohibition provision Is exceed ingly drastic. The president Is au- READY FOR SEPARATE PEACE Russian Socialists Announce Willing ness to Act With Germane In Plans to End the War. Petrograd. Twelve members of the council of soldiers' and workmen's delegates, Including the president, hnve gone to Schlusselburg to cope with the situation created by the dis trict committee in declaring itself an tutonomous unit. Sbctoeleff, who moved the report of WORTH KNOWING. There are at present more than 1,500 Esperanto societies hi the world. The longest river In Japan Is the Tone. Its main course being about 200 miles long. It is a question as to whether the kangaroo can cover a given distance in quicker time than an ostrich. Vegetable silk, which, like silk cot ton, 1 valuable only for stuffing, Is mad from tb seeds of ft Bra-Ulan tree. Explaining Workings of New Conscription Law Washington. Outstanding feature of the universal service law are as fol lows: Ages of Draft, 21 to 30 Inclusive. Ages of Volunteers, 18 to 40 Inclu sive. Number subject to draft.. 11,000,000 To be Obtained by Draft or Volun teers t Number to be drawn by se lective conscription 1,000,000 In two drafts of 500,000 each 1 Regular army 800,000 Nutlonul Guard 025,000 Special nnd technical troops 70,000 Total strength provided.... 2,001,000 Term of Service: Period of Emergency. Exemptions: Federal and state officers. Ministers of religion and theologteal students. Members of religious sects opposed to wnr. Liable to Exemption: County and municipal officers. Customhouse clerks, mall em ployees. Employees of armories, arsenuls and navy yards. Persons engaged In Industries, In cluding agriculture. Those supporting dependents. The physicnlly nnd morully deficient. Method for Draft: Proclamation by the president for registration. Immediate registration by those of draft nge. Selection from register of men for service. Dispatch of men drnfted to nearest training camp. Provision for Pay: Second-class private ......$25 First-class private 31 Corporal 82 Sergeant of the line $36 and, 42 Quartermaster and hospital ser geants 46 First sergeant 60 Safeguards Thrown Around the Army: Prohibition. Suppression of the social eviL thorized to make regulations govern ing the-prohibition of alcoholic liquors "In or near" military camps. Not only can liquor not be sold or sup plied but It will be illegnl for any person to have In his possession any Intoxicating or spirituous liquors at any military station, cantonment, enmp, fort, post or officers' or enlisted men's club. It will be unlawful for anyone to sell Intoxicating liquor, Including beer, to any officer or member of the military forces while In uniform. Likewise, the social evil Is guarded agnlnst through the suppression and prevention of the setting up of any houses used for Immoral purposes. The fact that under the authority of congress the president Is author ized to call 11,000,000 men to the colors Is expected to have a great mornl ef fect In Germany. It is qu'te true that the entire force he can comranndeer at this time will number two and a quarter million. But even this num ber would constitute a re-enforcement which British and French officers say would assure victory If employed In France. Could Relieve British. England to date has raised some 6,000,000 men. With the exception of a couple of million these men are at the front In France, Belgium, Egypt, the Balkans and Mesopotamia. What the president and Secretary Baker desire first and above all Is to train the officers and men. When they are ready to fight the drilled troops of Germany, then probably they will be sent abroad, and not before. But Germany doubtless will watch with increasing anxiety the prepared ness of the American people and will realize that peace will be most desir able and necessary, before they are ready for service In France. Officers Go to France. Three army medical officers Maj. William L. Keller and Capts. Daniel P. Card and George M. Edwards were assigned to duty at the French military hospital at Rls Orangls, France. Organization of two reserve air squadrons for the army was authorized by Major General Scott, chief of staff. The first class at West Point will be graduated August 30, the war depart ment announced, and Immediately com missioned to supply 154 highly trained officers to aid In the instruction of the first 500,000 selective draft army to be called to the colors some time in Sep tember. Under normal conditions the cadets would have completed their course In June, 1918. . - Women Form Committee. The woman's liberty loan committee has been formed. Announcement to this effect Is made by the treasury de partment. The committee met In the office of the secretary of the treasury. The members present were Mrs. George Bass, Mrs. Antoinette Funk and Mrs. Kellogg Fairbanks of Chicago, Mrs. Gilford Dudley of Tennessee, Miss Pierce of Kansas City, representing Mrs. Guernsey, and Mrs. John O. Mil ler of Pittsburgh. the executive committee of the council concerning the proposed socialist con ference at Stockholm, said that for the sake of restoring the Internationale and stopping the war he was willing to meet not only Scheidemann but the devil and his grandmother. The tone adopted by the Russian so cialist pacifists is exemplified by Gor ki's Novala Zhlzn, which declares that even If the British and French social ists refuse to participate in the confer ence the Russian socialists will, In any event participate. Homing' pigeons can travel 70 miles an hour. A meteorite weighing about 20 tons Is reported to have fallen recently at Bezerros, In the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Corn crops in England and Wales In 1915 totaled 8,489,039 acres, 248,044 more than In 1914, and the largest acreage since 1803. Records disclose the fact that fol several centuries an Infusion of nut galls treated with sulphate of iron composed the on! known Ink) Horticu iui MrtrtrtrCrMtrirtrttirCrtrCr LOCATION OF BUDS Apple and penr Terminally on spurs. One and two-year-old wood. Occasionnlly either termi nally or laterally on one-year-old wood not on spurs. Peach Laterally on one-year-old wood borne singly or In clusters of three. When In clus ters the central bud Is a wood bud. Apricot Mostly Internlly on spurs from one-year-old wood. Plum Laterally on one-year-old wood on spurs. Cherry Laterally on one-year-old wood and in clusters on very short spurs. HINTS FOR PLANTING TREES Apples Require Much Space, While Peaches and Plums Will Do With Less Use Good Soil. Don't try to economize on space, un less it Is absolutely necessary. Apple trees need plenty of room 10 feet each way Is none too much although it Is possible to get good results much closer by pruning and fertiliz ing. Peaches and plums do well 20 feet apart, but 24 feet Is better. Trees should always be planted In good soil. If your soil Is shnllow dig a hole at least six Inches deeper than the lowest roots of your young trees a foot Is better and fill it in with good dirt, even if you have to haul it from a distance in a wagon. Make the hole twice the diameter of the spread of the roots. This means a lot of work, but It will pay. Loosen the subsoil in the bottom of the hole, the deeper the better, but loos en it a few inches, anyway, and set the tree Just the same depth it formerly stood. An Inch or two deep er will do no harm, but don't get It too deep or it will smother. Sift the good top soli around the roots and don't start to tramp It until the roots are covered. If tramped before they are covered with soil the roots will be injured the dirt protects them. Leave the dirt loose on top, although packed, beneath. Either slope It toward the trunk or leave It level. Don't heap It up around the base of the tree. This sheds water and may cause the roots to get too dry. SPRAYING FOR PEAR PSYLLA Just Before Blossom Buds Open at End in Spring Spray With Lime Sulphur Solution. Nicotine and soap are the best ma terials to use for controlling pear psylla. Use one pint nicotine and four pounds soap to 100 gallons of water. The soap helps to make it stick. Spray In November or December after a spell of cold weather, on a day when the Pear Psylla. temperature Is rising and Is about 40 degrees or more. You will then kill many of the psylla which winter In the mature stage. In spring Just before the blossom buds open at the end spray with win ter strength llme-surphur, 1 to 8. By that time the eggs are deposited and are very susceptible to Injury. Two applications a year made In this way will hold the psylla In check. FORMULA FOR GRAFTING WAX Nothing Better Than Combination of Resin, Beeswax and Tallow Roll It Into Sticks. There Is nothing better than the old and well-known formula of four pounds resin, two pounds beeswax and one pound tallow for grafting wax. Shave the beeswax into thin slices and pulverize the resin so that the mate rials will melt quickly when subjected to heat. As soon as the materials are melted, pour the liquid Into cold water, then pull and work it like molasses candy, rolling It Into sticks 1 inches in diameter and six Inches long. When properly made, the wax has a good grain, Is tough and of a light yellowish white color. TO CONTROL SCALE INSECTS Llme-Sulphur Spray, With Soluble Oils, Is Effective When Properly Applied, Says Ohio. Spraying fruit trees with lime-sulphur wash and with soluble oils con trolled San Jose scale when proprly applied, while powdered sulphur com pounds gave promising results In ex perimental tests conducted by ento mologists of the Ohio Experiment sta tion. Cure-alls were unsuccessful. Little difference In effectiveness was noted between home-bolled lime-sulphur and the commercial form mixed with seven parts of water and applied in early spring. Soluble oils, mixed with 15 parts of water, are also recommended. Get Good Tools. It is always best to purchase good garden tools In the beginning, although they are more expensive, because they are usually cheaper in the long run and save time and labor. Top-Working Trees. Plan to do some top-weilng this spring. This is a good way to get re-, turns from unproductive trees that are thrifty. , Bartlett Leads All. Among pears, the Bartlett leads all.