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THE CKLIXA DEMOCRAT. CELIXA. OHIO
Zeekrugge Raid Told By Commanding Officer Superhuman Work in Face of Whirlwind of Fire and Heroic Attack of Storming Party Graphically Described Block Ships Still in Position Sealing the Navigable Channel Into Canals Keyes in Charge. Loudon. Au official Interview with tne of ilu commanding oiluers of '"' Ztebrugge raid gives for tlir first lime some lilra of tin trememloi-s, In tricate schemes ihnt must lie devised for modern nuvnl operations, kiu-Ii ns bottling up tlif Zeehruggo submarine base. While ltu inline of the officer who gave the Interview iiiny. not be used, t.ir obvious reasons, the study wild arranged with the permission of the tlrst sen lord. Sir Ko;lyn Weniyss, nnd through the courtesy of Sir Ioiig Ins Brownrlgg. ehlef nnviil censor. The spectacular story of the raid; the j'lmost superhuman work done In the luce of a whirlwind of lire, and the heroic iittack of the storming pnrty scrambling over the Mole were nil placed by the British ollicer as mere Incitlcntnls in the tremendous assault that was determined upon. 'The problem that lay before us," lie said, "was far bigger nnd (.-renter than the landing on the Mole, or liny lucre spectacular features. It was vastly different from merely sending one or more ships into a harbor pro tected by shore batteries, because the chnnncl to be blocked was narrow, and a ship or ships must be placed carefully to make the effort success ful. Moreover, the waters through which the vessels must dash were un der the protection of heavy tuns which commanded the sea practically for 15 miles out from the coast. Dash Under Cover. "This meant that the vessels, with 4he block ships, must arrange their oasli under cover for 15 miles. And then, having run the coast batteries, they must run dose to a heavy but- the attention ,f the Mole batteries be fore the block ships arrived In the vi cinity, and In the lutter onse to keep them diverted until after the blocking ships had arrived at their destination. Use Special Storm Parties. "The German garrison in the Mole was believed in consist of about one thousand men. K wus decided to storm the Mole with special storm par ties Immediately prior to the arrival of the blocking ships. The ncecsNity of holding the Mole for a certain length of time would also provide opportunity to carry out a certain amount of de structive work on Die Mole. The pos sibility of rc-cnforccmcnrs coming from the shore end and preventing the storming party from attaining their object was to be countered by cutting the Mole off from shore by blowing up the railway viaduct. "The Mole is n mile nnd n half long nnd 80 yards wide. On the outer side It Is flanked by n wall. .10 feet high. Five feet below the top of this wall Is a narrow gangway or parapet running the whole length of tin- Mole, with an Iron handrail on its Inner side. From the pnrupet there N a Itl-foot drop to the Mole proper. The Inner side of the Mole Is fitted to allow shins berthlm? alongside; whereas It probably was never considered thnt any ships would wish to berth along the other side. The ships carrying the storming party could not go along the Inner side of the Mole without passing close to the Mole batteries, and thereby risking the cer tainly of being sunk. "Therefore It was necessary for these vessels to be secured alongside the parapet of the Mole, and for the storm parties to climb over the HO-foot wall ONE-LEGGED NEWSBOY :; f SUCCESS AT RECRUITING :: St, Louis. K. S. Phillip, n newsboy of this city, lion one leg nnd one heart Iwth for the United States. Ills heart was strong enough to go Into the ftrniv tint tils otie-lci-'L'eilneSS has kept him out. Phillips, - t daunted, turned himself to what he thought was the best way tie I could help, and has sent 7.ri(i legs Into the army, according to re- ,'. eruiting olllcera here, who say j; he Induced '178 ellglhlea to Join ,'. the marine corps. J 5!, B .ui Id hsfi Mo T" i tery on the Mole, located practically a down to the parapet, and thence over mile out In the harbor, and which could fire practically point blank nt hi vessels. And then, of course, also under cover of the near shore bat teries of t hi Mole and the heavier toast batteries, making another run of 15 miles. The German mine fields also had to be encountered "Various elements had to be taken Into consideration. Naturally the cash must be made at high tide There was only one way in which wo could hope to protect the vessel If the raid were made by daylight, and that was a smoke screen. But air planes, scouting above, would lay a lleet open to observation and to prac tically the same attack by indirect fire a on land. So the dash had to bo made nt night, and on such a night ns the tide would be high at about midnight, for the ships must go in, do their destruction, and then omne out again before the shore batteries would have the daylight to help them. "There were something like 150 guns on the shore commanding the 15 inile radius. If these discovered the vessels none of the ships could have l'ved through the falling shells. As the batteries ull had the use of searchlights nnd star shells It became necessary to take measures to pre vent the ships being seen by any method of illumination until the Inst moment. Thnt necessitated the use of smoke screens. A smoke screen is rery Utile use unless It approaches with you; thns you must always have the wind blowing In your direction of advance. In our case it was from the north. The use of any craft to make .moke would not be of much avail unless they could approach the coast ir.nklng smoke to the last minute. This necessitated light draft vessels, and thev in turn required calm weather. Details to Be Worked Out "So the conditions necessary de manded high water occurring nt a 1 articular period of the night, wind blowing directly into the harbor, calm weather and, of course, no fog, for the latter would prevent the blocking ships from finding the coast. "Having attained these, there still were other matters to be worked out. For the blocking ships to find their destination It was quite obvious that '.hey must be able to see for a certain distance, say for a mile or two at least. And this means thnt the mo ment the entrance to the canal was In the same area of clear atmosphere with the blocking ships, namely, dur ing the final run in. the shore bat teries on the const line also would be n the clear weather and able to con centrate on the blocking ships, much tc their detriment. "This applied both to Zeebrugge and Ostend, where the German bnt terics are on the actual const line. But nt Zeebrugge there was the ad ditional obstruction which Is absent at Ostend the Mole. "The Mole at Zeebrugge extends rather more than three-quarters of a mile from the entrance of the canal. and the outer end of the Mole had been turned into a veritable fortress. The position of the navigable channel leading to the canal entrance was such that the ships were forced to pa close to the batteries on the Mole, and it was too much to hope that they would be iilile to do this and puss inside these batteries and then meet the full blast of the shore batteries without being sunk before reaching the canal. It therefore became clear that it would be necessary either to destroy or to divert the handrail and dron 10 feet to the Mole before they could attack the Mole batteries or carry out their destructive work. Went Like Clock Work. "The operation went like clock work The Vindictive, Iris and ruffodll pro ceeded alongside the Mole in spite of a heavy tire from the Mole batteries. The arrival was at one minute past midnight. April 22-21, and the storm party disembarked on the Mole imme diately. The Daffodil, pushing the Vin dictive alongside the Mole, enabled this to be done. Because of the rough ness of the sea the Iris had difllculty In securing to the wall, and finally went alongside the Vindictive with the in tention of disembarking her men over that ship. "The Oruv ns appear to have been taken completely by surpYiso. Imme diately that they had heard the ap proach of the vessels they fired manv hundreds of star shells. But the smoke screens prevented the enemy from dis cerning the nature of the attack until It was too late. An old submarine, fit ted with explosives, had run Into and secured herself under the viaduct, and had been blown up after the crew had escaped in a sninll dinghy. This ter rific explosion in their rear, the attack of the storm party In their miitst, nnd the general confusion which must have reigned amongst them, were probably the cause of the Germans not noticing the approach of the block shrps. These lutter pass-d close around the end of the Mole and made direct for the canal entrant. The lending ship, II. M. S. Thetis, wns heavily engaged by the shore batteries, but although in a sink ing condition managed to direct the other two vessels toward their desti nation. The Thetis herself struggled on, and finally sank very close off the canal entrance and right across the fairway. The Intrepid and the Iphe genla proceeded into the canal en trance and sank in the positions or dered by blowing out their bottoms by mines especially placed for the pur pose. Motor launches had followed in after the three blocking ships nnd under terrific fire from almost point blank range they went around the Sunk en vessels nnd took off the crews. Th rescue work was so magnificently lur ried out that practically none of the crews of the three block ships were lost. Still In Position. "All three block ships nro still In po sition, after three and a half months, and the navigable channel Into the canals remains sealed. The difllculty of placing a ship across the channel In broad daylight and without oppo sit Ion Is considerable, so how the com manding oflicers of these ships man aged to sink them so successfully al most passes comprehension. "The escape of the officers and men from the wrecks was well carried out. The Intrepid alone carried nearly 90 men and not a single man fell Into Ger man hands, although, as has been said before, this blocking operation tomk place very nearly one mile Inside the batteries of the Mole, and two of the block ships were actually Inside the shore line. "When it was considered that suf ficient time had elased for the block ing ships to do their work and for the crews to be rescued the order was giv en to the storming parties to retlro from the Mole. Whilst the Vindictive and her consorts were actually along side they were comparatively safe from lire except in the case of the upper works which rose above the Mole. The big funnels and mast of the Vindictive hail been riddled through and through, and many casualties were caused by lawns fuvWv Wo By KnbEKtH-MnwItnr. Uncle Sam Is Providing Moneu But After War Buildings Will Revert to the Communities 1 1 EN the rnlted States entered the war and orders for goods of every description began to pour Into indus trial plants on a huge scale, the first cry of the manufacturers was for men. Whether skilled or unskilled, there was work for them. In order to attract as inauy as possible, wages were ialsed to a 1 m o s t un it r e c e d e u t ed height s. Mechanics be gan to draw from s to $15 a day. High wages served the purpose of obtaining labor, immediately a new problem arose. Workmen c.inie, but went away again. The out put of factories was below what It should have been Hying splinters. As soon as the order j "ml it was difficult to nialn to retire wus given the storm parties tain quality. This was due re-embarked. Some had been killed, to the fact that as fast as several severely wounded, nnd yet out 1 the factories raised wages V-'- : S' -w 1 JM of about four hundred men who had stormed the Mole less than a score were left behind, In spite of Hie 10 foot climb till 'be ladder onto the parapet. "There must have been many mis of great gallantry to enable men who could not walk to he carried back oil board amidst heavy fire of the light guns on the Mole nnd shell fire from the shore batteries, which had com menced to shell their own Mole as soon as they discovered It was in our possession. Small Craft Tak Part. "It: was fully realized that immedl. ately the ships shoved off the Mole they would ome under the concen trated fire of every battery that could bear. H. M. S. Iris, on leaving the Vindictive, was severely hit and suf fered many casualties, but the Vin dictive herself and the Daffodil bore charmed lives. All three ships retired to the northward whilst emitting smoke clouds to cover their retreat. 'In addition to the vessels alrendy mentioned, a large number of small crnft took part in the operation, and It can safely he said that any failure on the part of n ,.tngle unit might have prevented the success of the whole expedition. Smnll motor boats steamed up and down close off the shore batteries, as It were, treating the latter with uttr contempt. Destroy ers supported 'he small crnft, bombard, ed the enemy batteries and assisted In rescue worf. with equal contempt of danger. "Vice Admiral Keyes directed the whole operation, which 'lad been pre pared nftder his own supervision, from II. M. fc. Warwick, and did not leave the senile of operations until the last of tx blocking ships' crews hud been recovered. The spirit and determina tion vith w hich he hnd imbued all his ofllrafrs and men and his great quality of leadership made success as near a certainty as possibly could be done. 4Kvery ollicer nnd man who took part i,i this operation consequently had put o sea with absolute confidence that success would be attained. A coin, plete success was attained, nnd more complete wns it than could ever have been hoped when the undertaking first came up for consideration." he (Ml not linger hiring 0,(XNI men RAILWAY ADMINISTRATION SHIP FLAG . "wi fcBWitlli,llll M) igMiiMiiiiiinnnr.i iiatjiiwaMriitnraMiiiiiii Luiiniirtiiii h' '"'"" V'a"ta'""-,il,aillll IMI(tlitiM i( r-3.M,i.';F4YH Director General McAdoo has selected this flag to be flown by nil the vessels operated by the United States railroad administration. The letters are In blue ou a white field with a red border. WOMEN CHAINED TO GUNS Germans Force Them to Fight Against Their Will, Siys Hospital Man. I'ittsburgh, I'a. That German wom en have been chained to machine guns and imide to tight against their will Is the testimony of John II. .Newell of the Held lio-jiltul coips. who followed the American soldiers In the Alstm Murnc salient. "A number of the boys came into headquarters today," be writes, "tell ing how badly some of their comrades felt when they found after charging and capturing a number of machine guns they discovered thnt they had shot German women who had been chained to the guns and hud to fight." Thief Gets Hot Meal. St. Louis. Supper wns waiting when a burglar brolte into the home of Ed ward Daly, this city. He helped him self to It piping hot and Inviting and to Jewels worth $100. Mosquitoes Infest Alaska. Fairbanks, Alaska. Mosquitoes are so thick In interior Alaska this season that moose and caribou hve fled from the hills to the lakes and rivers to rid themselves of the pests. Natives trav eling In boats are. compelled to keep to the middle of the streams and lakes to uvold the mosquitoes along the shore One of the longest submarine ca bleu In the world Is to be laid bo tween Adon and Hong-Kong at i oos of $3,000,000 landlords raised rents. If a man was earning .$10 u day and was obliged to iiay nearly that much for a de cent place In which to iiv long. .Some- factories were a year in order to maintain n force of 1,000. j Then I'ncle Sam stepped In and went Into the j town-building business. An appropriation of $100, j 000,000 was made for emerjcwicy wartime housing, j nnd while that was only u starter It was sufficient j to provide shelter for nhoflt 150,000 persons. More money has been asked and it doubtless will be I forthcoming. ! In the beginning I'ncle Sam made a mistake. His first idea wus to provide temporary barracks, something on the order of those at the army can tonments. But in the case of the ship workers he found out thv.t 00 per cent of them are married, fcnd their wiF?s and children objected to living in bunk houses. Moreover, temporary houses, while costing within 10 per cent of us much as perma nent ones, are a total loss within a few years. So he decided to make these towns permanent. As a result, fie Is now covering whole square miles of vacant Countryside with pretty little houses, boarding pltices, stores, theaters, churches, paved treets and all utilities. He has at his service the best town planners and architects In America. And with alt the haste that Is being made, beauty and good taste are not being sacrificed. The houses wi!l not all be alike In color, material or atyle. On Ihe contrary, throughout each of these paclou, 3umless tracts, will be evidence that the thing wns planned as a whole that this street Was cunvM on purpose, because a curved street is prettlrr than a straight one that yonder church was pvt squarely across the end of th park be-" cause it would look well there. The eye will un consciously start a vain search for eyesores, blank Fide walls, billboards and disorder. The chief benefit which accrues to the worker from tin building of these towns Is the fact that landlordism Is to be u thing unknown. The bene fits are to go unfailingly to the workers. Bents must be based on cost and not on the maximum which the tenants can be forced to pay. And Inasmuch as Uncle Sam has no desire to retain the ownership after the war, he has evolved a scheme to sell them, not to individuals, but to the communities as a whole, to be held in trust as commuuUy property. Each such town will be, at the start, at least, in the complete possession of a local housing com pany composed of and partially financed by public spirited business men of the vicinity. They put up 20 per cent of the money nnd they get the other 80 per cent on first mortguge from the United States labor department or from the shipping board, each of which has $o0,000,(Xl0 given them by congress this spring for Just this purpose. In lending money to local housing companies in congested communities, the government lays down the stipulation that dividends shall be forever lim ited to 5 per cent annually even after the govern ment's mortgage Is paid off. Any excess income must be re-expended upon the property or else eliminated by lowering the rents. The part of the rent thnt would ordinarily go to landlords' profits will go to pay off the government's mortgage at the rote of 2 or 3 per cent a year. The mortguge Is for ten years, and at the end of thnt time enough presumuhly will be paid off to enable the govern inent to say : "Go get a private mortgage to pay off the balance." Then if the local housing company has not mean while sold off any of the houses the town will substantially own itself, subject to mortguge. For Its rents will be based purely on costs of capital and service. The private capital, limited to 5 per cnt return, Is practically a second mortgage. One of the i'irst government loans made to the new vil lage at Newport News provided that DO per cent of the private capital Is to be amortized nnd re tired. Normally the private capital owns equity, Including the part of Uie cost which hits been amortized nnd the unearned Increment, the size of which, is more or less problematical, but It can't do anything with this treasure except redistribute the annual proceeds therefrom among the people In the form of a rebate on rents or in communal services, preferably the latter. TWAi ATWAfOffmS ago cwwv cmrsjt or mr tomy At normal rentals, tl.e revenues of such a com munity will be far greater than ordinary taxes. For while houses depreciate, land neither rots nor wears, and such a town will be In effect owner of all Its underlying land. The Utopia of the single taxers Is achieved by virtue of the fact that the own was caught young and started right with no land boom nllowed! The town will be In the posi tion of having bought ilself nt cost without let ting anybody pocket profits on the rising values. Perhaps the most remarkable example of Uncle Sam's ability as a town builder Is Vorkship, near Camden, N. J., designed to serve employees of the New York Shipbuilding corporation. This town, where 10,000 of Uncle Sam's shipworkers will live while they are making ships with which to beat Germany, might almost be said to have been built overnight. Starting work early In the summer, j.000 houses will be ready for occupancy in Octo ber, and another thousand will follow within a few months. Some idea of the speed employed In the work is indicated by the fact that one group of live workmen's houses wns put up from founda tion to roof In JiO hours. While putting up a thousand houses in a few n.onths is an amazing feat In itself. It becomes more so when it Is understood that the buildings of Vorkship are to be things of beauty, embodying all that Is attractive In our old Colonial style of architecture, and at the same time up to date In everything. In short, it will be a town that will give the workers new zest for Ihe morrow's work when they troop home of an evening. Speed, practicality nnd simplicity, but the best of everything, was the gist of the government's in structions, and these instructions are being fol lowed to the letter. At the same time there isn't i trace of paternalism in the government's atti tude toward the workmen. Uncle Sam simply wanted to show them thnt he fully appreciates what they are doing for him. The town of Vorkship will occupy a site of 110 acres, 100 of which are now being developed. The main feature of the town plan Is a central square, about .'i(HI feet on each side, from which the major streets radiate. Around the central square three story buildings have been erected, with stores on the first floor and apartments above. The west side of the square opens upon a broad green, or common, 125 feet wide and 450 feet long, which Is Hanked at its farther end by church sites apd terminated by a site for a school or library on tin axis. From the north side of the central square a broad boulevard leads out toward New creek, con necting with a bridge and main connecting road to the shipyards. Burks and playgrounds are also liberally provided for. Streets are laid out, for the most part, with a width of 50 feet, with road ways IS feet wide, gruss strips il feet 0 Inches wide, and sidewalks 4 feet wide. A few streets of creator width where there will be n concentration of traffic have been provided, while alleys of u 10-foot width are provided on the interior of all blocks. The plan for Vorkship is perhaps the most com plete town plan ever made. Every house is com plete; it bus hot and cold wuter systems, modern plumbing, up-to-date plumbing fixtures, gas range, hot-water heater, electric light nnd celjur furnace. Most of the houses are of brick, with a few stone, stucco, or frame. The majority have shite roofs. The order for brick for Vorkship is said to have been the largest single order of Its kind ever given. The brick used came from seven different iminu fecturers and Is varied as to color, etc., so thnt the aspect of the village will not be nt all monot onous. In fact, the architect has consistently aimed at avoiding monotony. Starting as he did on virgin land the site of Yorkshlp before he went to work on it looked like nn ideal golf course It wns out of the question to run up houses in unsightly rows, us if in a city. On the other hnnd, Individual houses would have been too expensive.. The prob lem that confronted him, therefore, was to pro duce dwellings nt a minimum cost and yet make them as attractive as the nature of the plan demanded. In solving this problem, the architect evolved a lim ited number of units of architectural design and re pented them In large num bers through the village, but In such groupings anil re groupings ns to obtain n considerable variety and Interest. These group houses are for several families of workers from two to five families In a group. When It Is considered that it was necessary to design l!5ft actual structures in a pe riod of four weeks and nt Ihe same time bear In mi nil that the structures had to be so varied in design ns to be attractive, Ihe difllculty of the task will be better understood ami appreciated. To get the needed variety nnd yet conform t ihi general plan, the architect bit Uxm the unique Idea of having small-scale drawings made ou pieces of cardboard for different parts of a house one for the middle, one for the right corner, one for the left, etc. By Combining these slips like chil dren's picture blocks so as to form n whole group house, a surprising variety of combinations was obtained. As soon ns particularly attractive com binations were made they were photographed, and it Is these selected combinations which will appear again and again at Yorkship when the village is completed, yet they will be so arranged us to cause no monotony of effect. In addition to the varied types of houses, I hero v.ere also developed about a dozen different types of porches. Then In order to add still further ut ihe variety, a gable roof was designed for. one group of houses, n flat roof for another, n roof like the ones in the old (Vdnnlnl houses of Salem, Mass., for still another, and so on. No less than seven different kinds of roofing materials have been em ployed, includt'jg a new one which gives an inter esting effect as of an :!d-fashioned rlb!ed copper or red tin roof, and does it so successfully that it takes an expert to tell the difference. Towns such as Yorkshlp undoubtedly will have mi excellent effect on our wvrhrs. As an antidote 10 liolshevlsm they should prove m;'t efficacious. 11 is impossible to Imagine nny man bei.-g discon tented when his government is mobilizing t"e best talent in the country to provide for his comfort. At the offices of the Emergency Fleet corporuliim there are acres of desks at which the best housing expert: In the country tire busily enguged in evolv ing the best of housing plans. The architectural profession is being combed for town planners, and the government Is looking ull the time for thti most distinguished engineers nnd the men most learned 1c public utilities, and employing them ut no more than a living wage to give the worker every comfort tuid all the beauty of home stir" roundinga that can possibly be obtained. To lllu trate how this Is all being done nt a low cost un known before, It may be stated that architect! employed on such work are charging only one sixth of the fees which they would charge under ordinary ''ondilious In times of peace. May Festivities The May of merrie England, before the Puritan blight fell uiKin the land, is n thing of joyous mem ory. It vecalls the maypole with its attendant maidens dancing about it, doing homuge to their queen of the May. Even Puritanism did not en tirely put an end to these eclebrutions, for the May festival survived here and there, and was even transplanted to New England by certain recal citrants, as tin; chronicles of Morton at Merry mount testify. May festlvuls have been held In many New Eng land town all the way down toward the present lime, and the custom bus not yet wholly died out. TICKLED TO DEATH. In the camp they have all sorts of siwrts, ulso movies at night. A young lady, after looking over the camp, was heard to remark, "The government sure tries to make the boys happy." "Yes, nty last suit of underwear just tickled me to death." aid nn old timer, grinning. Chi cago Tribune. HIS IDEA. "Do you know the. seven wonders of the world?" "No, but I know three." "Only thre7" ' "Yes; I've only been married three times." GLEANED PIECEMEAL FROM NEAR AND FAR For motor fire apparatus a nonskld cushion Are has been invented thot resembles two round tires set close to gether and with the sides of the groove tuinrked with staggered Indentations. One of the last of Germany's famous bells to go Into the muultions melting pot was the eo callod "Kaiser bell" roni Cologne cathedral. It was the .'ccMt church bell In all Germany, tHnc; J0 tons. For use in small rooms a bed has been Invented that can be hoisted In to a celling recess when empty, a panel descending and covering the opening in the celling when it Is lowered. The state supreme court has ruled that where a Colorado employer sends a worker outside the state as part of his employment, and the worker is killed, dependents can collect compen sation benefits. Because of the great distress among Germnn war sufferers dependent on pensions, owing to the depreciation of money, the imperial committee has Suggested special allowances be mude in addition to the war pensions. To prevent the formation of wrinkles around the eyes a German has invent ed a resilient band to be worn around a person's head, terminating hi ud bcslTO ends that draw the flosh back. A cuke, four feet In diameter, one? foot high and weighing 00 pounds' wns Bent recently from New York to Purls to be Utfrved nt a Y. M. -C. A. dinner for 2,400 soldiers. Charles Currier is the last of a, group of aged persons who lived on ad jacent farms In Warner, N. M. Tna oldest of the five attained a century aud the youngest lived to the age ot ninety-two years, sis cxraths, '