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The Eaton Democrat. (Eaton, Ohio) 1875-1903, December 09, 1875, Image 1

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The School Question Discussed.
Our Relations with Spain.
The Condition of Cuba.
To tkt SautU 9i Smut of RepraentaiirtM :
On submitting my seventh annual
message to Congress, in this centennial
year of our national existence as free
and independent people, it affords me
great pleasure to recur to the advance
ment that has been made from the time
of the colonies, one hundred years ago.
We were then a people numbering three
millions;' now we number more than
forty millions. Their industries were
confined almost exclusively to the
tillage of the soil; now, manufactures
apsorb much of the labor of the country.
Our liberties remain unimpaired. The
bondsmen have been freed from slavery.
We have become possessed of the respect,
if not the friendship of all civilized na
tions. Our progress has been great. In
all the arts, in science, commerce, navi
gation, mining, mechanics, law and in
general education,, the progress, is like
wise encouraging. Our thirteen States
have become thirty-eight, including
Colorado, which . has taken . the
steps to become a State, and
eight territories, including the Indian
Territory and Alaska, and excluding
Colorado and Nebraska territories, ex
tending from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
On the south, we have extended to the
Gulf of Mexico, and on the west, from
the Mississippi to the Pacific. One hun
dred years ago the cotton gin, the steam
ship, the railroad, the tlegraph, the
, reaping, sewing and modern printing
machines, and numerous other inven
tions of scarcely less value to our busi
ness and' happiness, were entirely un
known at home and abroad.
From the fall of Adam for his trans
gression to the present day no nation has
ever been free from threatened dangers
to its prosperity and happiness. We
should look to the dangers threatening
us, and remedy them so far as lies in our
power. We are a Republic whereof one
man is aa good as another before the
law. Under such a form of government
it is of the greatest importance that all
should be possessed of education and in
telligence enough to cast a vote with a
right understanding of its meaning.
A large association of ignorant men
can not for any considerable period op-
. pose a successful resistance to tyranny
as oppression from fie educated few will
inevitably sink into acquiesence to the
will of intelligence, whether directed by
the demagogues or by priestcraft. Hence
the education of the mass becomes of the
first necessity for the preservation of our
institutions. They are worth preserving,
because they have secured the greatest
good to the greatest proportion of the
population of any form of government
yet devised. All other forms of govern
ment approach it just in proportion to
the general- diffusion of education and
independence of and action.
Aa a primary step, therefore, to our
advancement in all that his marked
our progress in the past century, I sug
gest for your earnest consideration, and
most earnestly recommend it, that a con
stitutional amendment be submitted to
the Legislatures of the several States for
ratification, making it the duty of each
of the several States to establish and
forever maintain free, public schools
adequate to - the education of all the
children, in the rudimentary branches,
within their respective limits, irrespect
ive of sex, color, birthplace or religions,
forbidding the teaching in said schools
of religion, atheistic or pagan, and pro
hibiting the granting of any school
funds, or school taxes, or any part there
of, either by legislative, municipal, or
other authority, for the benefit of any
other object of any nature or kind what
ever. ," , .
In connection with'- this important
question I would alsecall your attention
to the importance of correcting an evil
that, if permitted tocontinne, will prob
ably lead to great trouble in our land
before the close of the nineteenth cen
tury. It is the accumulation of vast
amounts of untaxeet church property of
the United States which paid no tax,
municipal or .State, amounting to about
In 1776 manufactures scarcely existed
even in name, in this vast territory ; in
1870 more than two- millions of persons
were employed in manufactories, pro-'
during more than $2,100,000,000 of pro
duce in amount annually, nearly equal
to onr national debt. From nearly the
whole of the population of 1776 being
engaged in the one occupation of agri
culture, in 1870 so numerous and diver
sified had become the occupations of our
people that less than six millions, oat of
forty millions, were so engaged. The
extraordinary effect produced in our
country by a resort to such occupations
has built a market for the products of
fertile lands distant frern the seaboard
and the markets of the world. The
American system of working various and
extensive manufacture s,next to the plow
and the pasture, and adding connecting
railroads and steamboats, has produced
in our distant country a result not equal
ed by the intelligent parts of other na
tions. The ingenuity and skill of
'American mechanics have been demon
strated. In 1860 the amount had doubled. In
1875 it is about $1,000,000,000. By 1900
without check it is safe to say this prop
erty will reach a sum exceeding $3,000,
000,000. ': So vast a sum receiving all the
protection -and benefits of the Govern
ment without bearing its proportion of
the burdens and expenses of. the same
will not be looked upon with acquiesence
by those who have paid taxes. In a
growing country where real estate en
hances so rapidly with time, as in the
United States, there is scarcely a limit to
the wealth that may be acquired by it if
allowed to retain real estate without tax
ation. The contemplation of so vast a
property as is here alluded to, without
taxation, may lead to sequestration
without constitutional authority and
through blood. I would suggest the
taxation of all property equally , whether
" " wnjwauyu! exempting only
the last resting place of the dead, and
possibly, with proper restrictions, church
edifices. . .
Our relations with most of the Foreign
Powers continues on a satisfactory and
friendly footing. In colossal enterprises,
the extension of our commerce and the
cultivation of mutual interests, we have
improved our relations with the large
majority of the powers of the world, ren
dering' practicable the peaceful solution
of the questions, which from time to
time arise, leaving few which demand
extended or particular notice. The cor
respondence of the Department of State
with our diplomatic representatives
abroad is transmitted herewith. I am
happy to announce the passage of an act
by the General Cortes of Portugal, pro
claimed since the adjournment of Con-
l. G. gould, Publisher. MM to the Interests of the Democratic Party, anfl the Cflllgctioyf Local awl General News. Terms, $1.50 per Annum, in AdTance. .
: : 1 : . .
gress, for the abolition of servitude in
the Portuguese colonics. It is to be
hoped that such legislation may be an
other step toward the great consumma
tion to be reached when no man shall be
permitted, directly or indirectly, under
any guise, excuse, or form of law, to hold
his fellow-man in bondage. I am of
opinion, also, that it is the duty of the
United States, as contributing toward
that end, and required by the spirit of
the law of the land in which we
live to provide by suitable legisla
tion, that no citizen of the United
States shall hold slaves as property in
any other territory, or be interested
therein. -
Chili has made reparation in the case
of the whaleship Good Return, seized
without sufficient cause upwards of forty
years ago, though she had hitherto de
nied her accountability. The denial was
never acquiesced in by the Government,
and the justice of the claim has been so
earnestly contended for that it has been
gratifying that she should have at last
acknowledged it. As arbitrator in the
case of the United States steamer Mon
tijo, for the seizure and detention of
which the Government of the United
States of Columbia was held account
able, has decided in favor of the claim.
This decision has settled a question which
has been pending for several years and
which, while it continued open, might
more or less disturb the good under
standing which it ia desirable should be
maintained between the Republics. A
reciprocity treaty with the King of the
Hawaiian Islands was concluded some
months ago.- As it contains a stipulation
that it shall not go into eflect until Con
gress shall enact the proper legislation
for the purpose, copies of the instrument
are herewith submitted in order that if
such should be the pleasure of Congress,
the necessary legislation upon the sub
ject may be adopted.
in March last an arrangement was
made through Mr. Cushing, our Minister
in Madrid, with the Spanish Govern
ment for the payment by the latter to
the United States of the sum of eighty
thousand dollars in coin for the purpose
of the relief of the families and persons
of the ship's company, and certain pas
sengers of the Virginius. This sum was
to have been paid in three installments
at two months each. It is due to the
Spanish Government that I should state
tbat the payments were fully and speed
ily anticipated by that Government, and
that the whole amount was paid within
but a few days more than two months
from the date of agreement, a copy of
which is herewith transmitted. In pur
suance of the t.-rms of adjustment, I
have directed the distribution or the
amount among the parties entitled there
to, including the ship's company, and
such of the passengers as were American
citizens. Payments are made accord
ingly on application 01 tne parties en-
titled thereto.
No evidence is furnished of an ap
proaching end of the ruinous conflict
which has been racing for seven years in
the neighboring island of Cuba, The
same disregard ot tne laws ot civilized
warfare and of the just demands of hu
manity which have heretofore called
forth expressions of condemnation from
the nations of Christendom have con
tinued to blacken the sad scene. Deso
lation, ruin and pillage are pervading
the rich fields of one of the most fertile
and productive regions of the earth ; and
t.lin incendinrv's torch, firinir plantations
and valuable factories and buildings, is
the agent marking alternate advance or
retreat of contending parties. The pro
tracted continuance of the strife seri
ously affects the interests of all com
mercial nations, but those of the United
States more than' others by reason of
close proximity, its larger trade and in
tercourse with Cuba, and frequent and
intimate personal and social relations
which have grown up between its citi
zens.and those of the island; and, more
over, the property of ourcitizensinCuba
is lArtra And ia rendered insecure and de
preciated in value and in capacity of pro;
auction by the continuance of the strife
and the unnatural mode of its conduet
The same is trne, differing only in de
gree, with respect to the interest and
people ot the other nations, and tne ar
sence of any reasonable assurance of a
near termination of the conflict must, ot
necessity, soon compel the States thus
suffering to consider what the interests
of their people, and their duty toward
themselves, may demand.
I had hoped that Spain would be en
abled to establish peace, in ber colony, to
afford security to the property and the
interests of our citizens, and to allow a
legitimate hope to trade and commerce,
and the natural productions of the Isl
and. Because of this hope, and of an
extreme reluctance to interfere in the
most remote manner in the affairs of an
other and. friendly nation, especially of
one whose sympathy and friendship in
the struggling infancy ot our own exist
ence must ever be remembered with
gratitude, I have patiently and anxious
ly waited tne progiess ol events, uur
own civil conflict is too recent for us not
to consider the difficulties which sur
round a government distracted by a dy
nastic rebellion at home, at the same
time that it has to cope with a separate
insurrection in a distant colony. But
Lwhatever causes may have produced the
situation which so grievously anects our
interests with all its attendant evils op
erating directly upon this country and
its people,' thus far all the resorts of
Spain have proved abortive, and time
has marked no improvement in the situ
ation. The armed bands of either side
now occupy nearly the same ground as
in the past, with the difference, from
time to time, of more lives sacrificed,
property destroyed, wider extents of fer
tile and productive fields, and more val
uable property constantly and wantonly
sacrificed to the incendiaries of each.
- It consists of this nature, where a con
siderable body of people who have at
tempted to free themselves of the control
of the superior government, have reached
such a point in the occupation of terri
tory, in pewer, and in general organiza
tion, as to constitute in fact a body
politic having a government in substance
as well as in name, possessed of the ele
ments of stability and equipped with
the machinery for the administration of
internal policy and tne execution ot its
laws, and prepared and able to adminis
ter justice at home as well as in its deal
ings with other powers, it is within the
province of those other powers to recog
nize its existence, as a new and independ
ent nation, and in such cases other
nations simply deal with an actually ex
isting coudition of tiling", and recognize
as one of the powers of the earth that
body politic which, posses-ang the neces
sary elements, has in fact become now a
power. In a word, the creation ot a new
State is a fact. To establish the con
dition of Hunt's essential to the recog
nition of this fact there must be a people
occupying a known territory, united
under some known and defined form of
Government, acknowledged by those
subject thereto, in which the functions of
Government are administered Dy tne
usual methods, competent to mete out
justice to citizens and strangers, to atlord
remedies for public and for private
wrongs, and able to assume the relative
international obligations, and capable of
performing the corresponding inter
national duties resulting from its acquis
ition of the rights of sovereignty and
power, should exist complete in its or
ganization, ready to take, and able to
maintain, its place among the nations of
tne earth.
While conscious that the insurrection
in Cuba has shown a strength and endur
ance which make it at least doubtful
whether it be in the power of Spain to
subdue it, it seems unquestionable that
no such civil organization exists which
may be recognized as an independent
government, capable of performing its
ubl gations and entitled to be treated as
one of the towers of the earth. A recog
nition "under such circumstances would
ba inconsistent with the facts, and would
compel the power giving it soon to sup
port bv force the government to which
it had really given its only real claim of
existence. In my judgment the United
States should adhere to the rules and the
principles which have heretofore been its
sure and safe guides in like contests be
tween revolted colonies and their mother
country, and acting only upon the clear
est evidence, should avoid any suspicion
of imputative recognition of the inde
pendence of Cuba, it being in my opinion
impracticable and indefensible.
'J he question which next presents it
self is that of recognition of belligerent
rights in the parties to the contest.
In a former message to Congress, I had
occasion to consider this question, and
reached the conclusion that the .conflict
in Cuba, dreadful and devastative as were
its incidents, did not rise to the fearful
dignity of war. Regarding it now, after
this lapse of time, I am unable to see that
any notable success of any marked or real
advance, on the part of the insurgents,
has essentially changed the character of
the contest. It has acquired greater age,
but not greater or more formidable pro
portions. It is possible that the acts of
foreign powers and even the acts of Spain
herself of this very nature, might be
pointed to in defense of such recogni
tions; but now, as in its past history, the
United States should carefully avoid the
false light which might lead it into the
mazes of doubtful law, and of questiona
ble propriety, and adhere rigidly and
steadily to the rule which has
been its guide, and doing only that which
is right and honest, and of good report
The question of according, or of with
holding the rights of belligerency mus
be judged in every case, in view of the
particular attending facts. Unless jus
tified by necessity, it is always aud
justly regarded as an unfriendly act, and
a gratuitous demonstration of moral sup
port to the rebellion. It is necessary,
and it is required, where the interests
and right of another Government, or of
its people, are so far affected by a pend
ing civil conflict as to require a definition
of its relations to the parties thereto ; but
this conflict must be one which will be
recognized, in the sense of international
law. As belligerence, too, is a fact, the
mere existence of contending armed
bodies, and their occasional conflicts, do
not constitute, war in the sense re
ferred to.
Applying the existing condition of
affairs in Cuba, the tests recognized by
Eublicists and writers on international
lw, and which have been observed by
nations of dignity, honesty and power,
when f.ee from sensitive, selfish or un
worthy motes, I fail to find in the insur
rection the existence of such a substan
tial political organization, real, palpable
and manifest to the world, having the
forms and capable of the ordinary func
tions of Government toward its own
people and to other States, with the
Courts for the administration of justice,
with a local habitation possessing such
organization of force, such material, such
ocVrpation of territory as to take the
contest out of the category of a mere
rebellious resurrection or occasional skir
mishes, and place it on the terrible foot
ing of war, to which a recognition of
belligerency would aim to elevate it.
The contest, moreover, is solely on lsnd.
The insurrection has not possessed itself
of a single seaport whence it may send
forth its flag, nor has it any means of
communication with foreign powers, ex
cept through the military lines of its
adversaries. No apprehension of any of
those sudden and difficult complications
which a war upon the ocean is apt to
precipitate upon the vessels, both com
mercial and national, and upon the con
sular officers of other powers, calls for
the definition of their relations to the
parties to the contest.
Considered as a question of expedien
cy, I regard the accordance ef belliger
ent rights to be as unwise and premature
as I regard it to be at present indefensi
ble. As a measure ot right, such recog
nition entails upon the country, according
the rights which flow from it difficult
and complicated duties and requires the
action from the contending parties of the
strict observance of their rights and
obligations. It confers the right of
search upon the high seas by vessels of
both parties. It would subject the
carrying of arms and munitions of war,
which now may be transported freely and
without interruption, in the vessels of the
United States to detention. Apart from
any question of theoretical right, I am
sitisrjed that, while the accordance
of belligerent rightsto the. Insurgents in
Cuba might give them a hope and
inducement to protract the struggle, it
would be but a delusive hope, and would
not remove the evils which this Govern
ment and its people are experiencing, but
would drag the United States into com
plications which it has waited long and
already suffered much to avoid.
The recognition of independence or
belligerency being thus, in mv judgment,
equally inadmissible, it remains to con
sider what course shall be adopted
should the conflict not soon be brought
to an end by the acts of the parties
themselves, and should the evils which
result therefrom, afflicting all nations.
and particularly the United States, con
tinue. In such event, I am of the opin
ion that other nations will be compelled
to assume tne responsibility which de
volves upon them, and to seriously con
sider the only remaining measures possi
ble. Owing, perhaps, ta the large expanse
of water separating the island from the
peninsula, the want of harmony and of
personal sympathy between the inhabit
ants of the colony and those sent thither
to rule them, and the want of adapta
tion of the ancient colonial system of
Europe to the present times, and to the
ideas which the events of the past cen
tury have developed, the contending
parties appear w nave, within them
selves, no depository of common con
fidence to suggest wisdom, when passion
and excitement have their sway, and to
assume the part of peacemaker. In this
view, in the early days of thecontest, the
good offices of the United States, as
a mediator, were intended in good faith
withtut any selfish purpose, in the inter
est of humanity and in sincere friendship
for both parties, but were at the time
declined by Spain, with the declaration,
nevertheless, that at some future time
they would be indispensable. No inti
mation has been received that, in the
opinion of Spiin, that time has been
reached; and yet the strife continues
with its dread horrors, and all its inju
ries to the interests of the United States,
and of other nations. Each party seems
quite capable of working great injuries
and damage to the other, as well as to all
the relations and interests dependent
upon the existence of peace in the island.
But they seem incapable of reaching any
adjustment, and both have thus far
failed of achieving any success whereby
one party shall possess and control the
island to the exclusion of the other.
These circumstances indicate that the
agency of others, either by mediation or
by intervention, seems to be the only al
ternative which must sooner or later be
invoked for the termination of the strife.
At the same time while thus impressed,
I do not recommend the adoption of any
measure of intervention. I shall be
ready at all times, and as the equal
friend, of both parties, to respond to a
suggestion tbat the good offices of the
United States will be an acceptable aid
in bringing about a peace honorable to
both. It is due to Spain, so far as this
Government is concerned, that the agency
of a third power, to which I have ad
verted, shall be adopted only as a last ex
pedient. Had it been the desire of the
United States to interfere in the affairs
of Cuba, repeated opportunities for so
doing have been presented within the
last lew years; but we have remained
passive and have performed our whole
duty and all international obligations to
Spain with friendly firmness and fidelity,
and with a spirit of patience and for
bearance which negatives every possible
suggestion of a desire to interfere or add
to the difficulties with which she has
been surrounded. The Government of
Spain has recently submitted to our
Minister af Madrid, certain proposals,
which may be found to be the basis, if
not the actual submission of terms to
meet the requirements of the particular
griefs of which this Government has felt
itself entitled to complain. These pro
posals have not yet reached me in their,
full text. On their arrival they will be
taken into careful examination, and it
may be hoped will lead to a satisfactory
adjustment of the question to which
they refer, and remove the possibilities
of future interference, such as have given
rise iu our jusi exjmpiainis.
It is understood, also, that renewed
offers are being made to introduce reform
in the internal administration of the
Island. I am persuaded, however, that a
iroper regard for the interests of the
Jnited States and of its citizens entitle
it to relief from the strain to which it
had been subjected by the difficulties of
the questions, and the wrongs which arise
from the contest in Cuba and that the
interests of humanity itself demand the
cessation of the strife before the whole
island shall be laid waste, and large
sacrifices of life be made.
I shall feel it mv duty, should mv hone
f a satisfactory adjustment, and of the
early restoration of peace and the re- I
moval ot future causes ot complaint be
most happily - dissipated, to make a
further communication to Congress, at
some period not far remote, and during
the present session.recommend what may
seem, to me, toie necessary to the favor
able consideration of Congress.
ine resident recommends, as the
powers of Europe have manifested a
friendly interest toward the United
States in joining in celebrating the Cen-
niai, that a more national importance be
given to this exhibition. .
Alter speaking of reports of sundry
boards of commission, the President con
tinues : In nearly every annual message
that I have had the honor of transmit
ting to Congress, I have called atten
tion to the fact that the free zone,
so-called, several years since estab
lished by the Mexican Government in
certain of the States of that republic
adjacent to our frontier, remains in full
operation. It has always been materially
injurious to honest traffic, for it operates
as an incentive to traders in Mexico, to
supply, without customs charges, the
wants ot the inhabitants on this side of
the line, and prevents the same wants
from being supplied by merchants of the
United States, thereby to a considerable
extent defrauding our revenue and
checking honest commercial enterprise.
isepreuauuns oy armea Danos irom
Mexico on the people of Texas, near the
frontier, continue. Though the main
object of the incursions is robbery, they
frequently result in the murder of un
armed and peaceably disposed persons,
and in some instances even the United
States post-offices and mail communica
tions have been attacked. Benewed re
monrtances upon this subject have been
addressed to the Mexican Government,
but without much apparent efTeet
the military lorce ot the government
disposable for service in that quarter, is
quite inadequate to effeotnally guard the
line even at those points where the in
cursions are usually made. An experi
ment of an armed lxat on the Rio Grande
for that purpose is on trial, and it is
hoped that it not thwated by the shallow
nets of the river and other natural ob
stacles, it may materially contribute to
the protection of the herdsmen of Texas.
The proceedings of the Joint Com
mittee, under the convention between
the United States and Mexico, of the 4th
of July, 1868, on the subject of claims,
will soon be brought to a close. The re
sult of those proceedings will then be
communicated to Congress.
I am happy to announce that the gov
ernment of Venezuela has, upon further
con "i deration, practically abandoned its
obj ction to pay the United States that
share of its revenue which, some years
since, it allotted toward the extinguish
ment of claims of foreigners generally.
In thus reconsidering its determination
that government has shown a iust sense
of self-respect, which can not fail to re
flect credit upon it in the eyes of all dis
interested persons elsewhere. It is to be
regretted that its payments on account
of claims of citizens of the United States
are still so meager in amount, and that
the stipulations of the treaty in regard to
the sums to be paid, and the periods
when these payments were to take
place, should have been so signally disre
garded. Since my last annual message the ex
change has been made of the ratification
of a treaty of commerce and navigation
with Belgium, and of conventions with
the Mexican Republic fer the further
extension of the Joint Commission re
specting claims; with the Hawaiian
Islands for commercial reciprocity, and
with the Ottoman Empire for "extra
dition, all of which have been duly proclaimed.
The Court of Commissioners of the
Alabama Claims has prosecuted its im
portant duties very assiduously and very
satisfactorily. It convened and was or
ganized on the 22d of July, 1867, and
by the terms of the act under which it
was created, was to exist one year from
that date. The act prevailed, however,
tbat should it be found impracti
cable to complete the work of
the Ceurt before the expiration
of the year, the President might,
by proclamation, extend the time of
its duration to a period not more than
six months beyond the expiration of the
one year. Having received satisfactory
evidence that it would be impracticable
to complete the work in the time origin
ally fixed, I issued a proclamation (a
copy of which is presented herewith),
extending the time of the duration
of the Court' for a period of six
months from and after the 22J day
of July last. A report made through
the Clerk of the Court, com
municated herewith, shows the
condition Jf the calendar on the first of
November last, and the large amount of
work which has been accomplished.
Thirteen hundred and eighty-two claims
have been presented, of which six hun
dred and eighty-two had been disposed
of at the date of the report. I am in
formed that one hundred and seventy
case3 were decided during the month ot
November. Arguments are being made
and decisions given in the remaining
cases with all the dispatch consistent
with proper consideration. The ques
tions submitted in many of these claims
are in behalf of mariners, or depend on
the evidence of mariners, whose absence
has delayed the taking of the necessary
evidence. It is represented to me that
it will be impracticable for the Court to
finally dispose of all the cases before it
within the present limits of its duration.
Justice to the parties claimant, who
have been at a large expense in prepar
ing their claims and obtaining the evi
dence in their support, suggests a short
ex tent ion to enable the Court to dis
pose of all of the claims which
Lave been presented. I recom
mend the legislation which may be
deemed proper to enable the Court to
complete the work before it. I recom
mend that some suitable provision be
made by the creation of a special court,
or by conferring the necessary jurisdic
tion upon some appropriate tribunal for
the consideration and determination of
the claims of aliens against the Govern
ment of the United States, which have
arisen within some reasonable time, or
which may hereafter arise, exclud
ing all claims barred by treaty pro
visions or otherwise. It has been
found impossible to give proper
consideration to those claims by the Ex
ecutive Department of the Government
Such a tribunal would afford an oppor
tunity to aliens other than British sub
jects to present their claims and accounts
of acts committed against their persons
or property during the rebellion, as also
tojthose subjects of Great Britain whose
claims having arisen subsequent to the
9th day of April, 1865, could not be pre
sented to the late Commission, organized
pursuant to the provisions ot the treaty
of Washington.
Among the pressing and important
subjects to which, in my opinion, the at
tention of Congress should be directed
are those relating to fradulent naturaliz
ation and expatriation. The United
States, with great liberality, offers its
citizenship to all who in good faith com
ply with the requirementsof law. These
requirements are as simple, and upon as
favorable terms to the emigrant, as the
high privilege to which he is admitted
can or should permit. I do not propose
any additional requirements to those
which the law now demands; but the
very s'mplicty and want of necessary for
mality in our law have made fraudulent
naturalization not infrequent, to the dis
credit and injury of all honest citizens,
whether native or naturalized. Cases
of this character are continually being
brought to the notice ot ourliovernment
by our representatives abroad, and also
those of persons resident in" other coun
tries. Most frequently those who, if they
have remained here long enough to en
title them to become naturalized, have
generally not much overpassed that pe
riod, and have returned to the country ot
their origin, where they reside, avoiding
all duties to the United States by their
absence, and claiming to be exempt
from all duties to the country ot their
nativity, and of their residence, by rea
son of their alleged naturalization. It is
due to this Government itself, and to the
great mass of naturalized citizens who
entirely, both in name and in fact, be
come citizens of the United States that
the high privilege of citizenship of the
United States should not be held by
fraud, or in derogation of the laws, and
of the good name of every honest citizen.
On many occasions it has been brought
to the knowledge of the Government,
that certificates of naturalization are
held, and protection or interference
claimed, by parties who admit that not
only they were not within the United
States at the time of the pretended
naturalization, but that they have never
resided in the United States. In others
the certificate and record of the Court
show on their faces that the persons claim
ing to be naturalized had not resided the
required time in the United States. In
others it is admitted upon examination
that the requirements of the law
have not been complied with.
In some cases, even such certifi
cates have been matters of purchase.
These are not isolated cases, arising at
rare intervals, but are of common occur
rence, and which are reported from all
quarters of the globe. Such occuirences
can not and do not fail to reflect upon
the Government, and to injure all hon
est citizens. Such a fraud being discov
ered, however, there is no practical
means within the control of the Govern
ment by which the record of naturaliza
tion can be vacated ; and should the cer
tificate be taken up, as it usually is, by
the diplomatic and consular representa
tives of the government to whom it may
have been presented, there is nothing to
prevent the person claiming to have
been naturalized from obtaining a new
certificate from the court in place of that
which has been taken from him. The
evil has become so great, and of
such frequent occurrence, that I
can not too strongly recommend that
some effective measures be adopted
to provide a proper remedy for
the vacating of any records fraudulently,
and of punishing guilty parties to the
transaction. In this connection I refer
also to the question of expatriatng, and
the election to the nationality of the
United States. In the former, holding
the right of expatriation, was principally
instrumental in overthrowing the dec
trine of perpetual allegiance. Congress
has declared the right of expatriation to
be a national inherent right to ail people,
. i
but while many other nations have laws
providing what formalities shall be neces
sary to work a change of allegiance, the
United States has enacted the provisions
of law, and has, in no respect, marked
out how and when expatriation may be
accomplished by its citizens.
Instances are brought to the attention
of the Government where the citizens of
the United States naturalized, or native
born have formally become citizens or
subjects of foreign powers, but who,
nevertheless, in the absence of any pro
visions of legislation on these questions,
when involved in difficulties, qr when it
seems to be to their interest, claim to be
citizens of the United States, and de
mand the intervention of a Government
which they have long since abandoned,
and which for years they have rendered
no service nor had themselves in any
way amenable. In other cases natural
ized citizens, immediately after naturalization,-
have returned to their native
ceuntry, and have become engaged in
business, have accepted, held offices, or
pursuits, inconsistent with American
citizenship, evince no intent to return to
the United States until called upon to
discharge some duty to the country
where they are residing, when at once
they assert their citizenship, and call
upon the representatives of the Govern
ment to aid them in their unjust pre
tensions. It is but justice to bom fide
citizens that no doubt should exist on
such questions, and that Congress should
determine by enactment of law how ex
patriation will be accomplished, and
change of citizenship be established.
I also invite your attention to the ne
cessity of regulating by law the status
of American woman -who may marry
foreigners, and of defining more folly
that of children born in a foreign coun
try of American parents who may reside
abroad, and also of some further pro
vision regulating or giving legal effect to
marriages of American citizens con
tracted in foreign countries. The corre
spondence submitted herewith shows a
few of the constantly occurring ques
tions on these points presented to the
consideration of the Government. There
are few subjects to engage the attention
of Congress on which more delicate re
lations are depending.
The report of the Secretary of the
Treasury shows the receipts from cus
toms for the fiscal year ending June 80,
1874, to have been $163,103,833 89, and
for the present year, ending June 30,
1875, to have been $157,167,722 35, a
decrease for the last fiscal year of $5,936,
111 34. Receipts from Internal Revenue
for the year ending the 30th ef June,
1874, were $102,409,734 90, and for the
year ending the 30th of June, 1875, were
$10,007,593 58, increase $7,597,703 68.
The report also shows a complete history
of the working of the Department for
the last year, and contains recommenda
ions for reforms, and for legislation
which I concur in, but can not comment
on so fully as I should like to do if space
would permit, but will confine myself to
a few suggestions which I look upon as
vital to the best interests of the whole
people coming within the purview of the
Treasury. I mean
Too much stress can not be laid upon
this question, and I hope Congress may
be induced, at the earliest day practica
ble, to insure the consummation of the
act of the last Congress, at its last ses
sion, to bring about specie resumption
on, and after the 1st of January, 1879, at
the furthest. It would be a great bles
sing if this could be consummated even
at an earlier day. Nothing seems to be
more certain than tbat a full, healthy,
and permanent reaction can not take
place in favor of the industries and finan
cial welfare of the country, until we re
turn to a measure of values recognized
throughout the civilized world. While
we use a currency not equivalent to this
standard, the world's recognized stand
ard, specie becomes a commodity like
the products of the soil, the surplus seek
ing a market wherever there is a demand
for it. Under our present system we
should want none, nor would we have
any. Were it not tbat the customs dues
must be paid in coin, aud because of the
pledge to pay the interest of the public
debt in coin, the yield of precious metals
would flow out for the purchases of
foreign productions, and leave the Uni
ted Suites hewers of wood and drawers
of water, because of wiser legislation on
the subject of finance by the nations with
whom we have dealings.
I am not prepared to say that I can
suggest the best legislation to secure the
end most heartily to be commended. It
will be a source of great gratification to
me to be able to approve any measure of
Congress looking effectively toward se
curing resumption. Unlimited inflation
would probably bring about specie pay
ments more speedily than any legislation
looking to the redemption of the legal
tenders in coin, but it would be at the
expense of honor. The legal tenders would
have no value beyond settling present
liabilities, or properly speaking, repudi
ating them. They would buy nothing
after debts are settled. There are a few
measures which seem to me important in
this connection, and which I commend
to your consideration. repeal of so
much of the legal-tender act as makes
these notes receivable for debts contract
ed alter a date to be fixed in an act by
itself, not later than the 1st of January,
1877, is one ; we would then have quota
tions at real values, not fictitious ones ;
gold would no longer be at a premium,
but currency at a discount. A healthy
reaction would set in at once, and with a
desire to make the currency equal to
what it purports to be, the merchants,
manufacturers and tradesmen of every
calling could do business on a fair mar
gin of profit, the money to be received
having unvarying value. Laborers, and
all classes who work for stipulated pay
or salary would receive more nearly their
income, because extra profits would no
longer be charged by the capitalists to
compensate for the risk of a downward
fluctuation in the value of the currency.
Second That the Secretary of the
Treasury be authorized to redeem say
not to exceed two million dollars monthly
of legal-tender notes, by issuing in their
stead long bonds, bearing interest at the
rate of 3-25 per cent, per annum, of de
nominations ranging from $500 to $1,000
each. This would, in time, reduce the
legal-tender notes to a volume that could
be kept afloat w.thout demanding re
demption in large sums suddenly.
Third That additional power be
given to the Secretarv of the Treasury
to accumulate gold for the final redemp
tion of currency, by increasing the reve
nue, curtailing the expenses of both. It
is preferable to elo both, and 1 recom
mend the reduction of expenditures be
made wherever it can be done without
impairing the government obligations,
or crippling the due execution thereof.
One measure for increasing the revenue,
and the only one I think of, is the res
toration of the duty on
These duties would add probably
$18,000,000 to the present amount
received for imports, aud would in no
way increase the price paid for those
articles by the consumers. These articles
are the product of countries collecting
revenue from exports, and as we, the
largest consumers, reduce the duties,
they : proportionally increase them.
With the addition to the revenue, many
duties now collected, and which gave
but an insignibcant relation for the cost
of collection, might be remitted, and to
the direct advantage of the consumers
alone. I would mention those articles
which enter into manufactures of all
sorts, and all duties paid upon such aiti
cles go directly to the cost of the article
when manufactured here, and must be
paid for by the consumers. The duties
not only come from the consumers alone.
but acts as a protection to foreign manu
facturers of the same completed article
in our own and distant market. I will
suggest, or mention another subject
bearing upon the problem of how to en
able the Secretary of the Treasury to
accumulate balancer.
It is to devise some better method of
verifying claims against the Government
than at present exists through the Court
of Claims, especially in those claims
growing out of the late war. Nothing
is more certain man mat a large percent
age of the amounts passed and paid, are
in part or wholly, fraudulent, or are far
in excess of the real losses sustained. A
large amount of losses proven on what is
good testimony according to exiattng
laws, that is by the affidavits of fictitious
or unscrupulous persons, have been sus
tained on small larms and plantations
and notonly far beyond the pessible
yield of the places for any one year, but,
as every one knows who has experience
iu ui iing we sou, ana wno nas visited
the scenes of the spoliations, are in many
instances more than the individual
claimants were ever worth, including
their personal and real estate. The re
port of the Attorney General, which will
be submitted to Uongress at an early day,
will contain a detailed history of the
awards made and of the claims pending
of the class here referred to.
The condition ef our navy, at this
time, is a subject of satisfaction. It does
not contain, it is true, any of the power
ful cruising iron-clads which make so
much of the maritime strength of some
other nations, but neither our continental
situation, nor our foreign policy, requires
that we should have a large number of
ships of this character; while this situa- I
tioa, the nature of our ports continue
to make those of other nations little
dangerous to us under any circumstances.
Our navy does contain, however, a con
siderable number of iron-clads of the
monitor class which, though not properly
cruisers, are powerful and effective for
harbor defense and for operations near
our own shores. Of these all the single-
turreteo ones, niteen in number, nave
been substantially rebuilt, their rotten
wooden beams replaced with iron, their
hulls strengthened, and their engines
and machinery thoroughly repaired, so
that they are now in a most efficient
condition, and ready for sea as soon as
they can be manned and put in com-4
mission. The five double turreted iron
clads belonging to our navy, by far the
most poweriui ot our ships lor hghting
purposes, are also in hand undergoing
complete repairs, and could be ready for
sea in periods varying from four to six
months, with these completed, accord-:
ing to the present design, and our two
iron torpedo boats now ready, our iron
clad fleet will be, for the purposes of de
fense at home, equal to any force tbat
can be readily brought against it Of
our wooden navy, also, cruisers of vari
ous sizes, to the number of about forty,
including those now in commission, are
in the Atlantic, and could be ready for
duty as fast as men could be enlisted.
Of those not already in commission, one
third are in effect new ships, and though
some of the' remainder need considerable
repairs on their boilers and machinery,
they all are, or can readily be, made
effective. This constitutes a fleet of
more than fifty war ships, of which fif
teen are iron clad, now in hand on the
Atlantic Coast. The navy has been
brought to this condition by a judicious
and practical appreciation of what could
be spared from the current appropri
ations of the last few years, aud from that
made to meet the possible emergency of
two years ago. It bas been done quietly,
without proclamation or display, ana
though it has necessarily straitened the
department iu its ordinary expenditures,
and, as far as the ironclads are concerned,
has added nothing to the cruising force
of the uavy. yet the result is not the less
satisfactory, because it is to be found in
a great increase of real than apparent
lurcet. xae cxpeiiws lucurreu in me
maintenance of an effective naval force
in all its branches, are necessarily large.
But each force is essential to our position,
relations and character, and affects se
riously the weight of our principles and
policy throughout the whole sphere of
naval responsibility.
The estimates for the regular support
of this branch of the service for the next
amount to a little less in the aggregate
than those made for the current year,
but some additional appropriations are
asked for objects not included in the
ordinary maintainance of the navy, but
believed to be of a pressing importance
at this time. It would, in my opinion,
be wise at once to afford sufficient means
for the immediate completion of the five
double-turreted monitors now undergo
ing repairs, which must otherwise ad
vance slowly, and only as money can be
spared from current expenses. Supple
mented by these, our navy, armed with
the destructive weapons of modern war
fare, manned by our seamen, and in
charge of our instructed officers, will
present a force powerful for the home
purposes of a reponsible, though peace
tul uation.
The report of the Secretary of War
accompanying this message gives a de
tailed account of army operations for
the year just passed, expenses for its
maintenance, etc., with recommenda
tions for legislation, to which I respect
fully invite your attention. To some of
these 1 invite special attention.
First The necessity of making $30,-
000 of the appropriation for the Subsist
ence Department available before the
beginning of the next fiscal year. With
out this provision, troops at points dis
tant from the supply of provisions must
either go without lewd or existing laws
must be violated, it is not ulleiKU-d
with cost to the Treasurv.
Second His reeoniuiciidalion of an
enactment of a system of annuities for
the families of deceased oncers by volun
tary deductions from the monthly pay of
officers. This, again, is not attended
with burden upon the Trea"ury, and
would for the future relieve, much dis
tress which every old army officer has
witnessed in the past, of officers dvlng
suddenly, or being killed, leaving fam
ilies without even means of reaching
their friends, if fortunate enough to haye
friends to aid them.
Third The repeal of the law abolish
ing mileage, and a return to the old sys
tem. -----
Fourth The trial with torpedoes un
der the Corps of Engineers, and the
appropriation for the same. Should war
ever occur between the United States
and any maritime power, torpedoes will
be among, if not the most effective and
cheapest auxiliary for the defense-of har
bors, and also in aggressive operations,
thai we can have. Hence it is advisable
to learn by experiment their best con
struction and application, as well as
effect. ' '
Fifth A permanent organization for
the Signal Service Corps. This service
has now become a necessity of peace as
well as war, under the advancement
made by the present able management
Sixth A renewal of the appropriation
for compiling the official records of the
war, etc . ,
The discovery of gold in the Black
Hills, a portion of the Sioux reservation,
has had the effect to induce a large emi
gration of miners to that point Thus
iar the effort to protect the treaty rights
of the Indians of that section has been
r.fl 4k - :n .
auv-oiui, vuw nib - .1 1. a m jiai hjii vi-
tainly witness a large increase of such
emigration. The negotiations for the
relinquishment of the gold fields having
failed, it will be necessary for Congress
to adopt some measures to relieve the
embarrassment growing out of the causes
named. The Secretary of the Inteior
suggests that the supplies now appropri
ated for the sustenance of that people
being no longer obligatory under the
treaty of 1868, but simply a gratuity,
may be issued or withheld at his discretion.
The condition of the Indian Territory,
to which I have referred in several of my
former annual messages, remains practi
cally unchanged. The Secretary of the
Interior has taken measures to obtain a
full report of tbe condition of that Ter
ritory, and will make it the subject of a
special report at an early day. It may
Uien be necessary to make some further
recommendation in regard to the legisla
tion for the government of that territory.
The report of the General Land Office
show that there were 2,459,401 acres less
disposed of during this than during the
last year. More than one half of this
decrease was in lands disposed of under
the homestead and timber culture laws.
The causes of this decrease is supposed. -to
be found in the grasshopper scourge
and the droughts which prevailed so ex
tensively in some of the frontier States
and Territories during that time as to
discourage and deter entries by actual
settlers. The cash receipts were less by.
$690,322.23 than during the preceding
year. The entire surveyed area of the
public demain is 680,253,094 acres, of
which 26,077,531 acres were surveyed -during
the past year, leaving 1,154,471,-.
762 acres still unsurveyed. The report
of the Commissioner presents many in-'
teresting suggestions in regard to the
management and disposition of the pub
lic domain, and the modification of ex
isting laws, the apparent importance of
which should insure for them the careful
consideration of Congress.
The number of pensioners still con
tinues to decrease, the highest number
having been reached during the year
ending Jnne 30, 1873. During the last
year 11,557 names were added to the
rolls, and 12 977 were dropped therefrom, '
show a net decrease of 1,420 ; but while
the number of pensioners has decreased, -the
annual amount due on the pension
tIIo Koq inoreaoul 4 473 SI 3 Tfiia iu
caused by the great increased average
rate of pensions, an increase in the aver- -
age rate or lit per cent in the three
years. During the year ending Jnne 30,
1970, there was paid on account ot -pensions,
including tbe expenses of
disbursement, $29,633,116, being $910,-.
962 less than - was paid the - pre
ceding year. Tbe reduction in the amount
of expenditures was produced by the de
crease of arrearages due -on , allowed
claims, and on pensions, the rate of which
was increased by the legislation or tne
preceding session of Congress. At the
close of the last fiscal year therrwere on
the pension rolls 234,821 persons, of
whom 216,363 were army . pensioners,
105.478 being invalids, and 104,885
widows and dependent relatives; 8,420
were navy pensioners, of whom 1,646
were invalids and 1,784 widows and de
pendent relations, 21,038 were pensioners
of the war of 1812, 15,875 of whom were
survivors and 5,163 were widows. It is
estimated that $29,535,000 will be re
quired for the payment of pensions for ,
tbe next hscal year, an amount $yoo,uw
less than the estimate for the present
As this will be the last annual message
which I will have the honor of transmit
ting to Congress, before my successor is
chosen, I will repeat or recapitulate the
questions which 1 deem oi vital impor
tance, which should be legislated upon
and settled at this session.
First That the States shall be required
to afford the opportunity of a good
common school education to every child
Second That no sectarian tenets shall
be ever taught in any school supported
in whole or in part by the state, .Nation,
or by the proceeds of any tax levied
upon any community. Make education
compulsory so far as to deprive all per
sons wno can not reaa or wme irom De
coming voters, after 1890, disfranchising
none, however, on grounds of illiteracy
who may be voters at the time this
amendment takes effect
Third Declare Church and State for
ever separate and distinct, but each free
within their proper sphere, and mat au
church property shall bear its own pro
portion of taxes. '
Fourth Drive out licensed immorali
ty such as polygamy and the importa
tion of women for illegitimate purposes.'
To recur again to the Centennial year,
it would seem as though now, as we are
about to begin the second century ot our
National existence, would be a most fit
ting time for these reforms.
Fifth Enact such laws as will secure
a speedy return to a sound currency such
as will command the .respect of the
Believing that these views will com
mend themselves to tbe great majority
of the right-thinking and patriotic citi
zens or the uniiea ciaies, l summi me
rest to
Executive Mansion, Dec. 7, 1875.
Prominent citizens of the United
States attending the centennial will
have an opportunity of being introduced
1- . u 1 r, T-A Tf J.
LU ilia Ultijrnij' cKruuur jvui ituiu 11 w
Alcantara Joas Carlos Leopoldo Salvador.
Bibiano Xavier de Paulo Leocadio
Miguel Gabriel Raphael Gonzago, con
stitutional emperor and perpetual defend
er of Brazil. It is to be hoped tbat every
great American thus honored will pay
strict attention while the ceremony is
going on, and not ask, in that stupid, hes
itating manner so common to many of
us, " What did you say the gentleman's
uame is?"
Bishop Ctjmmins says that to-day the
Reformed Episcopal Church ia not two
years old, yet it exists from the Bay of
Fundy to the rice swamps of the Caroli
nas, and from the shores of the Atlantic
to the Pacific.

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