THE LABOR ADVOCATE
Is a Trick Term
'Efficiency Systems," So-called Preparedness and Bogus
Patriotism, Are Devices to Fool the Public.
By PunsmcNT Gomit.us in American
The case for scientific management
has one great advantage. Those who
devised the system selected their nom
enclature. They have been mindful of
the principle laid down by Ivy Lee
the Machiavclli of publicity they have
been very careful of the terms that
were lodged in the public mind. They
have named devices "scientific manage
ment" and "efficiency systems" and then
assumed because the systems bore such
names, they necessarily resulted in
greater production and better methods
Those who knew the devices as names
only hastily concluded that opposition
to them was opposition, to progress
greater efficiency and production; so
called preparedness and bogus patriot
ism. We must insist that those who pro
pose revolutionary changes shall prove
their case. Hut these proponents of
"scientific" methods applied to labor
power have dogmatically asserted that
their regulations are scientific, that
stop-watch studies arc scientific, that
tie bonus system provides a scientific
basis for wage payments, that such "ef
ficiency" promotes industrial and com
mercial development. To hide their
hypocrisy and rapacity scientific man
agement experts have coined a vocabu
lary bristling with suggestive noble
thoughts and purposes.
The proponents of scientific manage
ment have rallied for desperate defense
of their cause. Congress has been
bombarded with pronouncements, ap
peals, denunciations from employers
boards of trade, chambers of commerce,
and those professionally interested in
scientific management. An investiga
tion was made of scientific management
for the federal commission on indus
trial relations. This investigation was
conducted by Prof. Robert F. Iloxic
of the University of Chicago, with the
advice and assistance of Mr. John P.
Frey, editor of the Moldcrs' Journal
and Mr. Robert G. Valentine, repre
senting the employers' interests. The
report, which was signed by all of these
investigators, points out the 'following
defects that were observed :
(a) Failure to carry into effect with
any degree of thoroughness the gener
al elements involved in the system.
(b) Failure to adopt the full system
of "functional forcmanship."
(c) Lack of uniformity in the meth
od of selecting and hirjng help.
(d) Failure to substantiate claims of
scientific management with reference to
the adaptation, instruction and training
(e) Lack of scientific accuracy, uni
formity and justice in time study and
(f) Failure to substantiate tin- rlnim
of having established a scientific and
equitable method of determining wage
(g) Failure to protect the workers
from over-exertion and exhaustion.
(h) Failure to substantiate the claim
that scientific management offers excep
tional opportunities for advancement and
promotion on a basis of individual merit.
(i) With reference to the alleged
methods and severity of discipline under
scientific management the "acrimonious
criticism" from trade unions docs not
seem to be warranted.
(j) Failure to substantiate the claim
that workers are discharged only on just
grounds and have an effective appeal to
the highest managerial authority.
(k) Lack of democracy under scien
Railroads Spend Thousands
Asking Support of the Public Through the Daily Press.
The Railroads Were Represented By Counsel and
Experts at the New York Conference.
WOIIKHKS MAKING HISTOKY.
Washington. Last Monday Dr. Atl
and Luis N. Morones, representing
Mexican workers, telegraphed from
Eagle- Pass,- Texas,- to President Gomp
ers that a delegation of Mexican trade
unionists would be in Washington the
following Saturday, July 1, to meet with
President Gompcrs and the A. F. of L.
executive council, which has been i in
session all week.
This meeting will be the result of a
suggestion by President Gompcrs, sever
al weeks ago, that representatives of A.
F. of L. and the Mexican organized
movement meet in El Paso, Texas, at a
date to he decided later for the purpose
.of exchanging matters of mutual inter
est. After correspondence between the
parties, it was decided that the meeting
be held in Washington.
It is the first time that a meeting of
this character has been held and indi
cates the increasing solidarity between
organized workers on the North Amer
KAIJAVAY CIjKKKS WIN HTKIKti.
Maybrook, N. Y. The Brotherhood of
Railway Clerks has won a 15 days'
strike against the Central New England
railroad. The company attempted to
construe an agreement that would force
these employes to work nine hours a daj
instead of eight and one-half hours.
LOUIS HELMLlNG, Proprietor
UNION 1313-1315 Walnut St., Cincinnati
GODDS Phone Canal 4672-R
Hall for Union--, ami Societies
Headquarter of liakcry and Confectionery
Workers' Union No. 213 and
l'erdinand I.assallc Club
STOP WATCH SYSTEM
REJECTED BY HOUSE
Manufacturer of the
IMPROVED EXTENSION SHOE
S'top$ mid e to fit alt deformities
14 E. 10lh St t Neev port, Ky. Tel South 574-L
CABARET EVERY EVENING.
Chicken and Steak Dinners,
$1.00 per plate.
Telephone, Ridge 1020.
Washington. After a spirited debate
last week, the house, on a roll call
vote, accepted Congressman Tavcnncr's
bill which prohibits any money in this
budget being used for "stop watch,"
speeding up or premium systems. The
vote was l'J7 to 117.
Friends of the amendment insisted
that the proposal is not intended to pre
vent extra compensation for superior
service, and that only bonus and pre
mium systems arc attacked.
Congressman Van Dyke called atten
tion to the order of May .'i, liil.l, signed
by J. P. Johnston, general superintend
ent of the railway mail service, in which
Sliced tests were discontinued as a part
of "our efficiency rating system."
Despite these statements, petitions of
both skilled and unskilled workers
against the system, and the published
records of hearings held on this ques
tion, several congressmen made strong
In the opinion of these patriots, the
Tavenner amendment was fraught -with
evil possibilities. Congressman Madden
of Illinois said the amendment would
place all men on a level, and in an elo
quent outburst he declared that workers
would be sent back "to the Paleozoic
age, where everybody was a savage,
where civilization was unknown, and
where progress was never thought of.
Congressman Moore was also alarm
ed at industrial prospects if the amend
ment passed. The Pennsylvania law
maker believed it would "reduce work
men to r. common level and prevent any
one from rising above that level in com
pensation." Congressmen Tavenner, Nolan and
Keating insisted that the amendment
was no barrier to efficiency methods and
was only intended to check "stop
watch" practices. The two first named
representatives read petitions from skill
ed and unskilled employes of the Water
town arsenal to prove their point, and
Congressman Keating declared that
those who oppose the amendment "want
to use the 'stop watch' on other men
and those that are supporting the
amendment had the 'stop watch' used
Later, the house placed the "stop
watch" amendment in the army appro
Clkvixan-d, O., July 7, HUG.
Anything for delay, is the plan of the
railroads in dealing with the demand of
the employes for an eight-hour day is
charged in a statement issued today by
the Transportation Brotherhoods.
Railroads are spending hundreds of
thousands of dollars to ask the public
for their support on a proposition to re
fer the controversy to the Interstate
The public should know that the In
terstate Commerce Commission only
very recently and on two different oc
casions, have reported at some length
and in considerable detail upon this very
question. Its reports comprehend two
wide spread investigations since 1010
and arc the result of attempts on the
part of the railroads to make use of
increases in wages to induce the Com
mission to give its consent to increases
in freight rates.
The whole subject of wages was gone
into by the Commission with much care
and in great detail.
1 he railways were fully represented by
counsel and large numbers of witnesses
testified in their behalf.
Eminent counsel appeared in behalf of
the opposition to the roads.
1 he attorney of the Commission also
participated in the proceedings and pre
pared and presented for consideration, a
great mass of statistical information.
After a full hearing of the investiga
tion upon all the facts and circumstances,
the Commission held that there was no
evidence beforc it which established the
necessity for high rates.
And again in 1914 the same elaborate
and thorough investigation into the sub
ject of wages as having a bearing on the
necessity for mcrcasetl rates, was Held.
This federal tribunal said, it is in
teresting to note that notwithstanding,
wages constitute a large part of the
1 ransportation expense, tins item-ot ex
pense has shown a relatively small ad
vance as compared with other groups.
The Commission called attention to
the fact that efficiency of operation and
management arc the most important
things in the reduction of operating ex
penses, and, as an illustration, the Com
mission cited the statement of the Gen
eral Superintendent of Motive Power
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, who less
ened the cost of building locomotives
between HiO.'I and lain, although the rate
of wages increased nearly -10 per cent.
The official utterances of the Inter
state Commerce Commission answer au
thoritatively, questions raised by the rail
roads in their opposition to the present
movement of the railway Brotherhoods
for an eight-hour work day for employ
es in freight train service.
These questions have been raised by
the railroads and, by the roads through
the U. S. Chamber of Commerce, solely
to confuse and perplex the public mind
and in an endeavor to prevent the Amer
ican people from securing a clear per
spective of the social and economic sig
nificance of the establishment of a
shorter work day, for some 1150,000 train
Railroad officials well know that the
Interstate Commerce Commission has no
power to fix the rate of wages after an
investigation of the subject and the
whole controversy would, after an in
vestigation, be in the same condition
as it is at the present moment.
Should however, the Interstate Com
merce Commission recommend the grant
ing of the demands of the employes, the
Commission would automatically be held
responsible for any increase in operating
expenses resulting from the granting of
the demands; therefore, would be com
pelled to assent to an increased freight
rate which is perhaps the very thing that
the railroads are trying to secure out of
Hillings, Mont. Makers have formed
a union and received a charter from the
International of this craft.
Client, South I3G7-R Hot Limtk frtm 9 t 12 A. M.
Headquarter! In c tall of Owli
i Pool Room and Bowling Alltrt Connected
! 27 Welt Southern Avenue
Latonla Station COVINGTON, KY
COTTOX 1XDUSTKY KXPOSKI).
Atlanta, Ga. Henry M. Stanley, com
missioner of commerce and labor of
this State, has published the first com
plete and thorough report of the con
dition of Georgia textile mills last year.
In the 100 mills :i7,:i0." operatives were
employed. These included 4,070 chil
dren under 10 years of age. Total
wages paid by these mills was $1S;135,
8S8.40. This includes the superintend
ents, managers, clerks, and all others
connected with the industry. The aver
age wage, including the children, is
$X!1.2( a year or $0.:i4 a week.
These cotton mill owners arc opposed
to trade unionism and arc the leading
opponents in the light against the child
labor law, now pending in the United
ASK ltKTTKIl VKXTIIjATIOX.
JOS. P. STENGER
DESIGNER ASH BUILDER Or
509 E. Rots Avenue
ST. BERNARD, 0.
He is the personification of the quality
and workmanship that goes into
Republic Rubber Co.
20 E. Ninth St.
Tel., (anal 5470 CINCINNATI. 0.
SHIP CAl'MtKltK WAXT MOKK.
Portland, Ore. The Ship Caulkers'
union has notified all ship concerns in
this city that beginning today wages shall
be $5 a day.
Hitch Your V. agon ffJfr GT1T "D
to a Star. That's yjLILJ A. JL.bVX.
Now Open for Its Greatest
SeaDon of Clean Entertainment
Moving Pictures. Etc.
Bathing Beach the best west of Atlantic City. 1,001 Crest Amusement Features,
featuring "STELLA," The Tango Girl, and "THE Willi'."
CLUB HOUSE CUISINE THE VERY BEST.
Los Angeles, Cal. The Moving Pic
ture Operators' union has inaugurated, a
campaign for better ventilation for its
members while working.
"It is indeed a difficult matter," says
President Harden, "to explain to the" lay
man the dangers of badly ventilated and
unsanitary operating rooms, for few, if
any, of the motion-picture patrons have
the opportunity or inclination to visit the
workshop of the man behind the gun
the man who daily sits hour after hour
in a little cubby hole and causes the
picture to flicker across the screen. The
high rates charged us by the insurance
companies, however, should be absolute
proof of the hazardous nature of our
"Already we have had two deaths in
our organization as a direct result of
the confinement under which our men
must labor, and we are at the present
time paying sick benefits in an effort
to combat further fatalities. There are
also several of our members who, while
being in no immediate danger, arc, nev
ertheless, being constantly treated for af
fliction of the lungs, caused by the poi
sonous gases arising from the burning
carbons of the arc lamps. It is to allevi
ate conditions such as these that we are
pleading for better air in which to
WANT DAY OK HKST.
San Francisco. The Labor Council
has instructed its officials to ask tht
Washington authorities to arrange for
a six-day work week for engineers and
firemen employed at army posts and in
federal buildings in the vicinity of San
For Men and
The Big- Store's Spring' Suit
Displays are the finest ever de
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beyond all description See for
$7.50, $10, $15
are made in our own great Cin
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and Every Suit is backed by our
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T4I9-427 FIFTH AVENUE WESfl
bet Ccnlr.il Axe .mil John St Louis SchrocilenMgp.
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