Newspaper Page Text
TELEGRAPH. - Independent in all tilings. JA.S. REED & SON", Publishers. $2 in .Advance. ASHTABULA, OHIO, SATURDAY, AUGUST 8, 1874. Vol, XXV, No. 32. "WTiole Number .1283. RATES OF ADVERTISING. One Inch in Pce make a Square. lsq. $1.00 J.60 isas! 8 bus VcoliKcolWcol 1 col. 1 Week. fl.50 (2.1M j.W,J4.00 (6.00 4.00 6.0u T.OOj ;$ !0.oo g weens . Sweets. 1 month . 9 months t months 6 months 9 months S.00! s.sol 8001 4.00! 6.00 7.00 .0tl .6 6 00 6 00 6.00 j 6.001 7.00i .00 O.OOilS.OO 15.00, lSO0:15.00i0.O0i 18.00 84 00(85.00 24.00S4 00 45.00 80.0040. 00155.00 1 14.00 16.00 S.0U S.00 4.00! 6.00 4,00 MOO 30.00 60.00 HS.00 100.00 6.00 .oo: 00 n.ool 8.00 10.001 18.00 16.00 1 yef 15.000.00 1 w .1 vr.U.u 1A nanti nal- lln r- Death Md Manias insert grttis. Transient AdvetiftemenU to be paid for invana hV$?4r wUl bechaexm for Dls solution and other Notices, not connected with . their regular business. .. Business Cards. $1 Jollra year Pr ed Administrators' and Execuwrn otir chsea ' $2. All other Legal Advertisements cnanreo 75 cenu per son-ire each Insertion. BUSINESS DIRECTORY. MERCHANTS. . U. aj. W. SAVAGE dealers in choice Family Groceries and Provision, also, pnre Con fectionery, and the finest brands of Tobacco and . Cigars. lL1 g fj. WELLS, Prodnce and Commission Mer chant, for th purchase and sale of Western Ke erre Butter..Cheee and Dried Fruits, tain Street. Ashtabula, Ohio. 1 ClULILEdcTI LEa.DealersinFancrand Staple Dry Goods, Family Groceries, and Croca - cry. South Store, Clarendon Block. Ashtabula, Ohio. 1095 E. H. GILKET. Dealerln Dry Goods. Grocer tes, Crockery and Glass-Ware, next door north ... i.-:.. i. u V. u .. . AaHt.hnlA.OhlO. .1048 Ul I IB. r 1,1 U ..1 t . . J. ltt. FATJLKNEB SO Dealers in Groceries, Provisions. Flour, Feed, F oreisn. .and . n .... ui.k Pl.atAr water- Domestic rmiiB, , - --. Lime, Seeds Ac, Main street. Ashtabula, Ohio. w as. car as av& v s , , , - . i Lard, and all kinds of Fish. Also, all kinds of Family Groceries, Fruits and Confectionery. Ale and Domestic Wines. 1- S. r. BOBEBTSON 6c SON, B'en J? every description of Boots, Shoes Hate 'and taps. Also, on hand a stock of choice FmiiT.Gro5?r ies. Main street, corner of Centre, Ashtabula. Ohio. !L9 O. W. HiSKELL. Corner Spring and Main Bts. Ashubnla, Ohio. Dealers In Dry-Goods. Groceries Crocksry. fcc, Ac. raOBRISON & SXEDEK.OK, Dealers in Dry Goods, Groceries. Boots and Shoes, H?, Caps, Hardware, CrockerT. Books. Paints. Oils &T 1J51 Ashtabula O. DRUGGISTS. MARTIN NEWBEBBT, Drujrgiet and Apothecary, and general dealerin Drugs, Medi cines, Winss and Liquors for medical purpose. Fancy and Toilet Goods, Maine street, corner of Centre. Ashtabula. CM ARL.ES E. SWIFT, Ashtabnla, Ohio, Dealer in Drugs and Medicines, Groceries, Per fumery and Fancy Articles, superior Teas, Cof fee, Spices, Flavoring Extracts, Patent Medi cines of every description, - Paints, Dyes, Var nishes, Brushes, FancySoaps, Hair Restoratives, Hair Oils, Ac all of which will be sold at the lowest prices. Prescriptions prepared with suitable care. 10S GEORGE WILL1RD, Dealer in Dry Goods, Groceries, Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes. Cro ckery, GlassWare. Also, wholesale and retail dealer in Hardware, Saddlery, Kails. Iron, Steel, Druirs, Medicines, Paints. Oils, Dyestnns, Ac, Main st. Ashtabnta. 1005 HOTELS. ASHTABCLA HOUSE. R. C. WarmintrtOD, Prop. This House has iust been thoroughly ren ovated and refurnished. Livery and Omnibus line connected with the Honse. 1261 AMERICAN HOUSE, T. N. Booth Propri etor, soith side of the 1. S. A M. 8. station. This House has re ently been refitted and Im proved, and offers pleasant, eubrtantlal and con venient accommodations to persons stopping over night, or for a meal, or for those from the ' interior, wishing stable accommodation for teams. The House is orderly, with prompt at tention to guests, and good table and lodg ings. 12ag FISK HOUSE, Ashtabula, Ohio, A. Field, Proprietor. An Omnibus running to and from every train of cars. Also, a good livery-stable kept in connection with this house, to convey passengers to any point. 1251 DENTISTS. if"" P. E. HALL, Dentist, Ashtabnla, O. tiraJOfnce Center street, between Main and Park. 1043 f"-G. W. NELSO If, Dentist, Ashtabula, r30.t visits Conneaat, Wednesday and Thursday of each week. 1277 W.T. WALLACE, D. D. 8. Ashtabnla, O.is prepared to attend to all operations in his pro fession. He makes a speciality of "Oral Sur gery" and savinK the natural teeth. Office and residence on Elm St., former residence of Maj. Hubbard. 1251 JEWELERS. GEO. W. DICKINSON, Jeweler. Repairing of all kinds of Wathces, Clocks and Jewelry. Store in Ashtabnla Honse Block, Ashtabula, O. IA1SES K. 8TEBBINS, Dealer in Watch es, Clocks, Jewelry, Silver and Plated Ware. Ac. Repairing of all kinds done well, and all , orders promptly attended to. Main Street. Ash tabula Ohio. . 1251 I. 8. ABBOTT. Dealer in Clocks, Watches Jewelry, etc. Engraving, Mending and Re pairing done to order. Shop on Main street, Conneant. Ohio. 838 CABINET WARE. JOHN DCCBO, Manufacturer of, and Dealer inFurniture of the best descriptions,and every variety. Also General Undertaker, an d Manufacturer of Coffins to order. Main street. North ot South Public Square, Ashtabula. 491 J. 8. BEACH, Manulacturer and Dealer in FirstClass Furnitrue. Also. General Underta ker. 1188 - FOUNDRIES. TINKER, : 8PEBRI Manufacturers of Stoves, Plows and Columns, Window Caps and . Sills, Mill Castings, Kettles, Sinks, Sleigh Shoes, Ac. Phoenix Foundry, Ashtabula. 0. 1091 ATTORNEYS AND AGENTS. W. H. HCBB1BD, Attorney and Counsel or at Law office oyer Newberry s Drug Store, Ashtabula, Ohio will practice in all the courts of the State, Collecting and Conveyancing made a specialty. 1227 SHERMAN tc HALL, Attorneys and Coun selors .at Law, Ashtabula, O., will practice in the Courts of Ashtabula, Lake and Geauga Lab ah S. 8hibma. Thiodori Hall. 1048 EDWARD H. FITCH, Attorney and Conn sellcrat Law, Notary Public, Ashubnla, Ohio. Special attention given to the Settlement of Es tates, and to Conveyancing and Collecting. Al so to all matters arising under the Bankrup Lsw. ; 1048 I. O. FISHER, Justice of tbe Peace and Agent for the Hartford, Sun, A Franklin Fire Insurance Companies. Office over J, P. Rob erteon's Store. Main St. Ashtabnla. O. Ill CHARLES BOOTH, Attorney and Coun Belior at Law, Ashtabnla, Ohio. 1096 HARDWARE, &c. CROSBY A WETHER WAX, dealers in Stoves, Tin-Ware, Holiow-Ware, Shelf Hard ware, Glass-Ware, Lamps and Lamp-Trimmings, Petroleum, Ac., opposite the Fisk House, Ashtabula. 991 Also, a full stock of Paints, oils, Varnishes, Brnshea, Ac. . 1251 GEORGE C. HUBBARD, Dealer in Hard ware, Iron, Steel and Nails, Stoves, Tin Plate, Sheet Iron, Copper and Zinc, and manutat turer of Tin Sheet Iron and Copper Ware. Flak's Block Ashtabnla. Ohio. 1095 PHYSICIANS Physician and Surireon. (snccessor to Dr. Moore.) office No. 1 Main street. Residence in Shepard s building, first door south of Office. . 1254 DR. . 8 MARTIN. Homoepathic Physician and Surgeon, respectfully asksa share of the FiruuKe ui a.uuiDuia and vicinity. Office and reeidrace in Smith's new block, Centre Br66t. iiuii OR. K. L. KING, Physician and Surgeon, office over Hendry A King's store, residence near St. Peter's Church. Ashtabnla.. O gjj BANKS. ASHTABULA NATIONAL BANK, Asbtabu'a, Ohio. H. Fam-itt. Pres't. J. Son. BLTTH.Csahier. Authorized Capital, (200. 000. Cash Capital paid lu (10D.0UO. H. Fassxtt. J. B. Crosby. C. R Rmirk H J. NfrtLiw. B. Niaii, Wm. Ucspuur, E. O. Wabices, u v. i-ica:, r. r. good, Directors. 1204 MANUFACTURERS. H. C. CULLEV, Manufacturer of Lath, Siding, Mouldings, Cheese Boxes, Ac. Planing. Matching, and Scrowl Sawing done on the shortest notice. Shop on Main street, oppo- FKKNCII At WEIBLEN M nofactcrer a Deilersin all kind. orLwtthertn demand in tbi -m&UKl opposite r uiuix ruunuery. Aantabu la. 118d UDT tc REEVES, Dealers in Graniteand Marble Mono menu. Grave Stoues, Tablets, Man tels. Grates, Ac. Building stone. Flagging and Curbing cut to order. Yard oa Center atrty ltttl MILLINERY, ETC. oirir t nn. Mini., a n.. m.kinir A choice lot of Millinery goods and loe iww.vj'-." - . " ., shno and salesroom over Mann A Noves store, iCenter street. Ashubnla. Ohio. Iyl233 HARNESS MAKER. P. C. FOR D, Manufacturer and Dealer in Sad dles, Harness, Bridles. Collars, Trunks. Wnips, Ac opposite Fisk Honse, Ashubnla, Ohio. 1016 MISCELLANEOUS. 197 BUILDING LOTS FOR SALE! n.il in w.tr Mm. Kmc. Land Plaster, Real Estate and Loan Agent. Ashtabula Depot. 1ZUB. V1L0.1&BK cujw .... - . n . . : j r if. Tn.nrance and RealEsute Agent. Also. Notary Pnbllc ndCon Teyancer. Office over Sherman and Hairs Law Iiniita lahtahnla I in 1(1 . a-w GRAND RIVER INSTITUTE, at Austin bunrh Ashubnla Co., Ohio. J. Tuckerman. A. M . Principal. Winter Term begins Tuesday, Dec. 2d. bend for Catalogue. H43tf I K. W 4TROUS, Painter, Glazier, and Paper Hanger. All work done with neatness unii HpanatrD. . 1 J. SUM. BLVTH, Agent for the Liverpool. London A Globe Insurance Co. Cash assets over 20,000,000Gold. In the U. S. $3,600,000. Stock k.,M.rA alMi nersonallv liable. 1213 BLAKESLEE Ac MOORE, Photographers and dealer in Pictures, Engravings, hromos, Ac. having a large supply of Mouldings of vari ous descriptions,!, prepared fyitnhJBf in the picture line, atshortnotice and i in the beat style. Second floor of the Hall storend door South of Bank Maiin street. llw4 LUMBER YARDS. WALTON A TALBEKT. manutactnr re of and dealers in all grades ot Sajinaw Lumeer, Lath, and -Shingles; also, monldings of allbde scriptions. 1858 SERVING MACHINE AGENTS. B. J. LOOMIS, Dealerin the Sineer Sewing Machine, Needles, Oils, Etc., a!so, atuch meiiU for all machines, over Newberry's Drug Store, Ashubnla, O. 1260tf. JOB PRINTERS J AMES REED & SON, Plain and Ornament al Job Printers, and general Sutioners. Speci mens of Printing and prices for the same sent on application. Office corner Main, and Spring streets, Ashubnla, O. 1260 NOTARY PUBLICS, ETC. JOHN H. SHERMAN, Notary Public and Attorney and Counselor at Law. Office in Has kell's Block. Main St.. Ashubnla. O. 12i0 CLOTHIERS. EDWARD G. PIERCE Dealers in Clothing, Hats Caps, and Genjs' Furnishing Goods, Aahta hnl. Ohio. 1251 W A I T E SILL, Wholesale and Re tail Dealers in Ready Made Clothing. Furnish ing Goods HaU. Caps. V c. Ashubnla 1251 PAINTERS. WM. ROSS, House, Sign and Carriage1 paint ing graining and paper hanging Shop on Cen tre street, near I. P. Robertson's store. - All work warranted. Ordeis left with Robertson or Newberry will meet prompt attention. 1368 VETERINARY SURGEON. DR. MORRIS CROHN, Veterinav Snr geon.will practice within forty miles of Jefferson Horses left at my own stable, will be well cared for. Charges reasonable. Jeflerson. Jane 12th, 1874. 1270tf ASHTABULA, YOUNGSTOWN & PITTSBURGH RAILROAD. CONDENSED TIME TABLE—May 1, 1874. RISKING SOUTH. BUUHUI8 KORTH. r-ICIlIBt-, STATIONS. HUXBKB8 , 1 S 5 P. X. P. X. 12 46 8 40 ..... 12 87 8 82 12 81 8 28 12 18 S 14 ..... 12 10 8 08 ..... 11 69 7 67 11 47 7 46 11 86 7 84 11 82 7 80 II 21 7 18 11 06 7 03 10 67 ( 64 10 61 48 10 45 6 42 ... . 10 84 6 80 10 23 6 15 a. x 10 20 6 00 8 40 10 06 6 45 8 24 9 62 6 80 8 09 9 43 5 17 7 68 9 85 5 05 7 50 6 16 1 00 4 25 A. X. P. X. P. X. 3 6 A.X.I P.X. 700 7 07 7 12 7 24 7 81 7 42 7 53 8 03 8 06 8 19 8 85 L.8. AM. S.Cr ..Asnubula... ..Munson Hill. .Anstingburg.1 . . Eagleville... ..Rock Creek.. Rome.. .. ..New Lyra Orwell .. Bloomfield. . .North Bristol. 3 44 8 49 8 66 S 06 Bristol Center .Gravel Bank. rhnmninn t 18 A. X. 9 23 S 88 6 40! A.G.W.Cros. 6 65 606 6 17 6 25 9 401 Warren.... 9 62 ... .niies 10 01 10 10 1 25 .....Girard ...Briar Hill... Yntin p-. inim .. .Pittsburgh.. p. x. A. X. All trains daily, except Sunday. F. B. MYERS. Gen. Pass. Ticket Agent. CONDENSED TIME TABLE—May 1, 1874. L. S. & M. S.—FRANKLIN DIVISION. From and after Jane 24, 1874, Passenger Trains will run a follows : GOLKO WBST. No. 7.No.l soins East. No. 2 No,4 No.8 IPX P X AX I 1 25 8 85 1 20 8 80 I 15 8 25 1 05 8 17 xl2 59 8 10 12 62 8 05 12 34 7 46 12 28 7 40 12 16 7 28 II 59 7 12 11 65 - 7 08 111 55 i7 04 11 42 6 53 11 84 6 43 11 6 28 11 6 24 10 45 e -0 10 88 10 81 10 16 10 07 9 67 S 42 7 45 9 26) 7 28 9 00 7 10 645 AX P X AX r x A X 8 45 8 50 4 00 6 65 7 Ool Oil City East., x Junction 7 05) xOU City-West z Reno Run z Franklin Summit x Polk z Raymilton.... Sandy Lake.... z Stoneboro Branch Clark z hadley Salem A 4k G W Cross., z Jamestown... Turncrsville.... Simon's Corners z Andover Barber's Leon. Dorset z Jefferson Plymouth zAshubuia Pittsburgh 4 11 715 4 18! 4 25 4 43 4 50 5 03 S 18 x7 21 7 28 7 46 7 63 8 06 8 24 8 2 X8 83 5 Si X5 25 6 86 6 45 5 67 6 02 8 45 8 65 9 10 9 15 9 Sill 9 40 9 49 9 59 6 16 p. x. No. 8 Jeffer son Acc. 10 16 10 25 10 84 6 05 21 10 47 11 00 11 23 2 25 6 40 A X p x Trains stop only on 8ignal. xTrains do not Stop. zTelegraph Sutions. Cleveland Time. Tbe Way Freight trains stop at Jefferson in going West, at 8.42 P.M., and going East at 7.41 A. M. These trains carry passengers. Passenger fare at the rate or 8 cents per mile : to way sutions counted in even half dimes. CONDENSED TIME TABLE—May 1, 1874. L. S. & M. S.—FRANKLIN DIVISION. ERIE RAIL WAY. CONDENSED TIME TABLE—May 1, 1874. L. S. & M. S.—FRANKLIN DIVISION. ERIE RAIL WAY. Abstract of Time Table Adopted June 15, 1874. PULLMAN'S best Drawing-room and Slppntntr fn.ho. .Mnhi.!.. .11 r r. vvwumj, wiuuuiuiie iu mnArn 1 r.i 11 rnrpmo. t a .M mn l. .... ,, --.-f- - - .a... MIIVUKU UU B1J trains from Buffalo, Suspension Bridge, Niagara - , u..bwauu uu -1111.111 UO LI lu i,tw l OTK. milkinfi. dirfVt MnnMtinn wfl.r. .11 Ha.. . . .. ..... ...M. ii IIU.B ui for eign and coastwise steamers, and also with Sound Steamers and railway lines fcr Boston and other New England cities. STATIONS. No. 8. N.Y No. 12. Atlantic Express 1 05Tx 8 20 " No.8. Cincln. Express. Express. Dunkirk. ..... .L've Salamanca " 8 86 ax 6 87 " Clifton Susp, Bridge.... Niagara Falls Buffalo 4 85 " 4 45 u 4 60 " 6 20 " 6 87 " 7 86 " 8 00 Pi 8 10 " 8 15 " 9 60 Attica Portage ' Horneiisville ' Addison 11 18 " 12 25 ax 18 60 " 9 46 " 1 85 " 2 40 " 6 00 Fx 7 87 " Rochester... Avon Bath 6 00 " 65 " 9 08 " 11 60 p x Corning " 10 08" 10 88 " 806 8 88 806 ax 8 40 " Bimira Arr. Waverly Owego Binghamton .. Great Bend SuBquehan'a.. Deposit Hancock Lackaw'xen. . . 11 14 " 11 46 A 9 28 " 10 04 " 12 26 p Mi 10 53 " 12 66 " tl 08 " I 11148 ' 1 68 2 26 406 6 00 12 27A.X. 100 " Honesdale... Port JerviB.. Middle town.. Goshen 4 45 ' 5 89 ' 8 48 450 Patterson... 7 00 " 7 47 ' 7 40 " 7 65 P 6 00 A 6 40 " 7 38 " Newark.... 218 " ai 2 40 6 00 a i Jersey City. New York... 7 20 "' 7 40 " Boston. X 6 00 P.X. No. J, Kpicial Nxw Yobk Expbiss leaves Clif ton 7 00 A. M., Suspension Bridge 1 05. Niagara Fall 7 10. Buffalo 7 40, Hornclsvllie 10 65, Corning 12 11 P. M. Arrives at Elmlra 19 41 P. M., Binghamton 9 4. 1 8nquehanna8 80. Hancock 4 64. Port Jervls 7 25 Mlddk-iowii 8 lfl, Patterson 10 06, Newark 11 17. Jersey City 10 42, New York 10 65. Dsily. f Meal Stations ,., B?k '0,r by way of Erie Railway. For Sale at all the principal Ticket Offices. 2 00 " 210 215 " 2 50 " 410 " 622 1686 7 40 " 8 00 " 8 46 " 6 10 " 4 25" 6 06 658 6 28 H 6 48 7 85 - 8 07 10 02 AX 80 PJI 10 48ax 1142 ., '12 00 x. 1 48 p M Jo. N. AkBorr, Gen. Pas. Agent. Hair Work. M RVL GJLkM AN PP81te the Fifk House. Ashtabula O.. would runa-t fully announce to the ladle, of tbl. v?citt7 Tlfa. she Is prepared to doin the Sest style alf kind, of work iu hair, such as RkaIDING CUHI iiiri MAKING SWITCHES. Ac, Ao. WJ"' LADIES' Bil WANTED, for which the hlfcheal "'l, w 'Iw paid. Her work will compare well with . By . Ijwork. whila her pUcvsarBArlesf. . AiabubuIiOc"lB 1878 Wttt BLUE-EYED NELL. Lines on the death of Mrs. Horace Fnller, who died if McGTeggor, Iowa, July th, ias6 by her sister Mrs. Kmenne w. .gupec-mLgr.iuc, j In in a hallowed spot, in tbe far off west, Where flowers bloom and sun beams rest Io a lonely eravc, in the Hazel Dell. SleepelU our darling Blue-eyed Nell. Her fdCK, like the rose, was beautiful, fiir, Framed in by a wreath of light brown hair. But, alas, in her grave in the Hazel Dell Moulders our iHrling, Blue eyed Nell. Her heart was ns haht as the clear moun tain air. Unfettered by trouble, or sorrow, or care, But now pulseless and cold, in the lone Hazel Dell, Lies the brave, loving heart of our own Blue-eyed Nell. They laid her to rest in that lone, distant grave, Within hearing and sight of the broad river's wave, And there she lies sleeping in the green Hazel Dell, Our darling, onrloBtone, our own Blue eyed Nell. Oh, come, to us, darling ! in beautiful dreams, 'Twill cheer ns like wind-harps, or musi cal streams, Oh, come I linger not in thy greea Hazel Dell, We have waited long for thee, our own Blue-eyed Nell. Let ns hear thy de;tr, voice once more in our sleep, It will ouse us like trumpet, or storm kin si the deep. Oh, leave, then, lo-night, the preen Hazel Dell, And comfort our sad hearts, our own Blue eyed Nell. Didst thou know how thy dear mother's heart bled When the end message came that her Nel lie was dead? " Did Ihy father's keen anguish pierc tin green Hazel Dell, For the loss of his darling, his o wn B lue eyed Nell? Oh come to us Nellie, and tell us if there Where thou dw el lest thou hastsecn our dear mother and Clare ? No response from the grave in the green. Hazel Dell, For we know she's in Heaven pnr own Blue eyed Nell. . . Yet we'll evermore cherish, in the far dis tant West, The spot where they laid thy dear body to rest ' We'll ever hold sacred the green Hazel Dell. For the sake of our loved one, our own Blue-eyed Nell. Peace, peace to thy ashes, thon dear, lonely child, - . Many sweet thoughts of thee hath our sad hearts beguiled Rest in peace, then, dear sister, in the green Hazel Dell, Until God calls thee forth, our own Blue- eyed Nell. y THE EDITORIAL ALEMBIC. BY CHAS. HALLOCK. In thermal climes, where man has nought to do But fan himself and mope the long day through, Where slaves assiduous mix the cooling ice. And minister with zeal to each caprice ; Where houris, languid, woo with lustrous eyes. And valets brush away persistent flies; Where weekly papers vex not nor harass The ransacked brains of editor or ass lsiaut editor 'Tis sweet to think on sublunary things. Ana oiess ine gut tliat such good fortune orings. With all the earth in sweet attune. E'en life itself would seem almost a booD. But to the man whom arduous cares op press, Preparing copy for exacting press, Who day by day with nercniralinn rppba Through weary round of burning summer weeks Like alchemist, who from his realm of heat, With fiery test and subtle art replete, Forth from the deep alembic of the mind Distills his wits to edify mankind To him, with brain and debts unpaid, Thermometer full ninety in the shade Existence seems almost a torrid zone, And Tophet well may claim him as its own. BAVARIA. POPULATION, EXTENT. AND RESOURCES OF THE COUNTRY GENERAL DIVISION OF THE LAND AMONG THE PEOPLE ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTT MILLION GALLONS OF BEER PRODUCED YEARLY TFIE RAILROADS BUILT, OWNED AND OPERATED B'Y THE GOVERNMENT MUNICH NOT A HISTORIC CITY WORKS OF KING LUD-WIG THE PUBLIC PARK PINACOTHEK GLYPTOTHEK TRIUMPHAL ARCH HALL OF FAME THE COLOSSAL 8TATUE OF BAVARIA PUBLIC LIBRARY NATIONAL MU8EUM THE VALHALLA, ITS STATUES AND BUSTS OF GERMAN WORTHIES THE OLD PROTESTANT CITY OP NUREMBERG. Correspondence of the Chicago Tribune. MUNICH, June 22, 1874. name Capital of Bavaria is "MtJENCHEN," and when one . calls it JVIunicb, in their piesence, a bewildered stare is the consequence. ; But the French pronounce and spell it "Munich," and English and American map ma kers follow the French spelling and leave the reader to guess Ttt the cor rect name, or find it out by special inquiry. Unless the tourist is better informed in regard to Munich than I was previous to visiting it, he will experience an agreeable surprise. I had formed the idea that it was a sleepy old place, of 75,000 or 80,000 inhabitants, surrounded by the cus tomary high wall and deep ditch, with narrow, crooked streets, closely built with quaint old houses of the middle ages. But on the contrary it proved to bo a city without walls, spread over a large space, the ma jorityof the streets wide and straio-ht and the houses high, modern and handsome with many splendid pub lic buildings; and instead of a popu lation of 75,000, it contains rather more than 175,000. The little liiver Isar, which is about as large as the Fox River in Illiuois, flows through, one side of it, and wends its way across the plain from the Tyrol Alp to the Danube. Munich is situated in the midst of a great high plain, the highest ' TABLE-LAND IN EUROPE, composed of gravel jut such wa ter rolled stonen ns are found in the Joliet gravel-i)its,or iu large districts 0$ Southern Wisconsin, around Oco- nomowoc and Waukesha. Overtlm gravel is a thin stratum of clay and loam, in some districts only a few inches in thickness, but in others deeper. This enormous bed of p-rav el covers not less than 17,000 orl8,- 000 square miles ot the area of Ba varia. The Danube sweeps around from west to east in a curve, a little north of the middle of this plain which is mostly level, but in some parts undulating, and towards the north, beyond the Danube, is broken and hilly. The Bavarian plain is bounded on the south bv the Tyrol Alps, some of whose peaks, visible from Alunicb, are TEN THOUSAND FEET HIGH. They are penetrated by numerous green and fertile valleys, terminating in beautitul laKes, winie above them are glaciers and snow, aud through them flow impetuous torrents, which subside into gentle little rivers when they merge into the great plain. The eastern side of this plain is bounded by a chain of mountains which sepa rates Bohemia from Bavaria; and across -N orthern bavaria runs a low chain of mountains, on the north side of which flows the River Main, into the Rhine, and on the south thereof the Danube, iowards the west the plain extends across the border into urtemberg, without a mountain boundary ou that side. The chief agricultural products of Bavaria are rye, barley, hops, pota toes and hay; but some wheat, oats and buckwheat are produced, and also considerable tobacco for domes tic consumption, fceveral important manufactures are carried on, such as bronze-casting, brass, painted glass for church windows, childrens' toys, lead pencils, mirrors and works of art; but above all, the manufacture of BEER. There are 1,600 licensed breweries, which produce 180,000,000 gallons of beer per annum. 3lore beer is con sumed bv. the Bavarians per head, than by any other people in the world. iiavana contains su.OUO square miles, and has nearly 5,000,000 in habitants, of whom 70 per cent, are (Jathohcs, and 30 per cent, are 1'ro testants. But Bavaria is divided in to two unequal parts. The Palati nate is a separate province on the French side of the Rhine, containing 5,000 square miles and 620,000 in habitants, and can only be reached from Bavaria proper by crossing 100 miles of Wurtemberg and Baden territory. Omitting the isolated ral atinate Province, the Kingdom of Bavaria contains about 25,000 square miles, and numbers 4,350,000 mhab itants which is a pop::! ttion fully equal to that of the great State of New York, with its national me tropolis of 1,500,000 people, includ ing Urooklyn subsisting on a space less than half the area of Illinois; on a thin, poor soil, as compared with that of the western prairies; with a severe winter climate, on account of the altitude of the Bavarian plain, destitute of both coal and iron ore; the agricultural productions limited to a narrow range of crops, of which corn is not one,and wheat but scant ily grown ; without seaports, naviga ble rivers or lakes, and separated from the sea or ocean bv a distance of hundreds of miles yet this little patch of territory to which Nature has been so parsimonious in her gifts, subsists a population equal to that of the great Empire State of America, not in affluence and luxury, it is true, but m comfort and FRUGAL INDEPENDENCE. There are as few paupers in Bavaria as in any nation in Europe, and 1 have yet to meet with the first men dicant, after traveling more than a hundred miles in different directions and visiting the cheif cities of the State. How can this condition of things be accounted for in a country so populous, and whose sou is so poor, climate so severe and natural re sources so few' and limited? In searching for a solution, I found the loiiowing statistical fact, which ex plains it: The soil of the Kingdom of Bavaria, exclusive of the Rhenish Palatine Province before mention ed, is divided among 718,000 propri etors, who own the land in fee sim ple. There are very few large es tates. The general average of the laium is aoout thirty acres each, while few contain more than fifty acres. Around all the cities are nu merous patches of laud tilled as .veg etable and small-fruit gardens. In ".c Kuiiiy oi Munich there are more than 10,000 niifli rrnrfin. ia Till f. whether the ''holding" is farm or garueu, is "free-hold," and owned by the occupant who tills it. Not one farmer in twenty in Bavaria is a tenant, Working other men's lands and paying away the proceeds of his labor as rents to landlords, as is the case in Great Britain and Ire land, Italy and 6ome other parts of Europe. And this fact accounts for the thrifty, well-to-do and prosper ous condition of the masses of the people occupying this elevated, gravelly plain, with its thin and eas ily exhausted soil. Nothing but the most careful cultivation can make it continue to produce sufficient; crops to sustain so dense a population, and contribute the taxes necessary to support a Military Government, as all the German Governments are. If the farmers of Bavaria were tenants of landlords, forced to give away half the proceeds of their toil to support a landlord-aristocracy in luxurious afiluence and indolent idletiess, they would be miserably poor and indigent, like the Irish tenantry, and the English farm la borers. But there is one large land monopolist in Bavaria, owning rath er more than one tenth of the soil of the entire Kingdom, and that is the State itself. Previous to the conquest of Bava ria by Napoleon, about the first of this century, the Monks and Jesuits had absorbed, and then possessed, nearly one-hnlf of the ENTIRE SURFACE of Bavaria. Their influence and au thority were as unlimited as their wealth was enormous, while the Ba varian peasantry were notoriously the most illitei-nto und Biipei-Hti-ioiw in Germany. Tho vast acquisitions of the Church and moiiasuo orders, exhibited in the number, si-to mid 1 splendor of the cathedrals, the num ber of the monasteries, ana the mul titude of drones who occupied them, will excite the surprise of the pouti cal economist, while filling its blind devotee with regret that the system is not still in full blossom. In Swa bia, at the foot of the Alps, among a cluster of beautiful lakes, were no less than twelve mcnasteries, sur rounded each by a large estate m tlw moit fertile district of Bavaria, which the monkish owners called "Der Pfaffenwinkle," the Priests' Cor nes. But when Napoleon conquered Bavaria one of his first administra tive acts was to issue a decree con fiscating all the lands of the monas teries and churches, except such as were absolutely needed for church purposes; which lands he vested by DECREE IN THE STATE. The Bavarian Government divid ed them into small parcels, and sold them to the people in fee-simple, re serving the tracts covered by forests and some of the araole land, which latter is Tented on long leases at moderate rates. From the annual sale of fire-wood and lumber, and the rent.il of the farm-lands, the Government derive? about 20,000, 000 florins, 18,000,000 per annum thereby lightening the burden of taxation, and at the same time, pre serving the supply of fuel from de struction. The money derived f i-oni these Crown-lands is chiefly devoted to the support of the public schools and universities, and to paying the salaries of the clergy, both Protest ant aud Catholic. It does not seem to be generally known iu the United States that the railways of Bavaria were built and are owned and operated BY THE GOVERMENT. Indeed, I was not aware of the fact until I came here and found it was so, It is well known in the United States that half the railroads in Belgium are owned and operated by the State, in competition with, or rather m reg ulation of those owned by private companies; and it is also known that the German Government purchased the French R. R's. in Alsace-Loraine and that it is operating them success fully; but the important and interest ing fact of State ownership of all the railways in Bavaria, except a few short local pieces of road, has been generally overlooked by the American press and writers on rail road subjects. The Bavarian system of railroads belonging to the Government had an extent of 2,130 miles in 1873, and had cost the Government for their construction 146,000,000 of florins to which mut be added for discount on bonds sold, and for right of way, and other extra costs, the further sum of 17,500,000 florins making a grand total for everthing that ca.n be charged to "capital" account, up to the beginning of 1874, of the sum of 164,428,800 florins, or, in American currency, $6,930,000, which amount has been added to the public debt in the shape of bonds drawing 5 per cent, interest. The cost of the State roads was about 128,000 per mile; but, adding the discount on bonds, and the right of wav, they stand the government in 31,400 per mile, lhese roads are built, how ever, in the MOST SOLID AND SUBSTANTIAL MAN NER. Curves have not been indulged in to avoid -deep cuts, fills and tunnels; all the culverts are of stone; all the bridges are solid stone qrches, or constructed of iron with stone abut ments. Streets and even country roads, are crossed on viaducts. Three or four of the principal lines have double tracks, and all the roads hav ing much business to do are laid with steel rails.. All the stations, both passenger and freight, are built of stone or brick, and are as nearly fire proof as possible. The work was all performed .under the direc tion of military engineers. As far as can be judged by appearauces, the amount of labor and value expended in the construction of those State roads must Vie at least double that expended per mile cn railroads iu Illinois and the "States" generally. As nearly as I can ascertain, the Government charges 1 cent to lj cents per mile per ton for moving freight, the rates in winter being the same as in summer. As the curren cy, weights and distances are all so different, reckoned from the Ameri can standards of dollar, ton and mile, I find it somewhat difficult to equate Bavarian into American equi valants, and therefore may not be very exact in the translations, and can only give a CLOSE APPROXIMATION. However, the passenger fares are about as follows: For first class tick ets on express trains, with 50 pounds of baggage free for each passenger, the charge is 4 cents per mile; for second-class cars, which are as clean and comfortable as the average American car, 3 cents per mile; and for third class, which are moderately comfortable, and far better than the hard,, perpendicular back woodeu seats, and filthy cars, called "emi grant cars" in the States, the fare is about l cent per mile. On the slower way-trains, the charge is about 20 per cent less than the above rates. These charges ore substan tially the same as those exacted iu all parts of Germany, Austria, Italy and Belgium. In France there is a Gov ernment tax of something like 10 per cent, added since the disastrous war with Germany, for the purpose of defraying the interest on the "in demnity" paid to German', and to support tho useless "army i f re venge." The net profits from all the rail ways belonging to the State, paid into the treasury during the year 1863, amounted to a ll.,u v'"' 000,000 florins, or about 12, 00,000. ir,. ,.t.;..,riLsi(le a suilieient stun to cover tho wear and tear and re newals of tracks, tho earnings were about 10 per cent, on mo cupiiui m v,.i.l. The interest on the bonds iHsued to build the roads is $3,340,- 000. Ane clear profit to the Uov eminent, over and above all expens es, repairs and renewals, is estimated at 300,500 to 4 00.1,00(1. Hie Government makes no effort to reduce tho freight aud fare charg es as low as they might bu safely made, but depend upon the pruirs of its railways as one of its chief sources of revenue, and the excise on beer and tobacco as the other. I could hear of no complaint on the part of the people of high charges, or mismanagement or irregularity on the part of railway officers. It is not alleged in the Bavarian Parliament, or by the press, that there was fraud or corruption, or Credit MoLilier villainy practiced in the construc tion of the roads; nor is it charged that they are operated extravagant ly, dishonestly or unfaithfully. The people appear to be' satisfied with their State railway system, and ex hibit no disposition or intention to have them sold to corporations, to be operated by private capitalists for their own interests, on such terms as they choose to exact from the public, as was foolishly done in Italy a few years ago. THE TELEGRAPH SYSTEM is also owned and operated by the Bavarian Government; but I have not been able to obtain exact infor mation in relation thereto, except the Government derived a handsome revenue therefrom, and that the charges for messages were half a flo rin, or about 20 cents for each mes sage of twenty words, including ad dress and signature, ii respective of distance, which on some lines extends nearly three hundred miles. The lines are operated in connection with the post office, the same as in Great Uritain. The total debt of Bavaria, includ ing that incurred in the building of railways and telegraph lines, is 174,000,000 and the total gross rev enue from all sources is about $41, 000,000 per annum, or rather more than $8 per inhabitant, which sum includes the $12,700,000 derived from the State railway system, and $2,250,000 from the postal and tele graph system, which, together, con tribute about two-fifths of the gross receipts of the Bavarian treasnry. The standing army maintained by Bavaria in time of peace, as her con tingent of the grand army of the German Empire, is 48,500 men of all arms, which, in proportion to popu lation, would be the same as 30,000 for the State of Illinois. "What would our citizens think of the situ ation of public affairs if, in addition to all their other public burdens,they were required to support a standing army of 30,000 men in time of peace? But Bavaria is no worse off in this regard than all the rest of Europe, which is almost devoured by enor mous standing armies. Munich is not a HISTORIC CITY, its annals are meagre and uninterest ing. Previous to the present centu ry it was a second-rate, dull German town, which owed its origin to some storehouses erected on the spot for the reception and sale of salt brought from Salzburg, on the Austrian border, and its name to the monks who owned them (Moenche). After the termination of the Napo leonic wars the King, Lewis, who himself was a poet and artist, and had a consuming passion for paint ing, statuary, bronzes, and architec ture, devoted the remainder of his life, and all the money he could spare from his Own income and take from -the scanty revenues of the State, to the establishment and de velopement of the fine arts in his Capital. It is really amazing to see what one man had accomplished in a short life-time, among a people so prosaic and poor, exhausted and de pleted by a long and bloody war, and in a country of such limited re sources. When he began his im provements, in 1816, Munich sup ported in poverty a population of 60,000; when he died, thirty-one years later, it contained 120,000 peo ple, living in frugal comfort, amidst a profusion of works of arts. His son, Maximilian, who inherited some of his father's tastes, followed his example, but turned his attention rather more to the scientific than to artistic pursuits. The first thing King Ludwig (Lewis) did after the war was over, and Bonapart safely "jugged" in St. Helena, was to pull down the un sightly old wall, and fill up the deep ditch, which had circumscribed and confined his Capital; the next, to open several wide streets through the town, and to lay out the sub urbs into wide ways, little parks, and squares, and large building lots, on which the citizens were encour aged to erect dwellings iu modern style. His next work was to supply the place with plenty of pure water, for purposes of purification, public fountains, and greater safety against fires. Then he converted a forest which belonged to the State into A GREAT PUBLIC PARK. There was a strip of bottom-land adjoining the city, through which flowed the little River Isar. It was 4 miles long by half a mile wide, and heavily covered with a variety of forest trees, lie layed it out in the English style of parks; excavated several meandering rivers in it, and a lartre lake or boutiiir-iond at one end by drawing the water from ine Isar, building mou mis ami eieauuiin with the removed earth; and laid out numerous tfrive-uajs, uim.u- paths, and walks through it. lakin" advantage oi me ..... m im- Isar, which is a rapidly-Bowing ' . . -i i: . T stream, he csiaun&eu striciui uca,uu ful cascades and falls on his minia ture rivers. Statuary were inter spersed, and stone seals were conve niently placed for tired pedestrians. On the highest artificial hill he erect ed ii beautiful little temple, model ed after the form of the Temple of Vesta iu Rome. Several other tem ples are scattered through the park, and a handsome pagoda was trotted, where the military band plays sever al times a week and on Sunday ar ternoou. Bath houses were erected on the Isar, for the free use of the dusty or perspiring citizens. At tho upper end of the park, iu the edge of tho town, laid t "lloftarten" tor the smokers and beer-driukefs, where thousatids of them may be found ev ery pleasant evening, quailing their favorite beverage, aud pulling their pipes to the accompaniment of a n wspaper. During a summer af ternoon and evening at Munich may be seen riding and promenading in tho cool aud refreshing tthado oi the jrrund old trou, many of which are f prodigous size, and centuries old There are few more charming park ii Europe than the "English Gar len," as it is called, and none wher i stranger can enjoy a few houi -itroil more pleasantly. Bnt King Ludwig's greatest ef torts were devoted to ARCHITECTURE AND FINE ART. With the assistance of a fine ar chitect named Klenze, he procef de to construct a massive gallery for the reception of a vast collection o. paintings, called the Pinacothek ; ;i National Museum of Antiquities; f. National Library; a new palace foi modern paintings; a splendid opera house, and a capacious theatre. Be side these, he erected two or three great elegant churches, surmounted by lofty spires. He also had sever al public monuments, chiefly in bronze, placed in the public squares, to the memory of celebrated Bavari ans. A great bronze obelisk, 100 feet high, was erected in the centre of a circular "platz," to the memory of the 30,000 Bavarians who lost their lives in the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1813. The inscription says, "They died for the deliverance of their native land!" One is puz zled to subscribe to the truth of this statement, as they were helping Na poleon to conquer Russia, which had neither invaded nor ' harmed Bava ria, and were frozen in the atten.pt. But I suppose something had to be inscribed on the monument in justi fication of that ill-stared and wicked invasion. Across the Lndwigstrasse the widest and best street which he laid ut, and which is elegantly built up, and occupied by many of the aristoc racy he erected A GRAND TRIUMPHAL AECU, an imitation of tbe Arch of Consta tine at Rome, but it is larger and more imposing. Near this great arch and on the opposite side of an embellished public square, are two temples of art, one of the Ionic style of architecture, called the Glyptothek, and is filled with an cient and modern sculptures and bronzes hundreds of the pieces from Greece and Egypt. The other-of the Corinthian order of architec ture, is a museum for the safe keep ing and exhibition of modem works of art.including engravings etchings, drawings, designs, etc. The latter edifice was erected by Ludwig's son Maximilian, who also founded a great Polytechnic School in Munich, which is filled with students. THE BAVARIAN HALL OF FAME is another noted monument or tem ple, erected by Ludwig. It stands in the suburbs, on a rise of ground overlooking the city, and is composed of three angles or sides of a square, leaving the fourth side open for a specific purpose. It rests on lofty Doric pillars, and the ef fect is grand and striking. The mar ble busts of a hundred Bavarians, who have been most celebrated in science, art. music, literature states manship, and war, are placed in niches behind . the columns, where they can be seen as one approaches the temple from the front. In front of this Hall of Fame is placed the collossal bronze statue of THE GODDESS OF BAVARIA. It stands on a trranite pedestal 30 feet high, and the figure itself is 65 feet high. It is supposed to repre sent the Protectress of Bavaria, ac companied by a bronze lion, several times the size ot the largest eiepnani. In her right hnd is a drawn sword for protection (but one would sup pose so large and ferocious looking a lion would amply furnish it); her left'hand, raised aloft, holds a chap let to crown merit. The figure was modeled by Schwanthaler, and cast at tlie Bavaria Royal Foundry, near Munich, and is probably tee lar gest pieee of bronze that ever was made. It is difficult to convey an idea of its huge proportions and im posing appearance. A circular stair way leads np into the place where the large lady's brains ought to be, in which there is standing-room for eirht persons! Peep-holes are cut inthe laurel crown worn by the fig ure, through which the visitor ob tains commanding views of the city, of the vast green plain spread out like a sea, and of the hoary -headed old Alps of Tryol in the distance. So enormous a goddess and huge a lion seem wholly disproportioned to such a petty, little, subordinate, iso lated .Mate as Havana, and woiuu be more in tariuon v with proportion .and filnpss of things if standing H Hyde Park, London, and intended to symbolize rich ana powenui lirit.iin with her protecting lion. There it would mean something; here nothing except absurd vanity. Ludwig ought to have beeu Emper or of all Germany, instead of King onlv of a little corner of it. He pos- ,.aw.,l the ambition and ability to play such a part to admiration. LUDWIG PATRONIZED ARTISTS, associated with them, and attracted to Munich hundreds of them from all parts of Europe, and filled his palaces find galleries with their beautiful productions. His agents ransacked Italy, Greece, and Egypt, in search of sculptures - and ancient curiosities, which he displayed in his museum-halls. He sought after paintings of the old masters, and secured many hundreds of theiu for his public picture-galleries. Where he obtained all the money to make so many expensive works ol" art, iu addition to the cost of con structing so many great and "splen did public buildings and monu ments, must forever remain a mys tery. lie founded the great rrru ic- LTHR.VUY, which now contaiues 800,000 vol umes and i'-'.OOO manuscripts. It has 12,000 books printed before A. 1). 1500. This Munich National Library ranks third, if not second, iu tho world, in poiut of extent. Among tho rare things in it I notioed tho "Codex Alaribus," or Jaws given to the West Goths by Alarm-, w her ravaged Italy, 1,400 years ago. Those Barbarian Goths were mainly Buvarians, aud entered Italy through Tryol via Innspruch, following tTu Valley of the Inn to the "Divide" of tho Alps, and then down to Adize into tho V alley of the Po. I also raw uiiiuutrvript cvyiva of the New r i'estament, of the seventh and eighth centuries. One of the oldest of printed books, A. D. 1454, con tains an appeal to arms against the Turks. Here also is Luther's Bible Lcomted with his own and Me lancthon's portraits. Another manu script volume contains a collection of church-traditions from Ravennn, written on papyrus about A. D. 850. The oration of Demosthenes, on cot ten paper, from Chios, in a volume supposed to date back to the com mencement of the Christain era. The structure which contains this vast library is a magnificent build ing, and is capable of containing, when it is completely filled, another million of volumes. At the front entrance stands slatnes of Aristotle Hippocrates, Homer, and Thucy dides. THE NATIONAL MUSEUM is one of the most remarkable of Ludwig's achievements. The build ing is an enormous structure, 474 feet long by 250 broad, and 95 feet high. It is filled from basement to garret with every imaginable curi osity of Art and Nature, ancient and modern. The walls are covered w;th historical paintings, several hundreds in number some of them of immense size-and which are works of very considerable merit. Near the front entrance, among a multi-. tude of military trophies, is a brass 24 -pounder cannon, taken from the h rench at the siege of Strasbourg in 1860, which has seventeen severe scars on it, four of them squarely on the muzzle, caused by "line shots" from a Bavarian siege battery The contents of this National Muse um constitute a most remarkable collection. But the most extensive of all, King Ludwig's works is VALHALLA, or "Temple of Fame for Germany," erected near Ratisbon, in the north east of Bavaria, on an eminence or bluff overlooking the Danube, for a longdistance; and a wide expangeof country. This temple is almost a fac-smile of the famous Parthenon of Athens. It follows the same Dor ic style in architecture, and dif fers chiefly in the materials of the pillars, which are not of marble but consist of blocks of white lime-stone closely resembling marble in texture and quality. The Valhalla is 218 feetlong by 102 broad; the shafts of the columns are 30 feet long, and the height of the pediment is" 60 feet. These are almost exactly the measurements of the Athenian Temple. The Valhalla is approach ed by cyclopian flights of stone up three terraces, the npper one being 100 feet high, and the other two not much less. In this Temple of Fame Ludwig placed statues and busts of ALL THE WORTHIES OF GERMANY, from Arminius, who defeated the Roman legions in a great battle down to Blucher and Schwartzenberg, who gave Napoleon so much . trouble. All the greatest heroes, statesmen, sages, poets, historians, orators, scholars, scientists, artists, musi cians, etc., which Germany had pro duced since Christ's time to the present generation, have their busts or statues in this Temple of Fame. The chief sculptors of Germany were emploved for many years in decora ting tne Valhalla and filling its niches Avith marble representatives of Deutschland's great men. The work was continued by Maximilian after his father's death, and can yet scarcely yet be called complete. It was au exceedingly bold and ambi tious undertaking on the part of a Kiug of a small nation; but of course he received aid and assistance from all parts of Germany, else he could never have carried out his plans with the scanty means under his control. Ludwig was A VERY REMARKABLE MAN. and had he ruled over some commer" cial nation, bis access to other parts of the world, his fame would be vastly greater. But he was buried away ont of sight in Central Europe, and attracted but little attention abroad; however, he illustrated to the fullest extent the truth of the ?s.-?rion, "Peace hath her triumphs as well a war." Had he been Em: peror of Germany w ith the resources of the Empire at his command, he would have achieved the reputation of being the greatest patron and most liberal promoter of .the useful as well as ornamental arts, of litera ture, music, and science, that ever wore a crow n, aud would have gone down to an admiring posterity as "Ludwig the Magnificent" ' If space permuteJ, I should like to describe what I saw in the curi ous and interesting old PROTESTANT CITY OF NUREMBERG, situated in the northern part of Ba varia, and containing about 90,000 inhabitants, of which 87,000 are Protestauts; the city which manu factures nearly all the lead-pencils and all the children's toys purchased in Europe and America; the city which changed its religious connect ions and its creed almost in a day, by a common, spontaneous, univer sal impulse, iu which priests and cons-iettations espoused the Refor mation en masse, and tor nearly 400 years continued to be stanch Protest liits. Thev still worship in the an . -.... "1:.. ..i..t,.... .. cieni . amum; luunuis anu cainc- lrals which their fathers had built centuries before Luther's time, and they have removed nothing there from. No icouoclasin was practiced. The identical old pious pictures still udorn the walls and Got hie windows; tho sculptured Crucifixion scenes yet remain; the picture and images of the Virgin and Infant are- untouch ed; the holy relics continue in their ancieut places; the sepultures and monuments of the long-departed Saints are still there; and, when looking through these old churches. it was hard to. believe that the con gregations that worhip therein are Protestants and not Catholics. In the course of time, some Catho lics migrated into Nuremberg, who, ttdded to the original handful that eused to joiu tho ICeformers, made . un- a eonifrcgation ot a lew tliouaauu .. VOIIS. CCVlUiT hUCU wolaW ot a l..if ble church, and having more thju Y're needed for their own uses, Continued on 4th page.