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The toiler. (Cleveland, Ohio) 1919-1922, May 07, 1920, Image 3

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The Toiler
$1.60. If 1.00 Per Hundred I 75c.
Address all mail and make all checks payable to
3207 Clark Are, Cleveland, Ohio.
Entered as Second Class Matter, under the name of The Ohio
Socialist, February 21, 1917, at the Post Office at Cleveland, 0,
Under Act of March 3, 1879.
EDITOR . . .Elmer T. Allison
Published Weekly by The Communist Labor Party of Ohio at
4 Cleveland, Ohio.
Telephone: Harvard 3639.
Missionaries and Muslin
, We are indebted to the Eev. Howard A Musser, a returned misslonaiy
from India, for supplying the "missing link" between 20th century Christ
ianity and foreign trade. This link is the missionary. Not that he has been
missing, he's been very much on the job, but a lot of "good" people have
missed him in their calculations of social phenomena.
"The business interests of the United States could well afford to pay
for the evangelinzing of the whole world. The large export business of the
Standard Oil, Singer Sewing Machine, Ford Motor Car and Victrola Talking
Machine are due directly to the foreign missionaries who introduce these
things to the natives. When the missionaries civilize a savage they are ex
ploiting the muslin and woolen industries and open up a new field of trade."
The above candid acknowledgement of the part which the missionary
plays as a tout for capitalism were made by the Eeverend Musser at Toledo
during the Methodist centenary in Toledo in March last. That the business
interests of the U. S. fully realize the value of the missionary as a whipper-np
or foreign trade is seen in the development of the Inter-Church World Mov
ement which has the backing ol America's greatest financial and industrial
corporations and which is now raising millions for church estension work
and trade.
"Go ye into all the world and preach my gospel " feed my sheep", were
the Master's injunctions to his desciples. The Eeverend Musser has spent
some months or years in India ostensibly preaching the gospel of the Carp
enter of Nazareth. He, acknowledges that the world's financial monarchs
htve reaped a harvest thru his activities. He more than approves of his con
tribution to their gains he bids for more opportunities in which the
gospel of Christ may be perverted to such ends. We are glad to read his
acknowledgement of the ends which the Christian Church of the 20th cent
ury serves in the present capitalistic scheme. 1
Can one think of India without tears? Dare one think of a nation out
raged,- subjugated, despcile'd as India has been and is and not resent with
all his powers the schemes and lies and intrigues and blood dripping outrages
by which it has been accomplished and call himself a man or a Christian?
A nation of starving millions, where serfdom, slavery and oppression are the
portion of the disinherited natives who( under the British yoke cry in
alike to the throne of England and of God in vain!
Yea, it is true the native has given up his goatskin loincloth for a muslin
- shirt. The cotton mills are Bphming tire faste for that. He has probably lean
ed the "divine" injunction "servants be obiedient to your masters". Great
accomplishments! But what has he lost? He has lost everything. And what
is more he is finding it out. India just uow, is England's greatest problem.
For India is in revolt, in revolt against the conditions which capitalism with
the aid of the Reverend Mussers in saintly garb, preaching the gospel of
salvation thru capitalism have brought upon him. The Indian is learning that
while saving his soul according to this gospel, he has lost all that
makes life worth living. The Indian Is learning that the divinest thing
on earth is liberty, that the most un-Godly sin is the sin of slavery.
They are going to wipe out the stain. They are going to wipe it out in spite
of the Englis'e Mussers and the Church. ,
And if there is a God up there or anywhere who knows his business
he'll be with the Indian.
When the Inter-Church World Movement was recently launched at To
ledo letters were sent out to business men of the city inviting them to a
luncheon where the plans of the Movement were to be discussed. We quote
cne paragraph from these letters as published in the Toledo News-Bee.
"The appeal presented is big because its mission is great and its organ
ization soundly built on business lines. It means much to the world generally
right now and considerably more to business interests".
Pass the collection plate!
When the Inter-Church World Movement has succeeded in getting overy
savago into a shoddy musiin shirt (at COc a yard) the following lines may
aptly portray the fcolings of an angry God with a sinful Church.
I have come end the worid shall bt shaken like a reed at the touch
of my rod,
And the kingdom of time shall awaken to the voice and the sum-
mons of Qod.
No more through tho diu of the ages shall warnings and eludings
From tho lips of my prophets and sagos be trampled like pearls
beforo swine
Ye have stolen my lands and my cattle; ye have kept back from
labor its meed;
Ye have challenged the outcast to battle) when they pled at your
feet in their need.
And when clamors of hunger grew louder, and the multitudes
prayed to be fed,
Ye have answered with prisons or powder the cries of yonr brothers
for bread.
I turn from your altars and arches and the mocking of steeples
and domes,
To join in the long, weary marches of the ones ye have robbed of
their h'mes.
I share in the sorrows and crosses of the naked and hungry
and cold,
And dearer to me are their losses than yonr gains and your Idols
of gold y
For the prayers of ttto poor have asconded to bo written like light
nings on blgh(
And the wails of your captives have blended wltt the bolts that
must leap from the sky.
The thrones of yout kings shall be shattorod and the prisoner and
serf shall go free;
Proletarian Science History
An economic interpretation of history especially arranged for use as a
text-book for study classes, or for home study.
Copyright 1920. By W. E R.
Beginning Began with the art of pottery making.
Tools and Weapons . . .Bow and arrow. Stone and beaten copper tipped
spears. Improved tools of polished stone. Native
copper tools.
Transportation Natural locomotion on land. On water improved
skin and bark canoes. Primitive boats of hewn
Subsistence Wild game, honey and native grains. Primitive
farinaceous food, dried meats and fish.
Shelter Improved tents and tepees.
Clothing Tannod skins and coarse fabrics.
Environment Tropical, Temperato and cold climates. Village
Organization Qentes and tribes. Further modification of group
marriage through the development of the pair-
ing family.
Arts and Institutions. .Beginning of permanent village-life. Copper
working, basket-weaving, pottery-making, tex
tiles. Food conservation and wine making
Picture writing developed into hieroglyphics.
Cannibalism still practiced.
Duration Much less than Upper Savagery.
Tho epoch of barbarism, like that of savagery, is
divided into three well definitcd ages, Lower, Middle
and Upper.
The lower age of barbarism begins with the dis
covery of the art of pottery-making.
Pottery making evidently grew out of the art of
weaving as evidenced in the more primitive pottery
found in the ruins of the Cliff Dwellers of Messa Verde
and also in the ruins of the ancient Pueblos. Here pots
are-found that plainly show the weave of the basket
work in the clay. Certain Indian tribes at the present
time weave water-tight baskets, and smear them with
mud for cooking purposes. This practice undoubtedly
ied to the discover' of the art of firing clay.
The economic need for the invention of pottery is
to be found im the fact that when the race wandered
away from the streams it became necessary to have some
means whereby water could be carried.
The development of pottery, like the development
of all other utilities, varied with topographic and climat
ic conditions, as for example the Eskimo never develop
ed basket weaving or pottery making owing to the ab-s-moe
of the raw material necessary to these arts.
Among other reasons for the development of the
art of pottery may ...be mentioned the. need for vessels in
which to preserve fruits, fats, oils and other liquid and
semi liquid food.
It is probable that the art of making wine developed
in this age. Food, and especially fruit, being kept in
earthen vessels would naturally ferment, producing al
cohol. Pots and wine, wine and pots, the hieroglyphics
found on the monuments of ancient times show that the
arts of making wine and pots are intimately interwoven.
The tools of this age were mostly of polished stone
as distinguished from the rough unpolished stone of
former ages. Implements of native copper shaped by
beating, are also found. Bone was likewise used as a
raw material for tool, such as spear heads and fish
hooks, aw is aoid needles.
Hammer, axei, cutting and fleshing tools, spears
and rude cooking utensils are the foremost tools of this
age. An illustration of the materialist conception of
hiHtory may be found in the fact that a man could not
have a house of hewn wood until he had an axe. Similav-
I will harvest from socd that 1 scattered on the borders of blue
For I come not alone and a stranger; lo my reapers will sing
through the night
Till the star that stood ovir the manger shall cover tho world
with its light.
James Q. Clark.
The Wages of Scabbery
"The wages of sin ;s doath '. The moral injuction contained in the
biblical quotation may with equal certitude be applied to that offscouring
of capitalism, the scab, who attempts to take the job of strinklng working
men in highly developed industry,
Eeports of many fatahUes in the ranks of the scab would be enginemeu
and switchmen who left their student's classes at Yale and other bourgeois
callegej are reaching the public press. At the present time eight fatalities
and serious accidents including tho loss of arms and legs have ben recorded.
How many cases of others injured thru inexperience In the danger of this
work will be recorded only time will tell.
The hazsards of railroad work are h'.gh and like most such work no
Adequate compensation is made for the risks to life and limb incident
One might Judge by the alrlclty with which our " exclusive " coUeges rose
to the occasion In furnishing scabs during this strike that they were schools
for strike breakers rather than schooli for citisenship and culture. American
colleges are coming more and more under the control and dependence upon
the good will and endowments of the capitalist class. It is perfectly in keen
lng with the sources of their incomes that they should seek to cultivate tho
master class psychology In the studett mlnd) thus creating a class of work
ers technically equipped to carry on industry and mentally gagged and
bridled to do it In the Interests of the master class who have made their
' ' education' ' possible.
The colleges, like the public school hsvo become the Institutions of cap
ltalism. The coUege scabs reflect tho brand of education therein taught
iiy sewn garments depended upon the needle and tho
The needle and the awl made possible the kyac of
sewn skins as a means of water transportation. Primitive
boats of hewn timbers were also used. Land transport
ation was still dependent upon women as beats of burden.
It was dnring this age that primitive husbandry
developed. Grains and a few garden vegetables were
planted and tended,, bv the women. Man had to be en
slaved before he would learn to work.
Village life is the natural outgrowth of the advent
of agriculture. Before the beginning of agriculture man
was a nomadic wanderer, here today and gone tomorrow,
but with the planting of seed it became necessary for
him to locate in that vicinity and as the products o?
agriculture had to be stored a permanent location be
came necessary, which due to the group character of
society naturally resulted in the formation of a village.
Village life influenced industrial development, tan
ning, weaving and pottery-making, in addition to agri
culture. These new industrial developments enabled man
to inhabit colder, and otherwise uninhabitable climates.
Village life modified the family organization of the
gens, group marriage giving way to the pairing family.
It was during the age of Lower Barbarism that vil
lage life became a permanent institution, laying the
r"oundation for towns and cities. With the development
of village life naturally developed the institution of bar
ter and trade. This in turn caused the crude picture
writing of savagery to develop into hieroglyphics which
were more adaptable to the convcymg of information.
The lower age of barbarism was much shorter in
duration than any previous age and ended with the
domestication of animals.
Peculiar to the epoch of
Peculiar to the epoch of
(A) The syiidyasmian Family.
(.) The Patriarchial Family.
:: Tin: monogamian family.
Peculiar to the epoch of
The Consanguine family had its beginning in pro
miscuoias intercourse and evolved to a system of group
marriage based upon blood relationship.
The Punaluan Family was a further development of
the Consaguine family, and was a group family organ
ized upon the basis of sex, having as its chief character
istic, female supremacy and descent, and the Punaluaii
custom of organization into gens which barred the co
habitation of the first of kin.
Between the Punaluan family and the Monogamian
Faw4pyWOothOT "iamfly "systems appear, the Syndyas- '
niian and the Patriarchal Families. These two families
.'ire but further evolutions of the Punaluan family to
wards the monogamic family of civilization.
The Syndyasmian Family appeared in the lower sta
tus of barbarism and marks the first development of the
pairing family, being in reality a group of pairing fam
ilies living together in a communal household. At this
stage of development of the family, the family was to
weak to stand alone, hence the custom of several pairing
families to co-cperatc in maintaining a communal home.
The custom which led the more advanced barbarian to
recognize one among his numerous wives ua his princ
ipal wife, led in time to the practice of pairing with the
increased ceitainty of the paternity of the offspring.
Out of this group of pairing families known as the
Syndyasmian family evolved the Patriarchal Family,
with a complete change from female supremacy and
descent to male supremacy and descent.)
The change from female to male supremacy and
descent while an economic necessity from the standpoint
of property relations was a disastrous one for woman
Her children were transferred from her own gens to
that of her husband and at her marriage she forfeited
rights for which she received no equivalent, and she
stood alone in the household of her husband. Male su
premacy and descent weakaned the influence of the
maternal bond and was a powerful factor in lowering
the position of women.
Out of the Patriarchal Family evolved the Monoga
mic Family of civilization.
) Oenesis 9:20 tells us that Noah survived the flood with his thirit
) "When descent was in the fcraalo line, tho gens possessed the
following nmong other characteristics: 1. Marriago within the gons
asw prohibited, thus placing children in a differont gen from that of
their reputed father. 2. Property and the office of chief wore hereditary
in tho gens; thus excluding children from inheriting the property or
succeeding to the office of their reputed father. This stato of things
would continue until a motive arose sufficiently general and command
ing to establish the injustico of this exclusion in the face of their
changed conditions. Tho natural remedy was a chango of descent from
tho female line to the male. All that was needed to offoct the change
was an ndequate motive. Aftor domestic animals began to be reared in
flocks and herds, becoming thereby a source of subsistence as woll as
objects of individual property, and after tillage had led to the owner
ship of houses nnd lands in severalty, an antagonism would be cortaia
to rise against tho prevailing form of gontile inheritance bocauso it
excluded tho owner's children, whose paternity was becoming more
more assured, nnd gave his property to his gentile kindred. At contest
for a now rule of inheritance, shared in by fathers and their children
would furnish a motive sufficiently powerful to effect tho ehangV.
With property accumulating in masses and assuming pormanent forms
and with an increased proportion of it held by individual ownership
descent in the female line was certain of overthrow and the substi
tution of the malo lino equally assured." Ancient 8ociety page 855
(Kerr Ed.)
1. What ac the ages of Barbarism!
2. Whnt discovery marked the boginnlng of barbariainf
8. Out of what did nottorv-making devolopf
4. Who wcro the Cliff Dwellers!
5. Nsme some of tlie economic causes which led to the diseovorr
of pottery-making. '
6. What are topographic conditions!
7. What are hieroglyphics!
8. Why would food preservation lead to pottery mokinir! To ,,,
0 Name the tools of Lower Barbarism. 8 MT
(Continued on page 4.)

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